Subject cataloguing


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Subject cataloguing

  1. 1. Subject Cataloguing Dr. Sarika Siddharth Sawant Assistant Professor, SHPT School of Library Science, SNDT Women’s University, Churchgate, Mumbai 400 020
  2. 2. Definition of Subject Cataloguing <ul><li>S C is the one which shows documents on specific subject possesssed by a given libray. It attempts to bring together entries on a sepcif subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject can be expressed thru </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Subject Catalogue Types <ul><li>Alphabetico Direct Catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetico Indirect Catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetico Classed Catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Classified Catalogue </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives of Subject Entries/Cataloguing <ul><li>(1) to enable a person to find a book of which the subject is known, and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) to show what the library has on a given subject </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basic principles of subject entries <ul><li>User and Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform heading </li></ul><ul><li>Term chosen should not be ambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Specific and direct entry </li></ul><ul><li>Cross references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See also reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General reference </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Problems of deriving subject entries <ul><li>Overlap in subject extension and intention </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects shifts their scope and coverage and change their nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Subject may not have specific names (single term) </li></ul><ul><li>More than one name </li></ul><ul><li>Document may cover one or more than one subject </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methods of Subject Analysis <ul><li>Printed list of subject headings </li></ul><ul><li>Chain procedure </li></ul>
  8. 8. HOW TO ASSIGN SUBJECT HEADINGS <ul><li>subject content </li></ul><ul><li>principal concepts </li></ul><ul><li>subject headings list can be consulted </li></ul><ul><li>From the list, a subject heading is chosen which will best express the subject content of the work </li></ul>
  9. 9. Number of Headings Assigned <ul><li>The ideal situation is one in which one heading </li></ul><ul><li>There is no theoretical or physical limit to the number of headings </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloger's magie number—three </li></ul>
  10. 10. General versus Specific Headings <ul><li>Use the most specific heading which expresses the subject of the work </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, a specific heading may be assigned to a portion of the work, while a more general heading is assigned to the entire work. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a large portion of a book on mathematics in general is devoted to algebra, both the general heading Mathematics and the specific heading Algebra may be assigned. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Multitopical Works <ul><li>more than one heading is usually required </li></ul><ul><li>For a work dealing with two or three distinctive subjects or concepts separately, assign two or three separate headings </li></ul><ul><li>For example, for a book about Chinese and Japanese literature, assign two separate headings. </li></ul><ul><li>When a work deals with four or more subjects, all of which form parts of a larger subject, assign the heading for the larger subject, e.g., use the heading South America—Descrip-tion and travel for a book about traveling in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Ecuador. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Multielement Works <ul><li>work which treats a single central topic considered from different aspects or containing various elements (such as form, place, and time)—assign a heading which brings out these aspects or elements, if one is available. </li></ul><ul><li>If such a heading is not available, a new heading may be established or several headings may be used to bring out the aspects and elements as appropriate. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Standard Lists of Subject Headings <ul><li>Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Headings for Children's Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Sears List of Subject Headings </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advantages of Subject Headings lists <ul><li>Choice of the term among the synonymous terms is to be preferred catalogue entry; </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates the rendering of the subject heading; ie, the sequence of the terms in a multi-worded heading; </li></ul><ul><li>The lists also indicate the references to be made (see and see also) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Limitations of the Subject Headings lists <ul><li>lists are always found inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the lists are based on the practices in one or a few libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>need constant revision </li></ul><ul><li>As the intention of the subject increases the subject heading becomes complex </li></ul><ul><li>'insufficiënt' for bibliographies and documentation lists </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new terms, new terms for old subjects, homonyms and synonyms pose a lot of problems in keeping the lists up-to date </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Subjects Headings <ul><li>1. Noun Headings : Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adjectival (qualifying the noun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21            Inverted : Chemistry—Organic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22            Direct : English—Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Phrase headings ( A phrase formed out of two nouns) </li></ul><ul><li>31 Inverted : Plant, Protection of— 32 Direct : Chinese—in India. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sub-Divisions <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>1 Form Subdivision </li></ul><ul><li>11               Outer : Music-—Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>12               Inner : Music—History </li></ul><ul><li>2 Geographical subdivision </li></ul><ul><li>21                Direct : Architecture—India </li></ul><ul><li>22                Indirect : India, Politics and government More than one geographic division may be given if warranted : Art.India.Rajaputana </li></ul><ul><li>Period Division </li></ul><ul><li>1         Specific period: Mughal Empire </li></ul><ul><li>2         Dynasties: Gupta dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>3         Battles: Panipat battle </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fiction Subject Headings
  19. 19. Non-Fiction Subject Headings
  20. 20. CHAIN PROCEDURE <ul><li>Dr. Ranganathan advocated Chain Procedure for the first time i 1938 in his Theory of Library Catalogue and modified in the second and third editions of Classified Catalogue Code </li></ul><ul><li>It is a semi-mechanical method of deriving Class Index Entries (CIE) classified catalogue and subject headings in a dictionary catalogue </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pre-requisites of CHAIN PROCEDURE <ul><li>The class number should be co-extensive with the depth of the specific subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The class number should provide a string with no gaps. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Steps in Chain Procedure I <ul><li>Class number is analysed into a series of classes from the Basic Class or Main Class to the specific subject </li></ul><ul><li>These series of classes from the Main Class to specific subject constitute a chain and each number of the chain of classes tnu produce a class index entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the chain of classes are retranslated to verbal language m accordance with the specific terms used in the scheme classification. . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Steps in Chain Procedure II <ul><li>Unfamiliar, archaic and insufficiently precise terms are replaced with more suitable synonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in the chain which are unlikely to Be sought are omitted (unsought links). </li></ul><ul><li>Steps produeed by faulty subordination in the classification scheme are likewise omitted (false links). </li></ul><ul><li>Certain of the super-ordinate terms are added to reveal the context. </li></ul><ul><li>Alink missing in the chain is to be inserted at the proper place (= missing links). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Drawing the Chain <ul><li>1.      Analyse the class number digit by digit; </li></ul><ul><li>2.      put an 'equal to' sign (=) infront of each link; </li></ul><ul><li>3.      Link the equal to signs with downward arrows; </li></ul><ul><li>4.      Look into the classification scheme and write the equivalent terms </li></ul><ul><li>5.       Identify if there is a Missing Link and insert it in its position; </li></ul><ul><li>6.       Analyse each and every link to decide the sought and unsought links. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Prepare headings of CIEs or subject headings taking the last link as the first heading and then upward till the first link is reached (which would be a Basic class or Main class). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Illustration E.g. Class Number— 011,2J04, P 0 = Literature (Sought link) 01 = Indo-European Literature 011 = Teutonic Literature 0111 = English, Literature (Sought Link) 0111, = (False Link) OUl, 2 = Drama, English (Sought Link) 011, 2J64 = Shakespeare 011, 2J04,P = Othello(Sought Link)
  26. 26. Othello 011, 2J04,P <ul><li>Shakesphere 0111,2J64 </li></ul><ul><li>Drama, English 011,2 </li></ul><ul><li>English Literature 0lll </li></ul><ul><li>Literature 0 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Example of Indexing with DDC <ul><li>600 = Technology (SL) </li></ul><ul><li>620 = Engineering (SL) </li></ul><ul><li>621 = Mechanical Engineering [FL] 621.3 = Electrical Engineering (SL) 621.32 = Electrical lightening [FL] </li></ul><ul><li>621.328 = Apparatus at service enf of line [UL] </li></ul><ul><li>621.328 = Fuses (SL) </li></ul><ul><li>621.328 = Cartridge fuses (SL) </li></ul><ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Cartridge fuses 621.328 </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses, Electrical Engineering 621.328 </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Engineering 621.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering 620 </li></ul><ul><li>Technology 600 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sears List of Subject Headings <ul><li>first edition of List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries, prepared by Minnie Earl Sears, appeared in 1923. </li></ul><ul><li>1923,1926,1933,1939,1944,1940,1954, 1959, 1965(9th) </li></ul><ul><li>1986 , 1991, 1994 , 1997 , 2000 , 2004 (18 th ) </li></ul>
  29. 29. FORMS OF HEADINGS <ul><li>Single Noun Headings : broad fields of knowledge and concrete objects are represented by headings consisting of a single noun </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Chemistry; Education; Law; Books; Rocks; Water; etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When a noun has more than one meaning, a qualifier is added in parentheses to limit the heading to one subject or concept, e.g., Bridge (Game) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Compound Headings : heading consists of two nouns or noun phrases connected by the word and <ul><li>1.     To connect topics or concepts which are usually treated together in books, e.g., Skis and skiing; Clans and clan system; Cliff dwellers and cliff dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>2.     To connect opposite subjects that are usually treated together in books, e.g., Open and closed shop </li></ul><ul><li>3. To express a relationship bet ween two concepts or things, e.g., Church and education; Medicine and reügion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Adjective-with-Noun Headings : e.g., English language; Space flight; Ground effect machines; College students; e.g., Chemistry, Physical and theoretical
  32. 32. CROSS REFERENCES <ul><li>Specific See References </li></ul><ul><li>These refer the user from terms that are not used as headings to those that are. In the Sears list, instruction for making see references is given after the heading. The symbol x means that see references are to be made from the terms that follow to the heading immediately above it, e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence Art, Modern </li></ul><ul><li>x Teen age x Modern art </li></ul><ul><li>Teen age. Modern art </li></ul><ul><li>See Adolescence . See Art, Modern </li></ul>
  33. 33. Specific See also References <ul><li>A see also reference connects a heading to another related heading or headings. Before making the reference, the cataloger should ascertain whether the library has material listed under both headings. The see also references are made for two purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>(l) to refer from a general subject to more specific parts of it, and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) to refer from a subject to a related subject of more or less equal specificity. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees Honey </li></ul><ul><li>See also Honey see also Bees </li></ul><ul><li>xx Honey; Insects xx Bees </li></ul>
  34. 34. SUBDIVISIONS <ul><li>Different Types </li></ul><ul><li>subject or topical; </li></ul><ul><li>form; </li></ul><ul><li>period or chronological; </li></ul><ul><li>place, local, or geographic </li></ul>
  35. 35. Subject or Topical Subdivisions <ul><li>A subject or topical subdivision added to a main heading brings out a special aspect or characteristic of the general subject, e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>English language—Business English </li></ul><ul><li>English language—Dialects English language— </li></ul><ul><li>Etymology Education—Curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Education—Finance </li></ul>
  36. 36. Form Subdivisions <ul><li>1. Physical or Bibliographic form </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry-Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Library science-Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads—Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Space sciences—Periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Represent the authors point of view or approach to the subject e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Economics—History </li></ul><ul><li>Science—Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Gold- Law and legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Library science-Study and teaching </li></ul>
  37. 37. Bibliography <ul><li>also names of persons, places and subjects with the subdivision Bibliography, e.g., Shakespeare, William— Bibliography; U.S.—Bibliography; </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture— Bibliography; etc. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Period or Chronological Subdivisions <ul><li>National history lends itself to chronological treatment . The period sub­divisions appear as sub-subdivisions under the subdivision— History. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.—History — Colonial period, 1600-1775 </li></ul><ul><li>— King William's War, 1689-1697 —Revolution, 1775-1783 —Civil War, 1861-1865 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan—History—To 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>— 1868-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>— Allied occupation, 1945-1952 </li></ul><ul><li>— 1952- </li></ul>
  39. 39. Place, Local, or Geographic Subdivisions <ul><li>Flowers—U.S. Flowers—Hawaii Flowers—Honolulu </li></ul><ul><li>Folk art (May subdiv. geog. adjective form, e.g., Folk art, Swedish; etc.) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Test <ul><li>Women in Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Unicef Annual Report 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bharat Ratnas </li></ul><ul><li>Special non vegetarian </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers Biographical Dictionary of Women </li></ul>
  41. 41. Test Answers <ul><li>Women in Politics </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN-POLITICAL ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Unicef Annual Report 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED NATIONS ANNUAL REPORT 2000- PERIODICALS </li></ul><ul><li>Bharat Ratnas </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA-BIOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Special non vegetarian </li></ul><ul><li>COOKING-NONVEGETABLES </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers Biographical Dictionary of Women </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN-BIOGRAPHY-DICTIONARIES </li></ul>
  42. 42. Test <ul><li>Table Tennis the skills of the Game </li></ul><ul><li>McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Computer </li></ul><ul><li>UGC Model Curriculum: Botany </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary of Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook of Leprosy </li></ul>
  43. 43. Test Answers <ul><li>Table Tennis the skills of the Game </li></ul><ul><li>- TABLE TENNIS </li></ul><ul><li>McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Computer </li></ul><ul><li>- Computer SCIENCE- DICTIONARIES </li></ul><ul><li>UGC Model Curriculum: Botany </li></ul><ul><li>- BOTANY-CURRICULA </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary of Economics </li></ul><ul><li>- ECONOMICS-DICTIONARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook of Leprosy </li></ul><ul><li>- LEPROSY-HANDBOOKS, MANUALS, ETC </li></ul>
  44. 44. Subject Headings for Biography <ul><li>Individual biography </li></ul><ul><li>A biography of Robert F. Kênnëdy </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968—Biography. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective biography </li></ul><ul><li>General biography : not limited to any geographic area or subject or a particular class of people </li></ul><ul><li>Webster's Biographical Dictionary or International Who's Who, the heading Biography—Dictiortaries </li></ul><ul><li>Local Biograghy : contains lives of people from a particular geographic area or a specific'ethrtic group, e.g.V/ho's Who in Australia, and Canadian Who's Who, the subject heading is in the form of the geographic or ethnic name with the subdivision — Biography or —Biography—Dictionaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Australia—Biography—Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Canada—Biography—Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks—Biography </li></ul>
  45. 45. Subject Headings for Literature <ul><li>Literature (with or without subdivisions depending on the scope) </li></ul><ul><li>American literature (use English literature as the pattern for subdivisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul><ul><li>German drama—History and criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Essay </li></ul><ul><li>French essays—History and criticism </li></ul>
  46. 46. Thank You