Exe mba10 q1-mis_netw.& comm. tech._sarjeevan&sudeep


Published on

executive mba oil & gas - mis - networking & communication technologies

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Exe mba10 q1-mis_netw.& comm. tech._sarjeevan&sudeep

  1. 1. NETWORKING & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES By SARJEEVAN SAINBHI & SUDEEP PANICKER ID No.: 20104006 / 20104008 Course Faculty: MR. PARAG SANGHANI A Project Report Submitted as part-fulfillment of the course titled: Management Information System in 15-Month Executive MBA Programme (Jan. 2011- Mar. 2012) SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM MANAGEMENT (SPM), PANDIT DEENDAYAL PETROLEUM UNIVERSITY, GANDHINAGAR (GUJARAT) 21st March 2011
  2. 2. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Abstract This Project report covers various networking and communication technologies thatare part of an individual & Enterprise. The broad term "Network Computing" represents a way of designing systems to takeadvantage of the latest technology and maximize its positive impact on business solutionsand their ability to serve their customers. The advancement of technology has had an enormous impact on the world.Communication technology in particular has drastically changed the way society operates.With new advances in communication being developed constantly, people are becomingmore and more reliant on the benefits they provide. Communication technology hasbecome significantly important in the realms of education, business, politics, interpersonalinteractions and crisis responses. This project report describes in brief the working of various networking andcommunication technologies available to an individual & enterprises to carrying out theiroperation easily and more efficiently.Networking & communication Technologies
  3. 3. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Acknowledgement We would like to thanks our Course Faculty Mr. Parag Sanghani for this opportunity & also our batch-mates for providing valued suggestion for improvement, which really helped us in improving the content & coverage of this project report. __________________ __________________ Sarjeevan sainbhi Sudeep Panicker March 2011Networking & communication Technologies
  4. 4. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)Networking & Communication Technologies Content: Page no.1.0 Information Networks & Network Computing 52.0 Communication Technology 213.0 Conclusion 294.0 References 30Networking & communication Technologies
  5. 5. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)1.0 Information Networks & Network Computing Information networks are networks that transmit information in versatile humanand technical networks to enhance knowledge, business or social aims. They may useinformation portals or other types of collaborative networking for sharing information. Essentially, information network is linked to exchanging information betweenindividuals and interest groups within and between human institutions such as companies,universities, research organizations, and communities. The broad term "Network Computing" represents a way of designing systems to takeadvantage of the latest technology and maximize its positive impact on business solutionsand their ability to serve their customers.1. 1 Network Computing drivers Various information services – data and documents, voice and video – havefunctioned independently of each other. Traditionally, they were transmitted using differentprotocols and carried on different networks as shown in Table 1.1 & Figure 1.1. Table 1.1 Networks, protocols, and transfer methods of information servicesInformation Network Format Protocol Transfer methodserviceData and Packet Converted to TCP Each packet can take adocuments (broken in to) (Transmission different route to the packets based on Control destination where the internet protocol Protocols) packets are recompiled. If (IP) a packet does not arrive, the transmission is resent.Voice Circuit Sent as analog Whether analog or digital, signals between each call creates a circuit the telephone and that reserves a channel Telco’s central between two parties for office (called local the entire session. The loop). Traffic entire message follows between the same path in order. telephone offices is digital.Video Packet Compressed and UDP (User No checking for missingStreams converted to IP Datagram packets. Malformed Packets. Protocol) packets are simply dropped (i.e. discarded)Networking & communication Technologies Page 5 of 30
  6. 6. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure – 1.1 TCP/IP & UDP Difference To prepare data and documents for transmission, they are converted in to digitalpackets based on the Internet protocol (IP) and sent via computer (i.e. packet- switched)networks or LAN. As shown in table 1.1, packets are transmitted using the transmissioncontrol protocols (TCP), which provides a reliable, connection-oriented method of packetdelivery. This combination of protocols is referred to as TCP/IP Model. Voice is sent asanalog signals over circuits on telephone (circuit-switched) networks. Video streams arecompressed and sent as IP packets using the User Datagram protocols (UDP). Thiscombination of protocols is referred to as UDP / IP model.1.2 Packet technologies Packet technologies converts voice, videos, and data in to packets that can betransmitted together over a single, high speed network – eliminating the need for separatenetworks. High speed networks can be wire line, wireless, or both. These networks are morecommonly called broadband, which comes from the word broad bandwidth. Figure 1.2 &1.3 outlines the components for wire line & wireless Broadband network.Examples:Tikona broadband, Hathway broadband & Airtel broadband.Networking & communication Technologies Page 6 of 30
  7. 7. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.2 Wire line broadband Figure 1.3 Wire-less broadbandNetworking & communication Technologies Page 7 of 30
  8. 8. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)1.3 Converged networks A converged network is a powerful new architecture that enables the enterprisewide convergence and integration of voice, data, video, and other communicationapplications. Improved collaboration along the entire supply chain – partners, suppliers, andcustomers – is possible. With a single converged network, companies can improve theirbusiness-to –business (B2B) and business- to – Customer (B2C) processes.Examples:IBM Network Solutions – Convergent network provider1.4 The Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use thestandard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a networkof networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and governmentnetworks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wirelessand optical networking technologies. Figure 1.4 InternetNetworking & communication Technologies Page 8 of 30
  9. 9. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)1.5 The intranets An intranet is a network designed to serve the internal information needs of acompany, using internet concepts and tools. It is network confined to an organization for itsinternal use. It provides easy and inexpensive browsing and search capabilities. Intranet canbe implemented using different types of local area network (LAN- Refer Figure 1.5)technologies including wireless LANs.Examples:Pragma Systems Corporation - processMax(tm), an intranet web-based product Figure 1.5 LAN1.6 The Extranet. An extranet is a private (company-owned) network that uses internet technologyand the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business’s informationor operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. Extranetsmay use virtual private networks (VPNs – Refer Figure 1.6). VPNs are, in effect, privatetunnels within a public network (typically, the internet) created by encryption.Example:www.URdata.UR.com – United Rentals’ extranet portals (online)Networking & communication Technologies Page 9 of 30
  10. 10. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.6 VPN As shown in Figure 1.6, Authorization ensures that only trusted hosts can gainnetwork access. If a computer has not logged in with the VPN gateway (GTA firewall), theconnection is denied (1a). If a computer provides authorization credentials such as apassword and pre-shared secret, the VPN gateway adds the computer to its list ofcomputers allowed to connect (1b).1.7 Information Portals To avoid losing a lot of productive employee time, companies use portals. A portal(or information portal) is a web-based personalized gateway to information and knoweledgein network computing. It attempts to minimize information overload through the intranet-based environment to search and access information from disparate IT system and theinternet using advanced search and indexing techniques. Some types of portals are :Networking & communication Technologies Page 10 of 30
  11. 11. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)  Corporate (enterprise) portals : are gateways to corporate websites that enables communication, collaboration, and access to company information. Ta corporate portal is a personalized, single point of access through a web browser to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization.  Commercial portal : Such as yahoo! and MSN are gateways to general information on the internet.  Decision Portals : Provides team members with the models they can use to evaluate decisions criteria, objectives and alternatives form their desktops  Publishing portals : Are intenede for communities with specific interests. These portals involve relatively little customization of content, but they provide extensive online search in a specific area and some interactive capabilities. Example: www.techweb.com and www.zdnet.com  Mobile portals : Are those accessible from mobile devices. One example is NTT DOCOMO’s i-mode portal in japan, which has over 42 million subscribers in japan.  Voice Portals : Are web portals with audio interfaces that make them accessible via a standard cell phone. Using advanced speech recognition and text-to-speech techniques, voice porals allow users to retrieve e-mails, credit card data, airline flight information, and so on. Example: OnMobile, One97, Cellebrum ( Now Spice Digital)  Vertical portals: Also called vortals, target specific markets. Vortals usually offer relevant news headlines, industry event calenders, links to related sites, and lists of vendors and business that offer pertainment products and services. E.g. are pharmaceutical online at pharmaceuticalonline.com and bakery online at bakeryonline.com.1.8 Search engines, directories and enterprise search A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Weband FTP (File Transfer Protocol) servers. The search results are generally presented in a listof results and are often called hits (Refer Figure 1.7 & 1.10). The information may consist ofweb pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also minedata available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which areNetworking & communication Technologies Page 11 of 30
  12. 12. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture ofalgorithmic and human input. Figure 1.7 Search engines A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. It specializesin linking to other web sites and categorizing those links (Refer Figure 1.8 & 1.10). A web directory is not a search engine and does not display lists of web pages basedon keywords; instead, it lists web sites by category and subcategory. Most web directoryentries are also not found by web crawlers but by humans. Web directories often allow siteowners to directly submit their site for inclusion, and have editors review submissions forfitness.Networking & communication Technologies Page 12 of 30
  13. 13. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.8 Web directories "Enterprise Search" is used to describe the software of search information within anenterprise (though the search function and its results may still be public). Enterprise searchcan be contrasted with web search, which applies search technology to documents on theopen web, and desktop search, which applies search technology to the content on a singlecomputer (Refer Figure 1.9 & 1.10) Enterprise search systems index data and documents from a variety of sources suchas: file systems, intranets, document management systems, e-mail, and databases. Manyenterprise search systems integrate structured and unstructured data in their collections.Networking & communication Technologies Page 13 of 30
  14. 14. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.9 Enterprise searching Figure 1.10 Examples - Search engines, web directories & Enterprise searchNetworking & communication Technologies Page 14 of 30
  15. 15. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)1.9 Blogs & web logging (Blogging) A blog (a blend of the term web log) is a type of website or part of a website. Blogsare usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions ofevents, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed inreverse-chronological order. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or addcontent to a blog (Refer Figure 1.11). Most blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even messageeach other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them fromother static websites.Examples:www.blogger.com – free weblog publishing tool from Google. Figure 1.11 Blog basics1.10 Internet Forum An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people canhold conversations in the form of posted messages. Depending on the access level of a userand/or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderatorbefore it becomes visible (Refer Figure 1.12)Networking & communication Technologies Page 15 of 30
  16. 16. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Forums have a specific set of jargon associated with them; e.g. a single conversationis called a thread. The power of forums comes in letting visitors create their own conversations as longas they fit into the category listed. Visitors of a forum usually know how much a fellowvisitor has been a member of the forum – it is usually shown in together with the member’sdetails alongside every post.Examples:www.forum.nokia.com etc. Figure 1.12 Forum basics1.11 Wikis A wiki is a website that allows the creation and editing of any number of interlinkedweb pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or other text editor. Wikisare typically powered by wiki software and are often used to create collaborative works.Examples include community websites, corporate intranets, knowledge managementsystems, and note services. The software can also be used for personal note taking. (ReferFigure 1.13)Networking & communication Technologies Page 16 of 30
  17. 17. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Example: www.wikipedia.com Figure 1.13 How wikis works1.12 Podcasting A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio orvideo) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication. Theword usurped webcast in common vernacular, the word podcast is made famous from iPoddue to rising popularity and the innovation of web feeds (Refer Figure 1.14) The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing mediafiles over the Internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting. A list of all the audioor video files currently associated with a given series is maintained centrally on thedistributors server as a web feed, and the listener or viewer employs special clientapplication software known as a pod catcher that can access this web feed, check it forupdates, and download any new files in the series. This process can be automated so thatnew files are downloaded automatically. Files are stored locally on the users computer orother device ready for offline use, giving simple and convenient access to episodic content.Commonly used audio file formats are Ogg Vorbis and MP3. In many respects, this is closerNetworking & communication Technologies Page 17 of 30
  18. 18. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)to traditional publishing models associated with books and magazines (as opposed to radio,which uses a live stream).Example:www.Podcasters.org - Podcasting people, apps, technology, and news Figure 1.14 Podcasting1.13 RSS The Internet today contains a wealth of information. Information and web pagesmake their way in to the favorite folder for later viewing. Over the course of time, re-visitingthese bookmarks becomes a major task for users especially as the number of bookmarksgrows. A better technique for users is to automatically receive information about updates totheir favorite websites (Refer Figure 1.15). RSS (most commonly expanded as Really Simple Syndication) is a family of webfeed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, newsheadlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a"feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such aspublishing dates and authorship. Web feeds benefit publishers by letting them syndicatecontent automatically. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates fromfavored websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place. RSS feeds can beNetworking & communication Technologies Page 18 of 30
  19. 19. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)read using software called an "RSS reader", "feed reader", or "aggregator", which can beweb-based, desktop-based, or mobile-device-based.Example:Times of India RSS Feeds Figure 1.15 Before and after the arrival of RSS1.14 XML and XBRL Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for encoding documents inmachine-readable form. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, andseveral other related specifications. XMLs design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, andusability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for thelanguages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely usedfor the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services. (ReferFigure 1.16)Networking & communication Technologies Page 19 of 30
  20. 20. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.16 XML XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a freely available, market-driven,open, and global standard for exchanging business information. XBRL allows informationmodeling and the expression of semantic meaning commonly required in businessreporting. XBRL is XML-based (Refer Figure 1.17). It uses the XML syntax and related XMLtechnologies to articulate this semantic meaning. One use of XBRL is to define and exchangefinancial information, such as a financial statement. The XBRL Specification is developed andpublished by XBRL International, Inc. (XII). Figure 1.17 XBRLNetworking & communication Technologies Page 20 of 30
  21. 21. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)2.0 Communication Technology According to Network World (networkworld.com), 90 % of employees work awayfrom their company’s headquarters and 40% work at remote locations, away from theirsupervisors. Information and communications technology usually called ICT is usually a moregeneral term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration oftelecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), intelligent building managementsystems and audio-visual systems in modern information technology. ICT consists of alltechnical means used to handle information and aid communication, including computerand network hardware, communication middleware as well as necessary software. In otherwords, ICT consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast media, all types of audio and videoprocessing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions.2.1 Importance of Communication Technology The advancement of technology has had an enormous impact on the world.Communication technology in particular has drastically changed the way society operates.With new advances in communication being developed constantly, people are becomingmore and more reliant on the benefits they provide. Communication technology hasbecome significantly important in the realms of education, business, interpersonalinteractions and crisis responses. 1. Education o Communication technology is drastically altering the field of communication. With advances in email, instant messaging, chat and moderated forums, educators and students have increased options when it comes to learning and correspondence. Email and instant messaging have given students the ability to contact their instructors at any time to ask for information or guidance, allowing them to fully understand the materials and assignments they are working with. Websites, forums and message boards have transformed the classroom, allowing learning to take place online. This has extended learning opportunities to more remote and isolated areas, giving increased access to would be students. 2. Business o Communication technology has become incredibly important for the world of business. Smart phones, internet work spaces and video conferencing has expanded the work place physically and length wise. Smart phones, such asNetworking & communication Technologies Page 21 of 30
  22. 22. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Blackberry phones and iPhones, give business people the ability to call, text or email business associates any time from nearly any place. 3. Interpersonal Interactions o Interpersonal interactions are becoming more and more dependent on communication technology. Cell phones and their texting abilities have spawned a generation that largely keeps in contact through short messages sent in real time. Internet social networking sites like Face book, MySpace, and Twitter has made it easier for individuals to cultivate a particular image to project to the world, and for people to keep up on each others lives. Video conferencing services such as Skype allow for loved ones to talk to and see each other over vast differences. In a fast paced society, these technologies make maintenance of networks, friendships and other relationships easier to navigate than ever. Crisis Response o When natural disasters strike, the ability to communicate with the outside world is critical to adequate responses. Advancing communication technology has played an integral role in facilitating those responses. Satellite phone technology has created a way to maintain communication with the outside world when other phone lines go down. The Internet has provided ways for aid organizations like the Red Cross to get information about relief efforts out to concerned citizens. Constant news coverage and dissemination of information pertaining to humanitarian crises has put pressure on governments to offer aid in these situations. The result of all of these communication technologies interacting with a humanitarian crisis is the delivery of more timely, pertinent aid to those who need it most.2.2 Types of Communication Technologies2.2.1 CDMA Technologies Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by variousradio communication technologies. One of the basic concepts in data communication is theidea of allowing several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a singlecommunication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies. Thisconcept is called Multiple Access. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a specialcoding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to bemultiplexed over the same physical channel.Networking & communication Technologies Page 22 of 30
  23. 23. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)2.2.2 GSM Technologies Global System for Mobile Communications, or GSM (originally from Groupe SpécialMobile), is the worlds most popular standard for mobile telephone systems. The GSMAssociation estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is usedby over 1.5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. This ubiquitymeans that subscribers can use their phones throughout the world, enabled by internationalroaming arrangements between mobile network operators. The GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit fromthe ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to networkoperators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. GSM alsopioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS), also called textmessaging, which has since been supported on other mobile phone standards as well. Thestandard includes a worldwide emergency telephone number feature (112).2.2.3 Edge Networks Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS(EGPRS) or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technologythat allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003 — initially by Cingular (now AT&T)in the United States. Through the introduction of sophisticated methods of coding and transmitting data,EDGE delivers higher bit-rates per radio channel, resulting in a threefold increase in capacityand performance compared with an ordinary GSM/GPRS connection. EDGE can be used for any packet switched application, such as an Internetconnection. Evolved EDGE continues in Release 7 of the 3GPP standard providing reduced latencyand more than doubled performance e.g. to complement High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA).Peak bit-rates of up to 1Mbit/s and typical bit-rates of 400kbit/s can be expected.2.2.4 WI-FI Networks Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity) was invented by NCR Corporation/AT&T in 1991. A Wi-Fienabled device such as a personal computer, video game console, smart phone, or digitalaudio player can connect to the Internet when within range of a wireless network connectedto the Internet. Wi-Fi is not a technical term. However, its use has been generally enforcedto describe only a narrow range of connectivity technologies including wireless local areaNetworking & communication Technologies Page 23 of 30
  24. 24. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)network (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 standards, device to device connectivity [such asWi-Fi Peer to Peer AKA Wi-Fi Direct], and a range of technologies that support LAN (ReferFigure 1.18) Figure 1.18 WI-FI2.2.5 Voice over internet Protocols (VOIP) Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP) is one of a family of internettechnologies, communication protocols, and transmission technologies for delivery of voicecommunications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as theInternet. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP areIP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, andbroadband phone. (Refer Figure 1.19)Networking & communication Technologies Page 24 of 30
  25. 25. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.19 VOIP2.2.6 WLAN (wireless Local Area Networks) A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wirelessdistribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing aconnection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility tomove around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. (ReferFigure 1.20) Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation, and theincreasing popularity of laptop computers. Public businesses such as coffee shops and mallshave begun to offer wireless access to their customers; often for free. Large wirelessnetwork projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City, for instance, hasbegun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wirelessInternet access.Networking & communication Technologies Page 25 of 30
  26. 26. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.20 WLAN2.2.7 WiMax WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunicationsprotocol that provides fixed and mobile Internet access. The current WiMAX revisionprovides up to 40 Mbit/s with the IEEE 802.16m update expected to offer up to 1 Gbit/sfixed speeds. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed inJune 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describesWiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wirelessbroadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL" (Refer figure 1.21).Networking & communication Technologies Page 26 of 30
  27. 27. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.21 Wimax2.28 Social networks A social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called"nodes", which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, suchas friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, orrelationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. In its simplest form, a social network is a map of specified ties, such as friendship,between the nodes being studied. The nodes to which an individual is thus connected arethe social contacts of that individual. The network can also be used to measure social capital– the value that an individual gets from the social network. These concepts are oftendisplayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines(Refer Figure 1.22 & 1.23)Networking & communication Technologies Page 27 of 30
  28. 28. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008) Figure 1.22 Social Networking Figure 1.21 Examples Social network sitesNetworking & communication Technologies Page 28 of 30
  29. 29. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)3.0 Managerial Issues:Organizational impact: Technology-supported communications are having various organization impacts. Theprimary business benefit of networks and mobile communications is keeping workersconnected.Future of technology support: From a technology perspective the second half of this decade will be seen as aperiod in which technology moved to support collaboration. Whereas for the past five yearsthe computer industry has been focused on providing computing for the individuals (PC +Laptop + notebook + PDA), the emphasis is now firmly on connectivity, communication andcollaborationExtending Organizational Boundaries: Extranets connects business to their customers and supply chain partners. As high-bandwidth networks become increasingly common, collaborative networking solutions areavailable for companies of any size.Single view of the trust: Information silos are the bane of most organizations as they try to integrate andshare data to get a clearer understanding of customer’s products, and other objects ofinterest.Social and ethical issues: Social networks are redefining the way people communicate. Tools that are meantto improve the productivity and quality of life in general can also intrude on the personallives of managers and employees.Networking & communication Technologies Page 29 of 30
  30. 30. Sarjeevan sainbhi (20104006) & Sudeep Panicker (20104008)4.0 References: 1. Efraim Turban. Information Technology for Management, 6th Edition. New Delhi : John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd, 2009. 2. Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon. Management information systems – Managing the digital firm. India: Pearson Education Inc., 2009 3. www.google.com 4. www.wikipedia.com 5. www.ehow.com 6. http://www.wilcorpinc.com/wifi_history.htm - End -Networking & communication Technologies Page 30 of 30