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  • 1. Parrots, also known as psittacines ( /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/),[2][3] are birds of the roughly 372 species in 86 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes,[4] found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three families: the Psittacidae ('true' parrots), the Cacatuidae (cockatoos) and the Strigopidae (New Zealand parrots).[5] Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is found in South America and Australasia.
  • 2. Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. The plumage of cockatoos ranges from mostly white to mostly black, with a mobile crest of feathers on the tops of their heads. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length.
  • 3. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion, while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits. Almost all parrots nest in tree hollows (or nest boxes in captivity), and lay white eggs from which hatch altricial (helpless) young.
  • 4. It is now generally assumed that the Psittaciformes, or their common ancestors with a number of related bird orders, were present somewhere in the world around the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, some 65 mya (million years ago). If so, they probably had not evolved their morphological autapomorphies yet, but were generalised arboreal birds, roughly similar (though not necessarily closely related) to today's potoos or frogmouths
  • 5. Strigopidae Other birdsPhylogentic relationship between the three parrot families based on the available literature[8][15][16]Parrot phylogeny is in flux. The classifications as presented reflect the current status, which is disputed and therefore subject to change when new studies resolve some open questions. For that reason, this classification should be treated as preliminary. The Psittaciformes comprise three main lineages: Strigopidae, Psittacidae and Cacatuidae
  • 6. The Strigopidae were considered part of the Psittacidae, but recent studies place this group of New Zealand species at the basis of the parrot tree next to the remaining members of the Psittacidae as well as all members of the Cacatuidae
  • 7. Parrots are found on all tropical and subtropical continents including Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, South Asia, Southeast Asia, southern regions of North America, South America and Africa. Some Caribbean and Pacific islands are home to endemic species. By far the greatest number of parrot species come from Australasia and South America
  • 8. A single 15 mm fragment from a large lower bill (UCMP 143274), found in deposits from the Lance Creek Formation in Niobrara County, Wyoming, had been thought to be the oldest parrot fossil and is presumed to have originated from the Late Cretaceous period, which makes it about 70 million years old.[9] There have been studies, though, that establishes that this fossil is almost certainly not from a bird, but from a caenagnathidtheropod or a non-avian dinosaur with a birdlike beak
  • 9. The subfamily Arinae encompasses all the Neotropical parrots, including the Amazons, macaws and conures, and ranges from northern Mexico and the Bahamas to Tierra del Fuego in the southern tip of South America. The pygmy parrots, subfamily Micropsittinae, form a small genus restricted to New Guinea. The subfamily Nestorinae contains three living species of aberrant parrots from New Zealand
  • 10. Extant species range in size from the Buff-faced Pygmy Parrot, at under 10 g (0.35 oz.) in weight and 8 cm (3.2 inches) in length, to the Hyacinth Macaw, at 1.0 meter (3.3 feet) in length, and the Kakapo, at 4.0 kg (8.8 lbs) in weight. Among the families, the three Strigopidae species are all large parrots, and the cockatoos tend to be large birds as well. The Psittacidae parrots are far more variable, ranging the full spectrum of sizes shown by the family
  • 11. The most obvious physical characteristic is the strong, curved, broad bill. The upper mandible is prominent, curves downward, and comes to a point. It is not fused to the skull, which allows it to move independently, and contributes to the tremendous biting pressure the birds are able to exert.
  • 12. The most obvious physical characteristic is the strong, curved, broad bill. The upper mandible is prominent, curves downward, and comes to a point. It is not fused to the skull, which allows it to move independently, and contributes to the tremendous biting pressure the birds are able to exert.
  • 13. There are numerous difficulties in studying wild parrots, as they are difficult to catch and once caught they are difficult to mark. Most wild bird studies rely on banding or wing tagging, but parrots will chew off such attachments.[26] Parrots also tend to range widely and consequently there are many gaps in knowledge of their behaviour
  • 14. Parrots have a strong, direct flight. Most species spend much of their time perched or climbing in tree canopies. They often use their bills for climbing by gripping or hooking on branches and other supports. On the ground parrots often walk with a rolling gait
  • 15. The lories and lorikeets, hanging parrots and Swift Parrot are primarily nectar and pollen consumers, and have tongues with brush tips to collect this source of food, as well as some specialised gut adaptations to accommodate this diet.[29] Many other species also consume nectar as well when it becomes available.
  • 16. Although there are a few exceptions, parrots are monogamous breeders which nest in cavities and hold no territories other than their nesting sites.[26][32] The pair bonds of the parrots and cockatoos are strong and a pair will remain close even during the non-breeding season, even if they join larger flocks. As with many birds, pair bond formation is preceded by courtship displays; these are relatively simple in the case of cockatoos
  • 17. Only the Monk Parakeet and five species of Agapornis lovebird build nests in trees,[34] and three Australian and New Zealand ground parrots nest on the ground. All other parrots and cockatoos nest in cavities, either tree hollows or cavities dug into cliffs, banks or the ground. The use of holes in cliffs is more common in the Americas
  • 18. Studies with captive birds have given insight into which birds are the most intelligent. While parrots are able to mimic human speech, studies with the African Grey Parrot have shown that some are able to associate words with their meanings and form simple sentences (see Alex and N'kisi). Along with crows, ravens, and jays (family Corvidae), parrots are considered the most intelligent of birds.
  • 19. Although most parrot species are able to imitate, some of the Amazon parrots are generally regarded as the next-best imitators and speakers of the parrot world. The question of why birds imitate remains open, but those that do often score very high on tests designed to measure problem solving ability. Wild African Grey Parrots have been observed imitating other birds.[43] Most other wild parrots have not been observed imitating other species
  • 20. The journal Animal Cognition stated that some birds preferred to work alone, while others like to work together as African Grey Parrots. With 2 parrots, they know the order of tasks or when they should do something together at once, but they have trouble to exchanging roles. By 3 parrots, there are parrot(s) which prefer to co-operate with one of the other two, but all of them are co-operating together to solve the task
  • 21. There exist a number of careers and professions devoted to parrots. Zoos and aquariums employ keepers to care for and shape the behaviour of parrots. Some veterinarians who specialise in avian medicine will treat parrots exclusively. Biologists study parrot populations in the wild and help to conserve wild populations. Aviculturalists breed and sell parrots for the pet trade
  • 22. The popularity, longevity, and intelligence of many of the larger kinds of pet parrot has led to many birds needing to be re-homed during the course of their long lifespans. A common problem is that large parrots which are cuddly and gentle as juveniles will mature into intelligent, complex, often demanding adults that can outlive their owners. Due to these problems, and the fact that homeless parrots are not euthanised like dogs and cats, parrot adoption centres and sanctuaries are becoming more common.
  • 23. The trade continues unabated in some countries. A report published in January 2007 presents a clear picture of the wild-caught parrot trade in Mexico, stating: "The majority of parrots captured in Mexico stay in the country for the domestic trade. A small percentage of this capture, 4% to 14%, is smuggled into the USA
  • 24. In ancient times and currently parrot feathers have been used in ceremonies, and for decoration. The "idea" of the parrot has been used to represent the human condition in medieval literature such as the bestiary. They also have a long history as pets.
  • 25. Several projects aimed specifically at parrot conservation have met with success. Translocation of vulnerable Kakapo, followed by intensive management and supplementary feeding, has increased the population from 50 individuals to 123.[65] In New Caledonia the Ouvea Parakeet was threatened by trapping for the pet trade and loss of habitat. Community based conservation, which eliminated the threat of poaching, has allowed the population to increase from around 600 birds in 1993 to over 2000 birds in 2009
  • 26. THANK YOU

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