Pre-Thesis Document


Published on

The idea and research behind the thesis project I am working to complete for MArch in Spring 2009.

Published in: Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pre-Thesis Document

  1. 1. BACKFILL: Sarah Diericxa project in fulfilment of the MArch requirements atUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Arijit Sen chair Christine Scott Thomson committee member Don Hanlon committee member 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. introductionBACKFILL:a mke alley transformation 3
  4. 4. BACKFILL: “Density is most appropriate in areas that are already developed—those that T have jobs and services within walking his project proposes a transformation distance or that are accessible by transit” to a Milwaukee urban neighborhood (Campoli, 26). The site was chosen as a by adding density via developing a typical but already utilized alley, so as the previously ignored area—the alley. By thought process could act as a catalyst bringing a pedestrian scale street life, for development throughout the city. including housing/rental units, office This area of Milwaukee is within walking spaces, public and private gardens, etc., distance of UWM. Many students and into the former purely utilitarian alley, professors make the trip by foot or bicycle the neighborhood will become more each day. This site is located near the walkable and interactive. With the city-wide bike trail and the Milwaukee foreseen exponential population growth, County Transit System (MCTS) Bus. The cities will have to grow inward in order #15 bus is less than two blocks from to save precious land and resources. the site, and it provides easy access to Developing the alley will add a second Bayshore and Downtown, where it can layer of street life, a neighborhood within link to a bus anywhere in Milwaukee. the neighborhood. The new population Many services exist on that same bus body will be utilizing interstitial space and line, including: grocery, pharmacy, can be plugged into an already existing movie rental, laundry, etc. Though the grid. There is a lot of useful space wasted bus provides a transportation option, by typical structures we use for garages the Milwaukee system is not the most and storage. The alley will become a reliable. The schedule isn’t prompt and lively social space by developing these harsh Wisconsin winters make for bus derelict garages into structures that will stop waits to be very inconvenient since4 house new residents and activities. most do not provide shelter. The UWM
  5. 5. campus also encourages car sharing. cars and pedestrians, the “in-between” life within each block. This method addsCurrently, UW-Milwaukee is a participant zones that are neither public nor private, density on an as needed basis, as opposedin the Zipcar car-sharing program. This and the cultural landscape that the to the many condo buildings sitting emptyprogram makes it simple to check out a alley forms. Utilitarian lifelines still must in other areas of for the day to run your errands, go to exist within the new public realm. Thebusiness meetings, or any other trip that necessary services such as parking and The densest cities in the United Statescannot be made on bicycle or via public trash removal cannot go away or be are also, not by coincidence, the citiestransportation. Users can log on via the moved elsewhere. A challenge exists to with the best public transportationinternet and check out a car, find the combine them in a graceful way with the systems and the ones that appear mostcar in its reserved parking space, swipe new public, social functions of the alley. frequently on the United States Greentheir ID badge, it unlocks and off they Building Council’s (USGBC) green city lists.go. To return the car they simply park it Developing the alley will demonstrate the Dwellers of dense cities also use fewerand lock it with their ID badge. With the importance of utilizing everyday spaces resources. Adding density at a smallerintroduction of more people in the area, we usually ignore or deem unsightly as scale, the alley, is less daunting and canthe program could potentially expand to our population grows and we seek to reap similar benefits. The alleys aroundprovide for the area. preserve our resources. Concentrating UWM are already used by pedestrians as a growth to the center of the city by filling in short cut while getting to the bus system,Dense living is most fruitful when it is interstitial spaces combats urban sprawl school or work. The development of thisdesigned well and cared for (Campoli). and saves on resources like land and fuel. alley will increase density in an area thatBy blurring the boundaries between front Making these spaces pedestrian and can not only support it, but benefit fromand back, the proposed interventions will bicycle friendly will encourage people to it.infuse a sense of pride and street life to consume less and interact more. Addingthe alley, making it a place where users ancillary units to the back of propertieswill maintain the area as if it were their provides a method by which to add densityfront yard. These interventions will also to the city without changing the urbanaddress the coexistence of utilitarian and fabric that people are comfortable with. 5social functions, the relationship between It will also create another layer of street
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. site investigationBACKFILL:context + demographics 7
  8. 8. SITE CRITERIA: CAMBRIDGE HEIGHTS DEMOGRAPHICS: NEIGHBORHOOD: When picking a site for this project I The site chosen is located four blocks CITY: West of The University of Wisconsin- Population: 573,358 developed a set of standards the site Milwaukee campus. It is situated one Median Age: 30.52 must meet. This should be in a typical block east of the Milwaukee River and Avg Income: $47,438 Milwaukee neighborhood that is close to public transportation, a job market, several blocks west of Lake Michigan. and commerce. NEIGHBORHOOD: This is a working class neighborhood. Population: 33,839 Sixty-six percent of the neighborhood Median Age: 27.1 was built before 1940. When UWM was Avg Income: $40,788 established in 1956 this neighborhood Minority: 13% did not grow to accommodate a greater Density: 9,540 people/sq. mi. population. Some of the houses have been adapted into two story flats for HOUSEHOLDS: 15,634 student rental units, but the urban fabric remains the same. This could be 39%-Famlies: 6,115 due to individual ownership or zoning regulations. 61%-Non Fam: 9,518 20%-w/ Kids: 3,1258
  9. 9. Unive Wiscon rsity of sin-Milw aukeeSITE LOCATION: t d Busin ess Distric Shorewoo Oa kla nd Av e Cambridge Woods Park #15 bus e to Downtown MKE Av rd rtf o 9 Ha Milwaukee Bike Path
  10. 10. PROXIMITY TO AMENITIES: WALKABLE DISTANCES: This map shows the necessary This map illustrates the general rule of neighborhood amenities such as: 1/4 mile walking distances. Each amenity grocery stores, bars, coffee shops, is denoted by a circle with a 1/4 mile restaurants, parks, medical facilities, radius. Each circle that intersects with schools and places of worship. A thriving the site is filled in with color, noting the neighborhood should be close to all of walkable amenities. these amenities.10
  11. 11. GroceryBarCoffee ShopDiningParksHospitalSchoolChurch 11
  12. 12. TRANSPORTATION: This site is located near the city-wide bike trail and the Milwaukee County Transit System (MCTS) Bus. These methods of transportation connect you to the city and beyond. These methods are, however, seasonal, since most bus stops do not provide shelter. Also, there is much room for improvement in the MCTS Bus system. Currently, UW-Milwaukee is a participant in the Zipcar car-sharing program. This program makes it simple to check out a car for the day to run your errands, go to business meetings, or any other trip that cannot be made on bicycle or via public transportation. Users can log on via the internet and check out a car, find the car in its reserved parking space, swipe their ID badge, it unlocks and off they go. To return the car they simply park it and lock it with their ID badge. Future plans for Milwaukee include a light rail system, which will more effectively and conveniently allow users to use public transportation.12
  13. 13. LEVELS OF CONTROL:This site has a diverse set of ownersand users. For changes to be made,levels of control must be considered.These exist at the city level (for alleypavement, lights, trash pickup, etc), thehomeowner level (for yard maintenanceand construction), and the renter (whooccupies and uses the site). OWNER OCCUPIED RENTAL 13
  14. 14. FIGURE GROUND:14
  15. 15. FIGURE GROUND: 15
  17. 17. panoramic images ofNorth Bartlett St. 17
  18. 18. STREET LIFE: Single Family- 2 story residence Single Family- 3 story residence Multi- Family- 3-Entry denoted with roof plane. -Entry denoted with roof plane. -Two entries.-Porch as privacy barrier. -Porch as privacy barrier. -Porch as privacy barrier. -3rd story single aperture. -2nd story porch acts as anot -3rd story single aperture.18
  19. 19. 3 story residence Multi- Family- condo building THIRD STORY attic space, usually used for storage instead of living. denoted by different aperture method and change of materials. SECOND STORY main living area, family rooms and bedrooms. in the case of multi-family unit it is a completely separate unit. GROUND FLOOR fully residential living space. porch serves as a privacy buffer between the home and the street. -Two entries. -Half story stairs as privacy barrier.other layer of street life + interaction. -Small 2nd story porch puts eyes on street. -3Differnt roof line. 19
  20. 20. INBETWEEN LIFE: Three types of outdoor activities happen The interventions in this project increase between buildings and, specifically, in all of these uses. Bringing additional this alley. living and conditions to the back side of the house will increase necessary 1. NECESSARY ACTIVITIES: activities. Optional and social activities going to school/work, trash, parking will be increased through the addition of social and public spaces. 2. OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES: taking a walk, enjoying life, relaxing, recreation 3. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES: depend on presence of public space, conversations, gardens, balconies etc. (Gehl)20
  21. 21. PORCH APPROACH PED. PATH CANOPY BARRIER STREETa visually public, a zone between also known as the a non-physical a natural line the most publicbut private zone the pedestrian path sidewalk, this is spatial boundary that separates realm wherebetween inside and the porch that the public realm, that is created automobile traffic travel speed isand out denotes acts as a filtering yet it is under the by the roof line. from pedestrian higher and visualthe entry. device between surveillance of the and the underside traffic. It also privacy is low. public and private inhabitants of the of the trees. It defines a change 21 private. differentiates the in speed between scale between the the two. street and sidewalk
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. EXISTING CONDITIONS: existing garbage conditions28
  29. 29. EXISTING CONDITIONS: existing parking conditions 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. precedentsBACKFILL:comparative works 31
  32. 32. SMART GROWTH: Smart Growth is an urban design Portland, Oregon is a good example of strategy that combats urban sprawl. Its a city that is practicing the principles of Milwaukee could benefit from smart major agenda is to concentrate growth smart growth. The City of Portland has growth. Adding density to interstitial in the center of the city and set limits drawn a physical line that urban sprawl spaces would increase the population to for outward sprawl. This idea advocates cannot cross. As a result they have support things like better transit systems dense, transit dependent, pedestrian one of the most user friendly public while maintaining the urban fabric that and bicycle friendly developments. transportation systems including buses, people are comfortable with. In order for this idea to work, the light rail, and street cars. Portland is also developments must possess a unique well known for being very bicycle and sense of community and place. There pedestrian friendly. must be a wide range of employment -source: www. and housing choices.32
  33. 33. CHINATOWN ALEY:This painting by CP Nelson, 1896,shows San Francisco’s Chinatown alleys.Pedestrians utilized the space as passageways, and residents built garden andpatio units onto their homes. Fig 6 Chinatown Alley 33
  34. 34. MVRDV: WOZOCO: “The Netherlands is reputed to have This project addresses the ideas of This particular project is in reaction to the highest average population density adding density to a restricted space, the huge density increases the Nether- in the world though it is increasingly which is directly related to this project lands are undergoing. These increases becoming distributed in low density are threatening the surrounding green suburban areas threatening to transform spaces. the country into a sort of city state. The architects’ bureau MVRDV and students “To still provide adequate sunlight into at Delft University have sought to the surrounding only 87 of the 100 units remedy this situation by proposing areas could be realized within the block. Where of ultra-density inserted into pastoral could the remaining 13 dwellings be landscapes.” positioned? If they were put elsewhere -SOURCE: on the site, the open space would be further reduced” ( Although Milwaukee is nowhere as MVRDV cantilevered the remainder of dense as the Netherlands, many of the the units from the north facade. issues MVRDV discuss and address in their designs are relevant to this thesis. Density is a recurring theme within MVRDV’s works and this project proposes bringing a more dense condition to an existing urban environment.34 Fig 1.1
  35. 35. Fig 1.12 Fig 1.3 Land restrictions are avoided mycleverly cantilevering extra spaces off of the building. 35
  36. 36. DIDDEN VILLAGE: Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2007 This project is a rooftop house extension. A separate living quarter is placed atop an existing house. They are positioned to appear as a separate “mini- neighborhood” apart from the original. The creation of a supplemental neighborhood or street life is something this thesis hopes to achieve. Rooftop life, here, can be compared to alley life. The blue coating is meant to give the appearance of a “new heaven”. Perhaps a universal materiality can denote a new street in the alley project. Fig 2.1 materiality calls out difference between previously existing and new development.36
  37. 37. Fig 2.2 Rooftop: a usually ignored space, built on to increase neighborhood density. Fig 2.3view from inside 37
  38. 38. MOSHE SAFDIE: HABITAT ‘67: This building provides its dense While a student at McGill University Though on a much larger scale, this population with pedestrian streets, in the beginning of the 1960’s Moshe project addresses a solution for a dense terraces, large plazas, and a sense of Safdie developed an urban and three- population. It provides functional place. dimensional housing concept rallying pedestrian streets, which is something the “single family dwelling” in an my thesis will focus on. - 15 models varying between 1 and 8 cubes adaptable form to density. - Views on 3 sides and landscaped terraces -SOURCE: - Areas from 624 to 5000 sq ft, displayed over 1,2,3 or 4 floors - Private terraces from 225 to 1000 sq ft - Possibility to add a solarium - 6 elevators - Sidewalks at various levels giving access to residences - Central heating and air conditioning - Excellent soundproofing. Fig 3.1 Levels of terraces and pedestrian pathways create layers of interaction.38
  39. 39. Fig 3.2A high level of density in a very small area. 39
  40. 40. PATTERNS OF DENSITY: STACK ‘EM + PACK ‘EM GREEN INFASTRUCTURE Visualizing Density, by Julie Campoli and Mass-Produced Architecture can be A connection to the natural environment Alex MacLean, discusses the different oppressive. Also, when the majority is important in pedestrian-scaled places. patterns in which density occurs. The of the lot size is occupied by building it These buildings were laid out around following are specific patterns I found creates a sense of crowding. a network of shared and private green relevant to this thesis, either as a means spaces. to mimic their ideas, or things to avoid. Fig 4.1 Las Vegas Development Fig 4.2 (Far Right) Camden, New Jersey40
  41. 41. CANOPY: PRIVACY: GRANNY FLATS:The book states that “Establishing a Privacy can be achieved in more creative “One simple way to add density to acanopy of large trees is the single most ways than just fencing each lot. By using neighborhood is to build accessory unitseffective way to improve the physical adjacent buildings and vegetation as in the back of the lots or above garages...quality of a neighborhood street.” permanent or temporary screens, more Although it retains the character of aAlthough the top picture seems boring interest is created. single-family neighborhood, most lotsand monotonous, as time goes on the have two units rather than one.”canopy will grow and that feeling willdiminish.Fig 4.3 Fig 4.5 Longview Washington Longmont, Colorado Fig 4.4 Longmont, Colorado 41
  42. 42. SANTIAGO CIRUGEDA: URBAN REFUGE: URBAN PRESCRIPTOINS “One of his strategies, Urban Refuge, is to use temporary licenses to create Located in Seville, Spain, this more permanent installations-- project addresses the idea of filling for instance obtaining a permit to in the interstitial spaces to add erect scaffolding to do repairs or density. Though the city prohibited maintenance and then occupying the construction in this area, the architect new structure as an addition to the obtained a permit to erect scaffolding building.” for maintenance and then built a -SOURCE: Flexible Architecture [104] habitable space into the scaffold. This process reminded me of growth in India [see right] Fig 5 Urban Refuge42
  43. 43. INDIAN STREETCONDITION:India has been adapting to increas-ing density for centuries. During IndiaStudio with Professor Manu Sobti inthe spring 2008 semester, we discussedhow the city evolved outward as a se-ries of thick edges. It was easy to legallybuild an addition to a building if it wasa closet. Since closet was never definedspecifically, in India you will frequentlysee rooms cantilevered off the oldbuilding structures. 43
  44. 44. STEFAN EBERSTADT: RUCKSACK HOUSE: “Rucksack House is a walk-in sculpture with its own spatial quality. Since this house is a prototypical A hovering illuminated space that piece that is meant to be added to looks like a cross between temporary a found space, adding density, it scaffolding and minimal sculpture. As directly relates to this thesis project mobile as a rucksack, this mini-house using the found space of the alley to is intended to be an additional room add density. that can be suspended from the Fig 7.1-7.3 façade of any residential building.” Rucksack House in Context -SOURCE: www.convertiblecity.de44
  45. 45. LOT-EK: GUZMAN HOUSE: Again, this house uses found space as its site. Developing these found, ignored and in between spaces is the basis of this thesis argument. Fig 8.1 Guzman House Atop City Buildings. Fig 8.2 Guzman House G 45
  46. 46. THE PEARL: A district of Portland. Oregon, this area The way Portland’s transportation has had much growth over the past and pedestrian life functions is a huge decade. Visualizing Density cites this area inspiration for this project. Milwaukee as a great model for density well done. It has great potential to be not only has grown inward and not outward. bicycle friendly, but have a greet quality to pedestrian street life. By adding “The Pearl was created with a vision of more density in undeveloped/ignored it becoming a pedestrian environment. areas, there is an opportunity for The Pearl is laid out on an easy grid of public transportation to grow and be numbered streets running north to south sustained. and named streets are in alphabetical order and run east to west. The Portland Streetcar connects the RiverPlace area and the Nob Hill business district. Portland is the most bicycle friendly town in America. Bike racks, bike lanes, and bike safety are all top priorities in the City and in the Pearl District.” -SOURCE:www.explorethepearl.com46
  47. 47. Fig 9.1 [top left]Overlap zones: between residentialliving and sidewalk.Fig 9.2 [top right]Interactive pedestrian paths.Creation of an interestingpedestrian scaled path createsinterest and sense of place.Fig 9.3 [left]Public Transportation andoverlap zone. 47
  48. 48. ALLEY TRANSFORMATIONS: Endangered Landscapes: Residential Alley Transformations by Michael Martin discusses they alley, its decline, and the cultural story it tells. Alleys are used as purely functional spaces, and therefore are unintentional cultural story tellers. “One of the inherent adaptability of the alley is to suit any number of contemporary needs, which will always be an archaic alley’s fateful virtue” (Martin). Fig 10.1 Typical Alley Situation48
  49. 49. ALLEY TRANSFORMATIONS:“An alley is both the back side and theinside of the neighborhood” (Martin).The alley does not need only to be aplace where service necessities aremet, but can also be a strong pedestriancore.This article looks at the differentconditions that currently exist in city’salleys. It suggests that alleys are capableof much adaptation, and should evolvefor the future needs of the inhabitants.These concepts can be applied as thepopulation of the alley increases and itsfunctions must transform from being aback side to a front side. Fig 10.2 Typical Alley Meets Multifunctional Alley. Fig 10.3 [far right] Lived in Alley 49
  50. 50. CHICAGO: GREEN ALLEY HANDBOOK: Addressed Categories: The city of Chicago has more alleys than -Stormwater Management any other city in the world. The city also - Heat Reduction has a plan to become the greenest city - Material Recycling in America, included in this is a set of - Energy Conservation and Glare designs for its alleys. Reduction50
  51. 51. Fig 11Before and After incorporation of green alley principles, Chicago. 51
  52. 52. ALLEY DRAINAGE: PERMEABLE PAVEMENT: Following are some of the principles The way water is shed, stored and Will be incorporated in this project. included in Chicago’s Green Alley handled is should be considered. Handbook. These are principles that will be incorporated in this project. Fig’s 12. Green Alley Handbook Illustrations52
  53. 53. HIGH ALBEDO PAVEMENT: DARK SKY LIGHTS: RAIN COLLECTION:Reflects heat instead of absorbing it, Reduces light pollution and glare. Less Will be incorporated into my design,this will make for a more comfortable glare is important for facial recognition shown here as a rain barrel or a rainpedestrian environment. and other safety issues. garden. 53
  54. 54. EIGHTYSEVEN GARDEN HUT: ARCHITECTS: This small building responds to seasonal The Garden Hut is one of Eightyseven changes, the walls slide and fold to open Architects’ more modest projects. It is up during the summer months and built in Crilles, Spain from renewable close off during the winter months. It resources, hardwood, rusted metal and has a sculptural character and is a small glass. building type suited for an alley. Fig 13 Garden Hut54
  55. 55. PATKAU LA PETITE MAISON DUARCHITECTS: WEEKEND:“La Petite Maison du Weekend is The idea of minimal dwelling isa prototype self-sufficient minimal something that this alley project willdwelling. It can be relocated to virtually address. Adding density to such a smallany outdoor site, where it will provide space will require its inhabitants to live inthe basics for everyday life: sleeping for a smaller space. Also, sustainable idealstwo, kitchen, shower, and composting about generating its own electricitytoilet. Made of a variety of materials and rainwater distribution will beand premanufactured components, it addressed.generates its own electricity, collectsand distributes rainwater, and compostshuman waste using only the naturaldynamics of the site.The project was constructed in 1998 forthe Fabrications Exhibition at the WexnerCenter for the Arts, in Columbus, Ohio” Fig 14 Weekend House, Flexible Architecture 55
  56. 56. MH COOPERATIVE: SUMMER CONTAINER: This project is part of a series of A functional, minimal housing unit-- experimental projects. They argue that when the unit is folded up it is only 9’- such small projects are required to carry 3”- 6’-6”! This unit is derived by ideas of theoretical weight. minimal housing which were started by CIAM in 1929. Fig 15 Summer Container illustrates how the built environment can adapt over the course of the day or season.56
  57. 57. ROCIO ROMERO: FISH CAMP: Another minimal living precedent. Fish camp is a weekend home for a fisherman. The interior has the capability to be configured as a living space, kitchenette, or bedroom. This kind of flexibility is something this thesis will achieve for the potential tenants of these small units. Fig 16 Fish Camp Exterior and Interior 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. programBACKFILL:site development + usage 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. PROGRAM: B. INTERVENTION TYPES C. Considerations 1.Housing: Adds density to neighborhood. 1. Uses through dayA. Starting Point: Site Evaluation Creates neighborhood inside existing 2. Seasonal Adaptation neighborhood. 3. Site position and relationships 1. 41 Garages a. RENTAL UNIT 4. Maintaining service functions 2. 20,000 TOTAL SF b. MOTHER IN-LAW UNIT (i.e. parking/trash) 3. Average: 450 SF each 5. Materiality 2. Work: Reduces resources and time spent on travel. Brings user life to alley “street” a. HOME OFFICE b. ARTIST STUDIO 3. Commerce: Creates a more public/ pedestrian realm. a. STOREFRONT b. SERVICE 4. Entertainment a. CLUB HOUSE b. COMMUNITY FACILITY 5. Storage: Function that needs to coexist with interventions. a. CAR STORAGE b. LAWN STORAGE 6. Services: Vital function that needs to coexist with development. 61
  62. 62. HOUSING: A. RENTAL UNIT (1-2 stories) Adding additional housing units behind 1. Square Footage: Average Studio existing one is a simple way to increase Apartment 300-600 sf density and keep the original character of 2. Spaces/Components the neighborhood street. It also creates A. LIVING ROOM another neighborhood street, the alley. B. BEDROOM This method creates a new neighborhood C. OFFICE inside existing neighborhood. -murphy bed/futon -entertainment/media -desk -dining table -wardrobe -washer/dryer? D. BATHROOM -sink -toilet -shower E. KITCHENETTE -fridge -stove -sink -cupboards F. STORAGE -bike -clothing -misc. 3. Spatial Attributes Fig 17.1 a. front side toward alley 450 sf studio apartment. b. bicycle storage c. studio- “one room living” 4. Exterior Condition a. solar array b. water collection c. daylighting62
  63. 63. B. MOTHER IN-LAW UNIT(1-2 stories)1. Square Footage: 600 sf2. Spaces/Components A. LIVING ROOM -seating -entertainment -desk -washer/dryer? B. BEDROOM -bed -wardrobe C. DINING -table/seating D. BATHROOM -sink -toilet -shower/tub E. KITCHEN -fridge -stove -sink -cupboards F. STORAGE -bike -car? Fig 17.2 -lawn -misc. 530 sf garage w/ 500 sf apartment above3. Spatial Attributes a. back side toward alley b. “outdoor room” mutual yard space w/ house c. living/dining convertible for entertaining4. Exterior Condition a. solar array b. water collection c. daylighting 63
  64. 64. WORK: A. HOME OFFICE (1-2 stories) 1. Square Footage: 450 sf B. ARTIST STUDIO (1-2 stories) 1. Square Footage: 350 sf Adding workspace to the alley reduces 2. Spaces/Components 2. Spaces/Components resources and time spent on travel. A. OFFICE A. INTERIOR WORKSPACE Brings user life to alley “street” -desk -seating -seating -work surface -waiting area -pin-up space D. BATHROOM B. BATHROOM -sink -toilet -sink -toilet E. KITCHENETTE F. STORAGE -fridge -stove -supplies -printing -sink -cupboards facilities? F. STORAGE 3. Spatial Attributes -files -media station? a. front side toward alley 3. Spatial Attributes b. high ceilings a. front side toward alley c. lighting- work + spot b. consider night time uses d. potential for storefront c. outdoor waiting area area or gallery display. d. parking space? (operable walls) e. escape from home chaos- e. outdoor room- exterior work visual barrier? space? 4. Exterior Condition 4. Exterior Condition a. solar array a. solar array b. water collection b. water collection c. daylighting c. daylighting d. signage? d. rooftop access? e. consider interaction with home64
  65. 65. COMMERCE: A. STOREFRONT (1 story) 1. Square Footage: 400 sf B. SERVICE (1-2 stories) 1. Square Footage: 450 sf Adding commercial units to the alley 2. Spaces/Components 2. Spaces/Componentswill bring pedestrian traffic to the alley, A. GENERIC WORKSPACE A. INTERIOR WORKSPACEcreating a new public realm. It will also -work surface -seating -work surfacehelp create a neighborhood identity. -storage -storage B. BATHROOM B. BATHROOM -sink -toilet -sink -toilet C. STOREFRONT C. PUBLIC LOBBY -display spaces -desk -seating 3. Spatial Attributes -waiting area? a. front side toward alley 3. Spatial Attributes b. storefront at pedestrian level a. entrance toward alley c. carved away for pedestrian b. exterior waiting space? hangout space c. identity d. interactive? 4. Exterior Condition e. catalyst for street life a. solar array f. storefront lighting b. water collection 4. Exterior Condition c. day lighting a. solar array d. signage b. water collection e. presence in community c. daylighting d. signage e. materiality creates identity 65
  66. 66. ENTERTAINMENT: A. CLUBHOUSE (1 story) 1. Square Footage: 400 sf B. COMMUNITY FACILITY (1-2 stories) 2. Spaces/Components 1. Square Footage: 700 sf The idea that these interventions would A. LOUNGE 2. Spaces/Components have a life during all times of the day -seating A. LOUNGE is vital to the concept of creating a -entertainment center -seating neighborhood within a neighborhood. B. BATHROOM -entertainment center To achieve this, there needs to -sink -toilet B. BATHROOM be a nighttime function for these C. KITCHENETTE -sink -toilet interventions. Because the home office -fridge -stove C. SHARED KITCHEN unit would, under normal circumstances, -sink -cupboards -fridge -stove only be used during the day, the idea is 3. Spatial Attributes -sink -cupboards that it could serve a dual function as one a. front side toward alley -island of these options. b. game room D. PLAY ROOM c. quiet hangout -toys -storage d. residential night life 3. Spatial Attributes a. large kitchen for neighborhood 4. Exterior Condition to share, room for multiple people to a. materiality creates identity work at same time. b. summer time outside room b. exterior gathering space c. transformable- from organized neighborhood meetings to children’s birthday parties. d. day and nighttime uses. e. play room flexible as age group shifts. 4. Exterior Condition a. solar array b. water collection66 c. daylighting d. outdoor rooms e. presence in community
  67. 67. STORAGE: SERVICE: Currently, most structures that exist in Like storage, services will need to re-the alley are storage sheds. They house main in the new development. The al-mainly automobiles, but also overflow ley will still function as a sort of lifelinefrom the house, and lawn care tools. for the neighborhood. Parking, trashThough the alley will be developed, collection, thru-traffic, water, sewer,these needs will still remain. These electricity and other needs will remain,components are to be thought of as a they will just have to transform to fitmodule that could be added to any of within the new environment.the previous interventions.A. CAR STORAGE1. Square Footage: 100-400 sfB. YARD STORAGE1. Square Footage: 100-300 sf Fig 18 garbage collection size requirements 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. design strategyBACKFILL:methods + process 69
  70. 70. KIT OF PARTS: After evaluating the character of the PORCH: a visually public, but private zone surrounding streets, it was possible between inside and out denotes the entry. to discern a series of layers that exist. These layers address issues of public APPROACH: a zone between the pedestrian and private space. They have been path and the porch that acts as a filtering identified as: device between public and private. PEDESTRIAN PATH: also known as the sidewalk, this is the public realm, yet it is under the surveillance of the inhabitants of the private. CANOPY: a non-physical spatial boundary that is created by the roof line. and the un- derside of the trees. It differentiates the scale between the street and sidewalk. BARRIER: a natural line that separates auto- mobile traffic from pedestrian traffic. It also defines a change in speed between the two. STREET: the realm where automobile traffic is allowed and rates of speed are increased.70
  71. 71. KIT OF PARTS:From this evaluation of privacy layers,a physical kit of parts has been createdfor use in the design. COLUMNS LEVEL CHANGE SLAB CANOPY BARRIER 71
  72. 72. SITE ORIENTATION: Because typical Milwaukee lots are arranged on a north to south axis, the houses are orientated from east to west. Which is good ecological design, however, since the houses are packed together so tightly, they are unable to reap the benefits of Southern exposure. This is an opportunity that can be taken advantage of when developing the alley.72
  73. 73. SITE ORIENTATION:If the individual interventions arearranged in such a way to always behugging the north edge of the lot, it willleave open space to the south of eachstructure. This allows for the benefitsof southern exposure, day lighting andpassive solar gain, while still addingdensity to the area. 73
  74. 74. SHADOW STUDY: Because the typical orientation of Milwaukee’s houses are on the East- West Axis, and they are butted up closely against each other, there is no potential to harness southern light unless on a corner lot. There exists a potential for development in the farther spaced interventions of the alley. By creating exterior rooms between interventions, the southern light can be utilized. 3-4 story building types cast shadow over a large portion of yard space. 1-2 story building types cast enough shadow to provide necessary shade, and allow sunlight into yard also.74
  75. 75. JUNE: SEPTEMBER: DECEMBER:8 amnoon6 pm 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. DESIGN STRATEGY:First, a master plan for the alley will After the master planning phase, The master plan and intervention designbe created. The main goal of this will individual interventions will be should work together to produce a sensebe to create a sense of place and an designed. These interventions will of community that fosters an active streetactive street life. The carving away of follow the categories of work, live, and life with many layers of interaction.private space to create public communal play. The categories established in thespace will blur the boundary between program section were housing, work,public and private to increase social and entertainment. The individualinteraction within the alley. Increased interventions should spur an active streetsocial interaction will then put users in life. This is why it is necessary for them tothe alley and “eyes on the street (alley)” have activities that span all times of theto make it a safer public environment. day and all seasons. Units used for home offices during the day should doubleUtilitarian lifelines still must exist within as a clubhouse or homework space atthe new public realm. Services such as night. An artist studio should have theparking and trash removal cannot go potential to convert into a gallery spaceaway or be moved elsewhere. A challenge to host gallery nights when the artist hasexists to combine them in a graceful way something to show. Units that includewith the new public, social functions of outdoor porches should have a methodthe alley. for winterization or better yet, be able to be used during the treacherous winter months. Snow removal should also be considered when designing these units. 77
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. creditsBACKFILL:citations 79
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. FIGURES CITED:82
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Behnisch, Stefan, G. Behnisch, and G. Schaller. Behnisch, Behnish and Partner. New York: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2004. Bentley, Ian. Responsive Environments. Boston: Elsevier Science & Technology, 1985. Campoli, Julie, and Alex S. MacLean. Visualizing Density. Annapolis: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2007. City of Madison. “Zoning Rewrite.” City of Madison, Wisconsin. 4 Nov. 2008 < dex.cfm>. Corner, James. Landscape Urbanism : A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. New York: Princeton Architectural P, 2004. Daley, Richard M. The Chicago Green Alley Handbook. Comp. Chicago DOT. Dixon, David. Reinventing the Urban Village. AIA. Powerpoint Lecture. 10 Feb. 2006. AIA Grassroots. 18 Oct. 2008 < siteobjects/files/reinvent_urban_village.pdf>. “Erie Street Plaza Design Competition.” Department of City Development. City of Milwaukee. 11 Oct. 2008 < ning/erieplaza/>. Garmory, Nicola, and Rachel Tennant. Spaced Out : A Guide to Best Contemporary Urban Spaces in the UK. New York: Architectural P, 2005. Gehl, Jan. Life Between Buildings : Using Public Space. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 1987. Gewertz, Ken. “What makes a city thrive?” Harvard Gazette Archives. 05 Feb. 2004. Harvard University Gazette. 11 Oct. 2008 <http://>. Girling, Cynthia, and Ronald Kellett. Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods : Design for Environment and Community. New York: Island P, 2005. Glazer, Nathan, and Mark Lilla. The Public Face of Architecture : Civic Culture and Public Spaces. New York: Free P, 1987. Holl, Steven. Intertwining. New York: Princeton Architectural P, 1996. Jarmusch, Ann. “Making Density Work.” The San Diego Union-Tribune 26 Sept. 2004. 26 Sept. 2004. The Sandiego84 Union-Tribune. 11 Oct. 2008 <>.
  85. 85. Jonasrisen. “’Community Greens’:Greening Baltimore’s Alleys.” Green Line Blog. 18 Sept. 2008 <>.Kronenburg, David, and Robert Kronenburg. Flexible Architecture : Architecture that Responds to Change. Grand Rapids: Laurence King,2007.Macdonald, Elizabeth. “Wasted Space/Potential Place: Reconsidering Urban Streets.” Places 19 (2007): 22-27.Martin, Michael. “Endangered Landscapes: Residential Alley Transformations.” APT Bulletin, Managing Cultural Landscapes 31 (2000): 39-45.Owen, David. “Green Manhattan.” The New Yorker 18 Oct. 2004: 111.Power, Matt. “Urban Living Is Kinder to the Planet Than the Suburban Lifestyle.” WIRED 19 May 2008. Urban Living Is Kinder to the PlanetThan the Suburban Lifestyle. Wired Magazine. 11 Oct. 2008 <>.Richardson, Phyllis. Xs : Big Ideas in Small-Scale Building. Ed. Lucas Dietrich. Grand Rapids: Universe, 2001.Slavid, Ruth. Micro : Very Small Buildings. Grand Rapids: Laurence King, 2007.Steenbergen, Clemens, and Wouter Reh. Architecture and Landscape : The Design Experiment of the Great European Gardens and Land-scapes. Grand Rapids: Prestel, 1996Tung, Gregory. “Overlap Zones in the Street Section.” 85