Reference Groups Any one can be influence by other peoples specially whom are coming in contact with or observeA person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in the formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behavior that called (Reference group )
• Its are typically called informal group becous they are unstructured and lack specific authority levels• Friends fulfill a wide range of needs they provide companiship, security and opportunity to discuss problems that an individual may be reluctant to discuss with family members
• Tow or more peoples who shop together , whether for food, clothing or simply to pass the time , can be called (Shopping groups )• A special type of shopping group is the in home shopping party, which typically consist of a group that gathers to gathers in the home of a friend to attend a party devoted to demonstrating and evaluating a specific line of products.
• Celebrities can be a powerful force in creating interest or actions with regards to purchasing or using selected goods and services, its may be based on admiration, aspiration, empathy or recognition,• There are five major types of appeals which market common usage like (celebrity, expert, common- man, executive and employee )
• The sheet amount of time that people spend at their jobs frequently more than 35 hours a week those can be easily influence on each others behavior.• The both formal and informal groups can be influence the consumer behavior , the formal group consist of individual who work together as pare of team and those they have sustained opportunity to influence each others,
SOCIAL CLASSTh e d i v i s i o n o fme mb e r s o f a s o c i e t yi n t o a h i e r a r c h y o fd i s t i n c t s t a t u sc l a s s e s , s o t h a tme mb e r s o f e a c h c l a s sh a v e e i t h e r h i g h e r o rl o we r s t a t u s t h a nme mb e r s o f o t h e r
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL CLASS• Is hierarchical• Is a natural form of segmentation• Provides a frame of reference for consumer behaviour• Reflects a person’s relative social status
SOCIAL CLASS AND SOCIAL STATUSStatus is frequently thought of as therelative rankings of members of eachsocial class • wealth • power • prestige
SOCIAL COMPARISON THEORYStates that individuals compare theirown possessions against those of othersto determine their relative socialstanding.
SOCIAL CLASS MEASUREMENT• Subjective Measures: individuals are asked to estimate their own social-class positions• Reputational Measures: informants make judgments concerning the social-class membership of others within the community• Objective Measures: individuals answer specific socioeconomic questions and then are categorized according to answers
OBJECTIVE MEASURES• Single-variable Composite-variable indexes indexes • Occupation – Index of Status • Education Characteristics • Income – Socioeconomic Status Score
INDEX OF STATUS CHARACTERISTICS (ISC)A classic composite measure of social classthat combines occupation, source ofincome, house type / quality ofneighborhood into a single weighted index ofsocial class standing.
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS SCORE (SES)A multivariable social class measure used bythe United States Bureau of the Census thatcombines occupational status, familyincome, and educational attainment into asingle measure of social class standing.
SOCIAL CLASS AND MARKETING STRATEGY• Clothing, Fashion, and Shopping • Where one shops • External point of identification• The Pursuit of Leisure • Type of leisure activities differ
• Saving, Spending, and Credit • Level of immediate gratification sought varies• Responses to marketing communication • Upper classes have a broader and more general view of the world • Regional variations in language rise as we move down the social ladder • Exposure to media varies by social class
LIMITATIONS• Social class is more difficult to measure than income• Many purchase behaviours are related more to income than social class• Consumers often use expected social class for their consumption patterns• Dual incomes have changed consumption patterns• Individual dimensions of social class are sometimes better predictors of consumer behaviour
Th e s u m t o t a l o fl e a r n e d b e l i e f s ,v a l u e s , a n d c u s t o mst h a t s e r v e t or e g u l a t e t h ec o n s u me r b e h a v i o r o fme mb e r s o f a
CULTURE IS LEARNED• Enculturation and acculturation• Language and symbols• Ritual• Sharing of culture
• Enculturation • The learning of one’s own culture• Acculturation • The learning of a new or foreign culture
LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS• Without a common language shared meaning could not exist• Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in advertising• Marketers can use “known” symbols for associations
RITUAL• A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps• Rituals extend over the human life cycle• Marketers realize that rituals often involve products
RITUALSELECTED RITUALS TYPICAL ARTIFACTSWedding White gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue)Birth of child U.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoonBirthday Card, present, cake with candles50th Wedding anniversary Catered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couple’s life togetherGraduation Pen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatchValentine’s Day Candy, card, flowersNew Year’s Eve Champagne, party, fancy dressThanksgiving Prepare a turkey meal for family and friends
SHARING OF CULTURE• To be a cultural characteristic, a belief, value, or practice must be shared by a significant portion of the society• Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, and media
THE SOUTH KOREAN DIAPER COMPANY GOOD-NITES SPOOFED DAVID BECKHAM’S SEXY ARMANI ADS
THE MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE• Content Analysis• Consumer Fieldwork• Value Measurement Instruments
A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication. TheCONTENT method is frequently usedANALYSIS to determine prevailing social values of a society.
A cultural measurement technique that takes place within a naturalFIELD environment that focusesOBSERVATION on observing behavior
CHARACTERISTICS OF FIELD OBSERVATION• Takes place within a natural environment• Performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness• Focuses on observation of behavior
Researchers who participate in the environment that they are studying withoutPARTICIPANT notifying those who areOBSERVERS being observed
VALUE MEASUREMENT SURVEY INSTRUMENTS• Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) • A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals)• List of Values (LOV) • A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine- value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey• Values and Lifestyles (VALS) • A value measurement based on two categories: self- definition and resources
IMPACT OF SUBCULTUREFACTORS ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
WHAT IS SUBCULTURE????• Subculture is defined, as a distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.• Each subculture has its own unique traits.• Sub cultural analysis enables the marketing manager to focus on sizable and natural market segments.
TYPES OF SUB CULTURE• NATIONALITY SUBCULTURESIt’s a composition of citizens who come from different nationalities or belong to different races.Subcultures tend to vary in their values, aspiration and beliefs which get reflected in their consumption priorities, spend save patterns, purchase behavior, social mores and customs etc.
• RELIGIOUS SUBCULTURESMost societies of the world today consist of people belonging to different religions, which may differ in their beliefs, values and customs.Consumer behavior is directly affected by religion in terms of products that are symbolically and ritualistically associated with the celebration of various religious holidays.
• GEOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL SUBCULTURESThey take into account of geographical and climatic condition which displays the regional differences that are distinct enough to enable marketer to identify a country as consisting of different regional subcultures.Of special significance to the marketer are the various food preferences of these geographical regional subculture and the languages spoken in different regions.
Geographical subcultures also result in different consumption patterns in clothing, housing patterns and food habits on account of climatic conditions.Example: Cottons may be the most preferred in North West India, silk materials in South, Woolen cloths have a very low priority in coastal regions.
• AGE SUBCULTURESIts explains about the stages in family life cycle(culture) and understands how consumption priorities change as the age pattern of the family changes.Age is a basis of identifying different sub cultural identities - youth market and the elderly market.The youth market (14-24) is important to marketers not only because it is a growing and profitable segment but also because consumption preference found at this age are likely to continue for a long time.
The youth market is distinctive enough in terms of its spending patterns, demographics, psycholography, profiles etc.The youth market differs significantly from the elderly market in term of its norms, purchase preferences, information sources used, media habits and preferences and to an extent values and beliefs, to constitute a sub cultural segment for the marketers.
The `Elderly Market constitute the 50 plus Market segment.In subculture segment term, this segment has been found to display value orientation which are more stable, have identified shopping patterns and store preferences, and are a very attractive market for home improvement, investment, insurance, health services and home equipment enabling convenience in living.Though they tend to view advertising as a less reliable source of information, their media habits are more stable to enable the marketers to carve out communication positioning better.
GENDER AS A SUBCULTUREMen and women vary in terms of dominant traits they posses. For instance, aggressiveness and competitiveness often were considered traditional masculine traits ,whereas neatness, tactfulness, gentleness, and talkativeness were considered traditional feminine traits.In terms of role differences, women have historically been cast as homemakers with responsibility for child-care and men as the providers or bread earners.
SUB CULTURAL INTERACTION• All consumers are simultaneously members of more than one sub cultural segment this can be viewed as sub cultural interaction.• Marketers should strive to understand how multiple sub cultural memberships interact to influence target consumers relevant consumption behavior.• Promotional strategy should not be limited to a single sub cultural membership
CROSS CULTURE INFLUENCE• A Broad groups of consumers having different values that distinguish them from society as a whole.Cross Culture Marketing- defined as "the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different. This will facilitate marketers to understand the psychological, social and cultural aspects of foreign consumers they wish to target, so as to design effective marketing strategies for each of the specific national markets involved."
PROBLEMS IN CROSS CULTURAL MARKETINGProblems related to product selection: The marketer going for cross cultural marketing has to select the market not on the basis of age or income, but by using the real motivating factors that prompt them to accept or reject products.Problems related to promotion/marketing communicationProblems related to pricing: The marketer has to adjust his pricing policies according to the local economic conditions and customs.Problems related to selection of distribution channels
CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER ANALYSISCross-cultural consumer analysis can be defined- as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different.Such analysis can provide marketers with an understanding of the psychological, social, and cultural characteristics of the foreign consumers they wish to target, so that they can design effective marketing strategies for the specific national..
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