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1. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Leptospira, a bacteria called a spirochete.2. Leptospirosis can be transmitted by many animals such as rats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, foxes, and other vermin.3. It is transmitted though contact with infected soil or water. The soil or water is contaminated with the waste products of an infected animal.
4. People contract the disease by either ingesting contaminated food or water or by broken skin and mucous membrane (eyes, nose, sinuses, mouth) contact with the contaminated water or soil.5. Also known as Weils syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catchers Yellows, black jaundice and Pretibial fever.
The disease was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice, and nephritis. Before Weils characterization in 1886, the disease known as infectious jaundice was very likely the same as Weils disease, or severe icteric leptospirosis. During the Egyptian campaign, Napoleons army suffered from what was probably infectious jaundice.
Leptospira was first observed in 1907 from a post mortem renal tissue slice. In 1908, Inada and Ito first identified it as the causative organismand in 1916 noted its presence in rats. Though recognised among the worlds most common diseases transmitted to people from animals, leptospirosis is nonetheless a relatively rare bacterial infection in humans.
1. Spirochete.2. Motile.3. Both gram-positive and gram-negative characteristics.4. Poor staining, therefore, can be seen on dark-field microscopy but not light microscopy.5. Beta-hemolytic.6. Can be cultured in vitro.
HOW THE INFECTION TRANSMITTED?i. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with: Unhealed breaks in the skin, The eyes, or With the mucous membranes.ii. Leptospirosis is also transmitted by the semen of infected animals Slaughterhouse workers may contract the disease through contact with infected blood or body fluids.
WHAT IS THE RISK FACTORS? Occupational exposure : • Farmers, Ranchers, Slaughterhouse Workers, Trappers, Veterinarians, Sewer Workers, Rice Field Workers, And Military Personnel. Recreational activities: • Fresh Water Swimming, Canoeing, Kayaking, And Trail Biking In Warm Areas. Household exposure : • Pet Dogs, Domesticated Livestock, Rainwater Catchment Systems, And Infected Rodents.
Symptoms can take 2 - 26 days (average 10 days) to develop, and may include:1) Dry cough2) Fever3) Headache4) Muscle pain5) Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.Less common symptoms include:1) Abdominal pain2) Bone pain3) Enlarged spleen or liver4) Joint aches5) Skin rash6) Sore throat
Medications to treat leptospirosis include: Penicillin. Ampicillin. Ceftriaxone. Doxycycline. Complicated or serious cases may need supportive care or treatment in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU).
Avoid areas of stagnant water, especially in tropical climates. If you are exposed to a high risk area, taking penicillin or doxycycline may decrease your risk of developing this disease. Vaccination of domestic livestock and pets. Rat control.
Culture: I. Bodily fluids— days 1-7 II. Cerebrospinal fluid—days 4-10 III. Urine—after the 10th days Serological test: I. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT),which detects rising antibody titers in a given serologic test II. Macroscopic slide agglutination III. ELISA