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Public opinion and social media


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Public opinion and social media

Public opinion and social media

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  • 1. ”PUBLIC OPINION AND SOCIAL MEDIA” 28 November 2012 Sari-Maarit Peltola University Teacher, Lic.Phil.
  • 2. Public Public is a group of people who recognize to have a similar problem and organize themselves to address it. (Dewey 1927) Publics are groups of individuals. The public is the totality of such groupings. (Heath 2005) Mass vs. public (see e.g. Suhonen 2009) Public is a distinct group of people and/or organizations that have an actual or a potential interest and/or impact on organization. (Kotler 1975) Public generally refers to a situational collection of individuals who emerge and organize in response to a problem. (Vasquez & Taylor 2001) The situational theory of publics: nonpublics, latent publics, aware publics and active publics (Grunig 1983) Publics can be classified by function, their level of involvement with the organization, or their interrelations. (Kotler 1975)
  • 3. Public opinion Yleinen mielipide tarkoittaa kansalaisten mielipiteen enemmistöä tai jakautumista (Suhonen 2009) Those features of the world outside which have to do with the behavior of other human beings, in so far as that behavior crosses ours, is dependent upon us, or is interesting to us, we call roughly public affairs. The pictures inside the heads of these human beings, the pictures of themselves, of others, of their needs, purposes, and relationship, are their public opinions. Those pictures which are acted upon by groups of people, or by individuals acting in the name of groups, are Public Opinion with capital letters. (Lippmann 1922) Yleisen mielipiteen vakaus: kiinteä, nestemäinen, kaasumainen (Tönnies 1922) Public sphere is where something approacing public opinion can be formed. (Habermas 2004) Bandwagon effect Julkisuus (public) tarkoittaa tilannetta, jossa joukko ihmisiä viestii jostain teemasta, joka tavalla tai toisella koskee häntä. Kun vähintään yksi henkilö viestii asiasta muiden kanssa, syntyy uusi julkisuus. Julkisuuskentät (public spheres) ovat tiloja, joissa julkisuudet syntyvät. (Iivonen & Åberg 2009)
  • 4. Social media Social media services include social networking, content producing, the distribution of services and websites that are collectively constructed by users (‘‘wikis’’ such as Wikipedia), video and photo sharing services (such as YouTube and Flickr), virtual worlds (Second Life), and diary-type websites (‘‘blogs’’). (Aula 2010) Social media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content. (Kaplan & Haenlein 2010) Social media is characterized by interactivity – participants freely send, receive, and process content for use by other. (Aula 2010)
  • 5. Revolution of Social media Common information about social media – Uqx6_Wk&feature=share&list=UULC9cX5 GntaQmTSF6hTqrzA Social media in Finland: – tCoM
  • 6. Classification of Social Media Classification of social media by social presence/media richness and self- presentation/self-disclosure (Kaplan & Haenlein 2010):
  • 7. Categories of Social Media Content publishing & broadcasting: users produce written text or video material to blogs, wikis, microblogs, broadcasting (service providers and examples: Blogger, Twitter, Podcasts) Discussion forums: discussion forums, chats (service providers and examples:, Suomi24) Content sharing & social bookmarking: social bookmarking, sharing of podcasts, photos or videos (service providers and examples: del.ici.ous, YouTube, Flickr) Social networking sites: communities for social networking and community building (service providers and examples: MySpace, IRC-Gallery, Facebook, LinkedIn) Joint production: users create shared content and edit other’s contributions (service providers and examples: Wikipedia, OhmyNews) Virtual worlds: engagement in immersive worlds (service providers and examples: Second Life, Habbo) Attachment services: individual service to aid an existing service (service providers andexamples: Google maps, Facebook connect) Aggregation services: combining several elements of social media and more traditional communication (service providers and examples: Friendfeed, Google Wave) (Luoma-aho 2010)
  • 8. Why people participate in Social media? Keep in touch Self-expression Self-realization Learning Experience of similairity Business Increase creativity (Matikainen 2008; Deragon 2007)
  • 9. Public participation Public participation is the involvement of the public in the process of decision-making. (Stewart & Claker 1987) Ladder of citizen participation (Arnstein 1969):
  • 10. Stages of public participation (Jackson 2001)
  • 11. (Eurobarometer 2012)
  • 12. Five point for companies about using social media Choose carefully Pick the application, or make your own Ensure activity alignment Media plan integration Access for all (Kaplan & Haenlein 2010)
  • 13. Five points about being social in social media Be active Be interesting Be huble Be unprofessional Be honest (Kaplan & Haenlein 2010)
  • 14. Public opinion in social media Public opinion is no longer dependent on the press and their points of view, but various players can contribute to how an opinion is formed. Public opinion can be formed in minuties. Companies must find the (right) online communities and enable them. Social media takes a step further away from control, toward shared arenas where many produce in collaboration. The power dimension is still there. (Luoma-aho 2010)
  • 15. Warning example: Nestle Have a break -video
  • 16. Some other examples United Airlines/Guitar break Ryanair/ Domino’s Pizza 10:10
  • 17. Sosiaalinen media ja organisaation viestintäkulttuuri (Isokangas & Kankkunen 2011)
  • 18. Laki ja sosiaalinen yhteisö • Työnantaja ei voi määrätä työntekijän sosiaalisen median käytöstä • Ohjeistus takaa kaikille selkeät pelisäännöt • Liikesalaisuudet ovat salaisuuksia myös sosiaalisessa mediassa • Paikannuspalvelut voivat paljastaa liikesalaisuuden • Sisäinen viestintä on yrityksen sisäistä toimintaa myös sosiaalisessa mediassa • Varjo-it ilmiöt on syytä käsitellä tapauskohtaisesti (Isokangas & Kankkunen 2011)
  • 19. Dynaaminen julkisuuskenttä • Dynaaminen julkisuuskenttä (DJK) on tila, jossa organisaatiota koskevat, elinkaarensa eri vaiheessa olevat teemat liikkuvat. • DJK:lla voidaan identifioida • Kentälle nousevat eli käynnistettävät teemat (issues) • Organisaatiota koskevat asiat, jotka aiheutuvat suoraan tai epäsuorasti organisaation omasta toiminnasta. • Teemojen karevaikutus, ripple effect (Papworth 2008) • Käynnistettäviin teemoihin liittyvät teemat • Aktivoituvat toimijat • Toimijoiden viestinnälliset tai toiminnalliset aktit • Leimahduspiste, tipping point (Gladwell 2007) (Aula & Åberg 2012)
  • 20. Issues Arenas Issues arenas are identified as new arenes for communication, and a sign that organization- centered communication is over. Issue arenas are dynamic stages of interaction and discussion. (Luoma-aho & Vos, 2010)
  • 21. Monitoring Monitoring refers to analytical review and evaluation of changes (Vos & Schoemaker 2006) Environmental monitoring: trends in public opinion and events in the socio-political environment to see in which direction developments are going an what needs more attention. (Luoma-aho, Tirkkonen, Vos & Hurri 2010)
  • 22. Monitoring in Social Media The social media environment requires monitoring to be an ongoing action studying the environment and interpreting weak signals. (Luoma-aho, Tirkkonen, Vos & Hurri 2010) Listen to your stakeholders, measure and analyze conversations and react to the feedback. Have enough resources!
  • 23. Some basic tools • Follow competitors by RSS feed (or list your feeds to Google Reader) • Follow feedback and number of fans in Facebook (see e.g. Fanilista), follow comments and number of views in YouTube, follow comments and number of visitors of your Blog, follow number of followers and retweets in Twitter etc. • Make easy ways to follow impact of your campaign etc. (e.g. Dell in Twitter, Queensland campaign) • Use Google Search (e.g. company name, phrases connected to the company) • Use Google Analytics (see e.g., TweetPsych, TwitGraph, Google Alerts, Social Mention ( etc. • Do content analysis of discussions etc. • Outsource the hole thing (Sysomos (Nokia, Coca Cola), Trackur)
  • 24. Case Swine Flu Discussions in Finland In November and December 2009: – 2264 comments in discussion forums of Iltalehti and KaksPlus –magazines – Themes of interest: • symptoms of the flu • safety of the vaccine • the epidemic, risk groups and its victims. – (Luoma-aho, Tirkkonen, Vos & Hurri 2010)
  • 25. Attitude-groups in the swine flu discussions (N=2264) (Luoma-aho, Tirkkonen, Vos & Hurri 2010)
  • 26. How does social media generate reputation risks? Risk is increased when the gap between an organization’s reputation and its reality grows. Risk is increased by a change in the expectations of consumers. When an organization is internally unable to react to changes in the environment, a highly ‘‘important source of reputational risk is poor coordination of the decisions made by different business units and functions’’. (Eccless, Newquist & Schatz 2007)
  • 27. Key characteristics of conventional and ambient publicity (Aula 2010)
  • 28. Social media challenges conventional strategy Social media is not just a channel for distributing corporate communications; social media is an arena for participation in which organizations interact with the public. Strategic reputation management should concentrate on ethics. In social media, there has to be a clear line between how to behave in order to live up to expectations and how to communicate a business goal. Social media has the effect of presenting a collective truth. Users create and search for information, gain knowledge, and make interpretations based on communication about an organization. (Aula 2010)
  • 29. Nine tenets for leaders 1. The ability to perceive and avoid risks is essential to organizations in order to survive. 2. Instead of sophisticated, objective, and rational risk analysis, most people rely on their subjective risk perceptions, which can be affected by such highly emotional sources as social media. 3. Reputation is a valuable, but highly fragile corporate asset. 4. Reputation risk will garner more attention in corporate risk portfolios. 5. The challenge is to create valid reputation risk categories and to quantify the implications of the loss of reputation. 6. Reputation risk often originates from uncontrollable external factors, but corporation’s own controllable actions play an important role as well. 7. The importance of reputation requires there be a specific guardian (such as a Chief Reputation Officer). 8. Corporations must engage in proactive communication in order to prevent reputation risk and to fix damaged reputations. 9. Reputation risk evolves and culminates in publicity, but in social media publicity is a dialog. (Aula 2010)
  • 30. Reputation strategies for ambient publicity Strategy of absence Strategy of presence Strategy of attendance Strategy of omnipresence (Aula 2010)