0
Definition
Hydrology is the science that takes into
account the water in the world, existence, and
the distribution cycle,...
Hydrology

Hydro – Water (air)
Logy – Research about (kajian
tentang)
Measuring Unit of Water
a) Depth
(mm, cm, m, inch, feet)
b) Volume
(cm3, m3, liter, cube feet, meter hecta(m-ha)
c) Flow r...
HIDROLOGY DATA CRITERIA

• Trusted
• Continuously
Data can be obtained from
 Jabatan Kaji Cuaca
 Jabatan Kerja Raya
 Jabatan Bekalan Air
 Jabatan Geologi dan ukur
 Jab...
Hydrological Cycle
• A transition cycle of water (water
transfer) that occur on earth consistently
and naturally
Hydrological Cycle










Precipitation (P) - Curahan
Evapotranspiration (E) – Sejat Peluhan
Evaporation - Sej...
Basic Components of the hydrological
Cycle
Precipitation
The transfer from vapor form to liquid form. It is a
continuous p...
Transpiration (T)
Water inside of plants is transferred from the plant to the
atmosphere as water vapor

Infiltration (I)
...
Effect of land use to the hydrological
cycle
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Land slide
Land erosion
Flood
Global Warming
Land Pollution
Wa...
Hydrolologic Continuity Equation
(The water Balance)

A statement about water balance and water
conservation law accurring...
Example of Calculation
• A storage allow to received inflow and outflow
respectively at rate 10 and 15 m3/s for 24
hours. ...
• In two month Padang Melati district predict to
received rain 240 mm. Evaporation is 80 mm and
infiltration 20 mm. The ca...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

R=P–E–T–I
= 240 – 80 -20
= 140 mm @ 0.14 m
Volume of surface runoff
= R x Area
= (0.14) x ( 56 x 106)
= 7.8...
Problem Set
1. Explain the hydrological process below
– Infiltration
– Transpiration
– Base Flow

2. There are two rivers ...
Problem Set
3. Sungai Kinta catchment is expected to receive 240mm
of rain. Transpiration is approximately 55 mm and the
i...
5. The drainage area of a village is 2.59 x 1010 m 2. If the
mean annual runoff is determined to be 19.82 m3/s and the
ave...
Unit Converter Exercise
65 km2
72000 m3/year
8.5 x 103 m3/year
157 cm
82 mm
482 mm3
300 ml
57 cm3
360 mm2
250 cm3/month

–...
Hidrology Note Topic 1
Hidrology Note Topic 1
Hidrology Note Topic 1
Hidrology Note Topic 1
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Hidrology Note Topic 1

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Transcript of "Hidrology Note Topic 1"

  1. 1. Definition Hydrology is the science that takes into account the water in the world, existence, and the distribution cycle, chemical and physical properties, and reactions to the environment, including relationships with living things. Space covers the entire history of existence of water on the earth
  2. 2. Hydrology Hydro – Water (air) Logy – Research about (kajian tentang)
  3. 3. Measuring Unit of Water a) Depth (mm, cm, m, inch, feet) b) Volume (cm3, m3, liter, cube feet, meter hecta(m-ha) c) Flow rate (liter/sec/minutes/hours, m3/s)
  4. 4. HIDROLOGY DATA CRITERIA • Trusted • Continuously
  5. 5. Data can be obtained from  Jabatan Kaji Cuaca  Jabatan Kerja Raya  Jabatan Bekalan Air  Jabatan Geologi dan ukur  Jabatan Alam Sekitar
  6. 6. Hydrological Cycle • A transition cycle of water (water transfer) that occur on earth consistently and naturally
  7. 7. Hydrological Cycle          Precipitation (P) - Curahan Evapotranspiration (E) – Sejat Peluhan Evaporation - Sejatan Transpiration (T) - Pepeluhan Surface Run-Off (R) – Larian Permukaan Infiltration (I) – Penyusupan Ground Water (G) – Air Bumi Condensation (C) – Pemeluwapan Convection - Olakan
  8. 8. Basic Components of the hydrological Cycle Precipitation The transfer from vapor form to liquid form. It is a continuous process in which water is evaporated from oceans, moves inland as moist air masses. The precipitation that falls from clouds onto the land surface. For example - rain , snow, dew, hills Evaporation /Evapotranspiration The transfer of water from liquid form to vapor form. Rainfall is retained in the soil near where it falls and returns to the atmosphere
  9. 9. Transpiration (T) Water inside of plants is transferred from the plant to the atmosphere as water vapor Infiltration (I) Infiltration is the physical process involving movement of water through the boundary area where the atmosphere interfaces with the soil. Part of rain water infiltrated to the soil due to gravitational force and pressure different. Surface Runoff (R) The transfer of liquid form within a catchment areas surface runoff that flows over the land surface and through channels, subsurface runoff that infiltrates the surface soils and moves laterally towards the stream
  10. 10. Effect of land use to the hydrological cycle • • • • • • • Land slide Land erosion Flood Global Warming Land Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution
  11. 11. Hydrolologic Continuity Equation (The water Balance) A statement about water balance and water conservation law accurring in a clearly defined catchment area. dS/dt = I – O dS/dt = rate of storage change I = amount of water input O = amount of water output
  12. 12. Example of Calculation • A storage allow to received inflow and outflow respectively at rate 10 and 15 m3/s for 24 hours. Calculate the change of volume in that storage in 24 hours. • dS/dt = I – O • dS = (I – O) dt • dS = (10-15) m3/s x[ 24 x 60 x 60]s • dS = - 4.32 x 105 m3
  13. 13. • In two month Padang Melati district predict to received rain 240 mm. Evaporation is 80 mm and infiltration 20 mm. The catchment are is 56 km2 . • Estimate the volume of surface runoff. • R=P–E–T–I • P = 240 mm • E = 80 mm • T=0 • I = 20 mm
  14. 14. • • • • • • • R=P–E–T–I = 240 – 80 -20 = 140 mm @ 0.14 m Volume of surface runoff = R x Area = (0.14) x ( 56 x 106) = 7.84 x 106 m3
  15. 15. Problem Set 1. Explain the hydrological process below – Infiltration – Transpiration – Base Flow 2. There are two rivers flow into the catchment area 1500 km2. The total discharge of two rivers are 7.5 x 1010 m3/year. Record are made showing the loss due to the transpiration is 10% of the monthly rainfall. Determine the average monthly rainfall for the catchment area.
  16. 16. Problem Set 3. Sungai Kinta catchment is expected to receive 240mm of rain. Transpiration is approximately 55 mm and the infiltration is estimated 20 mm. The catchment area is 65 km2. Estimate the volume of runoff. 4. The stream’s storage reach at a particular time is 72 x 103 m3. At that time the inflow and outflow of the stream are 16m3/s and 25 m3/s respectively. Two hours later the inflow and outflow are 23 m3/s and 30 m3/s respectively. Calculate the change and the new storage of the reach at the end of two hours.
  17. 17. 5. The drainage area of a village is 2.59 x 1010 m 2. If the mean annual runoff is determined to be 19.82 m3/s and the average annual rainfall is 20 cm, estimated the evapo transpiration losses for the area in cm/year. 6. State four characteristics of rainfall and the measurement unit. 7. Within 6 months of the Sungai Lui catchment area is estimated to receive rainfall of 350 mm. Evaporated in the estimate of 100 mm and diffusion into the subsurface is estimated to 40 mm. Estimate the volume in cubic meters of area to be stored in the reservoir if the basin area is 85 km2. 8. Calculate the average daily evaporation rate in (ha.cm)/day on annual evaporation from lake with a surface area of 25 x 106 m2 is 320 cm. (1ha = 10000 m2)
  18. 18. Unit Converter Exercise 65 km2 72000 m3/year 8.5 x 103 m3/year 157 cm 82 mm 482 mm3 300 ml 57 cm3 360 mm2 250 cm3/month – – – – – – – – – - m2 cm3/day cm3/month m m m3 cm3 m3 m2 m3/s
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