What is a hazard ?<br /> “A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm. According to OHSAS 18001:1999, hazard is a source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or illness health, damage to property, damage to the environment, or a combination of these”.<br />Hazard Identification<br />
Why hazards identification?<br />Hazard recognition or hazard identification is vitally important in accident prevention. By recognizing hazards' characteristics and properties, we can clearly determine proper controls. Unfortunately, the majority of us sometimes overlook to recognize hazards.<br />Categorizing hazards<br />To assist in identifying hazards, the hazards may be categorised as follows:<br /><ul><li>The obvious hazard is apparent to the senses (e.g. unguarded machinery, building defects, or and faulty electrical equipment).
The concealed hazard is not apparent to the senses (e.g. electricity, presence of toxic vapors, or and high frequency noise).
The developing hazard cannot be recognised immediately and will develop over the time (e.g. a worn tire on a mobile crane or and frayed steel cables), and
The transient hazard is an intermittent or a temporary hazard (e.g. overload of machinery, when a confined space permit has expired, a sticking safety valve on a boiler, intermittent electrical or and mechanical defect).</li></li></ul><li>
Broad categories of hazards<br />To help with the process of identifying hazards it is useful to categorize hazards in different ways for example by topic, for example:<br /><ul><li> Mechanical;
Natural calamities.</li></li></ul><li>How to identify hazards?<br />To begin identifying hazards, simply ask the question, 'Does this task/activity/situation/ event has the potential to harm a person, property, environment, and or system? The question should be similar to:<br />a. What am I going to do?b. What is the purpose of doing this job, task or<br /> activity?c. How will I do that job, task or activity?d. How could I get hurt doing this job, task or activity?e. What will I do to prevent accident (injury, illness <br /> health)?<br />
Hazard Identification Sources<br /><ul><li>Safety Reporting - includes safety occurrence reporting through mandatory and voluntary reporting schemes.
Document results</li></li></ul><li>Hazards Evaluation Pre-Start Activities<br />Assemble the hazards evaluation team<br />Team leader is key<br />Include appropriate disciplines and organizations<br />Safety basis<br />Engineering (construction, systems, others)<br />Operations (both management and workers)<br />Safety disciplines (industrial safety, industrial hygiene, radiation safety, explosive safety, fire protection, criticality safety, etc.)<br />Other subject matter experts<br />Define roles and responsibilities<br />
Types of Hazard<br />Chemical hazards - lab chemicals, cleaning supplies, paints, solvents.<br />Physical substances - heat, cold, radiation, noise.<br />Biological substances - blood, body fluids, infectious agents.<br />Indoor air quality- health effects experienced while working in campus buildings caused by airborne agents.<br />Ergonomics - musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive motions with poor positioning or excessive force.<br />
RecommendationsPlant and Equipment safety Devices<br />Fixed Guards should be mandatory for covering transmission parts<br />Machine tool designers and manufacturers and user industry<br />Similarly at some place where running points are involved Fixed/Adjustable/ Distance Guards are used.<br />Machine tool designers and manufacturers and user industry<br />
RecommendationsPlant and Equipment safety Devices<br />Trip devices, actuated mechanically or by pressure sensitive strips should be adopted for CNC machines.<br />Machinery manufacturers in consultation with manufacturers of such sensing devices<br />Alternative techniques of keeping operator’s hand out of danger area need to be adopted like Awareness Barrier/Pull Back Barrier/ Two Hand control Device. <br />Machine manufacturers / User departments in co-ordination with workers<br />
RecommendationsEngineering Options<br />Planning of the Machine Layout by taking into account safety management considerations, adequate space for removal of waste, access of maintenance work etc.<br />Management of the Engineering Units<br />The space constraint in Housekeeping leads to hazardous work conditions.<br />In consultation with industrialists and worker safety experts suitable norms should be evolved for material storage, material movement, operator movement etc.<br />
RecommendationsEngineering Options<br />Proper foundation and use of Mounting Pads for reducing the vibration is recommended.<br />User industry to implement recommendations of Machinery manufacturers for vibration<br />For Noise reduction, fitment of a silencer, Distancing the noise emanating equipment from the main working area, Sound absorption media, etc.<br />With the help of expert, noise level in area needs to be assessed and the noise generating machines should be isolated<br />
RecommendationsEngineering Options<br />Ventilation should be provided by considering air pollution as well as comfort angle in workshops – Welding/Painting/Heat Treatment Shops. The technique used may be Local Exhaust Proper foundation and use of Mounting Pads for reducing the vibration is recommended.<br />With the help of expert, assessment of air quality in work area should be done and suitable system should be installed<br />Assembly/Testing work stations should be designed to reduce operator fatigue as well as ill effect of bad posture. Similarly, lifting of heavy loads should be discouraged<br />Help of experts should be taken by management for ergonomical design of work stations<br />
RecommendationsEngineering Options<br />To avoid human error, Permit Systems, Planned Maintenance, Training, Performance Monitoring and feedback, Health and Fitness Surveillance etc should be done.<br />Safety Committee/Safety department of the organization<br />For developing a self sustaining safety culture in the organization the commitment of top management is essential.<br />Directors/Senior managers in organization<br />
RecommendationsPersonnel Protection Equipments<br />Different type of PPE’s are available:<br />Safety Helmets/Welding Helmets<br />Eye Spectacles/Eye Goggles/Face Shield<br />Hand Gloves<br />Safety Shoes<br />Ear Plugs/Ear Muffs<br />Body Clothing<br />Waist Support Belts<br />Dust Mask/Respirators<br />Safety Committee/Safety department as well as management of the organization<br />
RecommendationsPersonnel Protection Equipments<br />Financial resource is one of the major bottlenecks for small and medium scale industries to invest in safety equipments. Safety systems should be encouraged by allowing suitable tax benefits :<br />Central Government in consultation with State Government, Union Leaders and Engineering industry representatives<br />