Wildlife ppt.sar

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this my geography ppt which is based on geography chapter 2 in class 10 textbook

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Wildlife ppt.sar

  1. 1. The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms. It is home to tigers, lions, leopards, snow leopards, pythons, wolves, foxes, bears, crocodiles, rhinoceroses, camels, wild dogs, monkeys, snakes, antelope species, deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mighty Asian elephant. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 13 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.India has some of the most biodiversity regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity
  2. 2. India is home to several well-known large mammals, including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard, Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros, often engrained culturally and religiously, often being associated with deities. Some other wellknown large Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo, common Domestic Asian Water buffalo, Nilgai, Gaur, and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family, such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox and Golden Jackal, and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are also widely distributed. However, the dhole, also known as the whistling hunter, is the most endangered top Indian carnivore, and the Himalayan Wolf is now a critically endangered species endemic to India. It is also home to the Striped Hyena, Macaques, Langurs and Mongoose species.
  3. 3. The Bio-reserves in India are: Achanakmar-Amarkantak Agasthyamalai Dibru Saikhowa Dihang Dibang Great Nicobar Gulf of Mannar Kachchh Kangchenjunga Manas Nanda Devi The Nilgiris Nokrek Pachmarhi Simlipal Sundarbans Cold desert seshachalam hills Pannaof Eight of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) list. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Nokrek National Park Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Simlipal National Park Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve
  4. 4. Wildlife is one of the most gracious gifts of nature to this land, which is as rich in its variety and colors as its number. The majestic lion, the grateful yet fearsome tiger, unproductive leopard, powerful elephant, the nimble deer, attractive antelope, the picturesque peafowl, the gorgeous pelican, the beautiful parakeets, wood-pecker and the elegant flamingo are some of these of which any country might be proud. There are 312 species of mammals, 1175 species of birds, 399 species of reptiles, 60000 species of insects and 181 species of amphibians and 46610 species of plants. Over the past 2000 years about 106 species of animals and about 140 species of birds have become extinct because of climate and geographic changes and also by over hunting by man for food, medicine, fur and many other reasons. According to ecologist more than 600 species of animals and birds are expected to be extinct if not protected by wildlife management. Wildlife Management is an ancient phenomenon. Vedas contain hymns in praise of animals. Sanatana Dharma has linked some animals with the specific God or Goddess as the best way of conservation of wildlife.
  5. 5. The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India, and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs.
  6. 6. At the beginning of the 19th century more than two-thirds of the land mass in India was lying uncultivated (Singh, 1986). As lands close to village habitations were enough to satisfy the subsistence needs of the people, forests remote from habitations were generally never overexploited. Often these virgin forests were concentrated in infertile highlands, where lived India’s indigenous communities, called adivasis or tribal's. The British presence from the late 18th century onwards started making a difference to land and forest usage in India On forest lands, ‘human resource-use practices such as grazing, product collection, and temporary or rotational swidden farming were rejected as a basis for ownership, even when taxes were paid By the turn of the last century some 20 million hectares (m ha) of land was brought under a category of forests called Reserve Forests (Stebbing 1926). These were used exclusively for producing timber by the Forest Department (FD) and the surrounding villagers had no rights other than the ones explicitly permitted by the State.
  7. 7. First, after the abolition of the princely states and landlordism, all uncultivated lands under their control became vested in the State. The larger tracts were handed over to the Forest Department generally as PF, and the rest were vested in the village panchayats which are under the overall supervision of the Revenue Department. The second process of extending government control over forests was through acquisition of private forests
  8. 8. These laws were passed by the various state governments in the two decades following Independence. Massive felling of trees took place from these forests because of the fear that these forests would be nationalized, as indeed they were in the 1950's and 60's. For several years after this take-over an impression has continued in the villages that if trees are planted on private lands, not only would the trees belong to Government but land on which such plantation takes place would also revert to Government. Even as late as 1987 a SIDA team promoting farm forestry in South Bihar encountered tribal's' fears that if they planted trees their lands would be taken away by the government (GOB, 1987). The fear is not baseless as the Bihar Private Forest Act and similar other enactment’s did precisely this in the past, by "nationalizing" private trees.
  9. 9. Project Tiger, started in 1972, is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats. Launched on April 1, 1973, Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history . The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are representative of various biogeographical regions falling within India . After this Project Elephant, though less known, started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment. Today, there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area more than of 37,761 km².
  10. 10. Project Tiger was meant to identify the limiting factors and to mitigate them by suitable management. The damages done to the habitat were to be rectified so as to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent. The potential tiger habitats being covered are:[Sivalik– Terai Conservation Unit (Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal), and in NepalNorth east Conservation UnitSunderbans Conservation UnitCentral Indian Conservation UnitEastern Ghat Conservation UnitWestern Ghats
  11. 11. National symbols of India National animal: Tiger (Panthera Tigris) National Heritage animal of India: Elephant National aquatic animal: Ganges River Dolphin. National bird: Peacock National flower: Lotus National tree: Banyan
  12. 12. National Parks in India Depending on the area and terrain, National Parks provide ample opportunities to the visitors to have close encounters with the wilds. But what is so exquisite about the Indian National Parks is the variance that they are equipped with. Whether it comes to the flora, avifauna, and aqua fauna, or witnessing various wild forms in their natural surroundings on an elephant or inside a jeep, wild ventures are simply amazing! Some of the best jewels of Indian wilderness include the Great Himalayan National Park, Dachigam National Park near Srinagar, Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh, which is also a famous tiger reserve, Ranthambore National Park in Rajasthan, and Sundarbans National Park in West Bengal. Worth visiting in the East Indian part in "The Land of Rhino" Assam is Kaziranga.
  13. 13. Wildlife Sanctuaries Wandering about in a wildlife sanctuary and witnessing the wildlife therein can be quite an adventurous experience. elephants, deer and predators catching their prey in their natural habitat is much more exciting than watching a wildlife documentary on television. Such as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary known as largest bird sanctuary in Asia, which is much more famous as a refuge of migratory birds like barons, ibis, pelicans and painted storks that make it their temporary home during the winter months. Two splendid protected habitats situated in the Himalayan foothills are the Jim Corbett National Park and The Dudhwa National Park that provide an unforgettable wildlife experience. The most pleasant time to visit any wildlife sanctuary in India, with the exception of Dachigam is the months between October and March.
  14. 14. www.wikipedia.com www.forestpolices.com www.conservingforests.in www.google.com www.youtube.com www.wikimedia.com
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