MODUL BAHASA INGGRIS XI UNIT 3 Analytical Exposition
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    MODUL BAHASA INGGRIS XI UNIT 3 Analytical Exposition MODUL BAHASA INGGRIS XI UNIT 3 Analytical Exposition Document Transcript

    • MODUL PEMBELAJARAN SMA NEGERI 2 MATARAM MATA PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS KELAS XI SEMESTER I UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION MATERI POKOK WELFARE DISUSUN OLEH H.M. SARTONO, S.Pd. Pembina IV/a NIP: 196012311986011055 2009 Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 1
    • PREFACE First of all we wished to preface that in this part of Learning English Material Based ICT, SMAN 2 Mataram designed firstly English Learning Material for Senior High School grade X, XI, & XII Academic Year 2009 / 2010. They are written and designed by H.M. Sartono. Nowadays, Mastering English is a challenge for some people, this is because of the Modern Technology which accelerates the development of any field including Education. To fulfill the Standard of Competence these English Learning Materials, we have to concern with Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan as it is legitimated by Peraturan Menteri No 22 Tahun 2006 and it is applied in KTSP SMA which is elaborated completely in Syllabus Design. The main teacher's roles are as mediator and facilitator. The students and the teachers are to be active and creative . The students' activity is focused on four skills such as Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Skills. All skills enable the students to work actively, while vocabulary Mastery is given indirectly in every task and also functional skills which is available in orally that is intended to make students to be able to communicate in English orally. Then the acceleration task are implemented in every topic and section. Furthermore, in these part of design English Learning Materials in order to meet the students' needs, to offer a wide knowledge which are useful to their daily life or activity. So we can say that the students from SMAN 2 Mataram joining these materials are aware of English. And during the process of study, the students will discover something new, also encourage them to communicate in English. Finally, we would like to express our appreciation to those who have taken apart, helped and given the motivation, or supported to these designs. Hopefully, if there were some suggestions, criticisms for the improvement of these designs will be warmly appreciated. Designed by H.M. SARTONO, S.Pd Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 2
    • MAPPING CONCEPT UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION WELFARE SKILLS : 1. Listening: • Responding to agreement and disagreement • Responding to analytical exposition texts 2. Speaking: • Giving advice and warnings • Retelling a narrative text 3. Reading: • Reading analytical exposition texts 4. Writing: • Writing a analytical exposition text Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 3
    • Learning Objectives A. Oral Cycle Respond to analytical exposition monolog carefully Respond to expressions for agreement and disagreement ; Identify sentence patterns main ideas Use expressions for agreement and disagreement Developing a dialog into a longer one B. Written Cycle Respond to analytical exposition text Identify various generic structure of analytical exposition Write analytical exposition text using correct structure What is Analytical Exposition? Analytical Exposition Text Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Analytical Exposition text overview Analytical Exposition Analysis on the Generic Structure Analytical exposition is one of argumentative texts which present some supporting idea on why certain writer’s opinion is important. The opinion is formulated in a thesis which needs to prove by selecting arguments. The above example of analytical exposition about accredited school has the following generic structure: 1.Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position or it is the main topic of discourse in analytical exposition essay. Commonly the thesis will be placed in the first paragraphs. It also functionalize of introduction of the text. From the text above we see that choosing school will be wiser and safer if it is based on the status of the school; accredited or not. 2. Arguments: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position, the arguments are the heart of an analytical exposition. And t explaining he other arguments support the writer’s position more The absence of argument, analytical will just talk nothing since a thesis must be evaluated, whether it is true or false later, it does not matter. From the analytical exposition sample above, we see an accredited school graduate will hold better opportunity. Additionally choosing school based on short term interests seem to be less benefit in the end. 3. Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position or it is the writer’s thesis which is re-stated in another word. The purpose is to strengthen the thesis. we realize that choosing an accredited school is really important Language Features of Analytical Exposition those are : 1. Using relational process 2. Using internal conjunction 3. Using causal conjunction 4. Using Simple Present Tense Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 4
    • Analytical exposition is one classified type as hortatory exposition in text genre. Both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition present arguments for supporting the issued thesis. What makes them different from one to each other is the last stage of the text, which the analytical exposition will end with a re- iteration. In the other hand, hortatory will close the essay with a recommendation. Analytical exposition will try to influence the reader by presenting some arguments to prove that the writer' idea is important. Furthermore, hortatory will try to persuade the reader how should or not do concerning the writer's idea. Writing is a Great for Money Online; ( an analytical exposition text) The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. determined by the owner of the blog. They are very popular because of Blogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. There are many free Understanding Types of Text: Analytical Exposition websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also a good money to earn money online. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. For instance, you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Michael_Noto Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure Analysis Thesis; Writing is good in making money online Argument 1; blog is a potentially earning money Argumant 2; writing articles is good in earning money Conclusion; credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis Simple present tense; Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online, Writing takes some time to gain credibility, etc Causal conjunction ; because, etc Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 5
    • Is Smoking Good for Us?; Example of Analytical Exposition Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Notes on the generic structure of this example of analytical exposition As we know that both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition are classified as argumentative essay. Both present argument to support the thesis state in the orientation. This thesis places the writer’s position on the essay. From the generic structure, what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Generic Structure Analysis Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. In this example of analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 6
    • Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis; example of analytical exposition US. financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direct investment and the development of basic infrastructure. As the US. financial crisis has now spread to Europe, the oil-rich countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve, are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months, Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. That will be true if the conditions, legal and market infrastructure are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent atmen of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia, as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. (simplified from the jakartapos.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure of the above Analytical Exposition Paragraph 1 is THESIS. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the global financial crisis. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinions stated in the above thesis. Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates the thesis in another phrases to point the writer’ opinion. Listening scripts : Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Indonesia as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 7
    • A. Oral Cycle (Listening) • Respond to analytical exposition monolog carefully • Respond to expressions for agreement and disagreement ; • Identify sentence patterns main ideas Activity 1 Listen carefully to the paragraphs read by your teacher , the answer the following questions ! 1. What is the text about ? 2. Is Smoking Good for Us? 3. Are you happy to see children of smoker? Give your reason. 4. What kind of diseases caused by smoking? 5. Do you agree that Smoking however is not good for every body else ? Activity 2 You are going to listen to analytical exposition monolog. Listen carefully. Then say what is monolog text about Audio scripts Why is Learning English Important? Language is the mean of communication. Mostly groups of society have their own languages Some of them appear the top global languages. Most people in the world hear about English, Arabic, and Mandarin. However English is the most global spoken language. Then if a man wants to catch a global goal, he has to master English. Everyone recognize that English is an international language. English is used in writing and speaking by many people all over the world. It can be either as a first or second language. We even hear British, American, Australian, and even Singaporean English. Those various names of English are used as the first language in those countries. Furthermore, some countries have their own languages as a mother language but also use English mostly in daily communication. Besides usage in daily interaction, English is also used as a key to open doors leading to scientific and technical knowledge. No wonder we find manual guides and instructions of many devices written in English. Even if we have a pack of instant noodle, we will see the cooking instruction also written in English. This transfer of science and technique will include many countries in economic, social and politics development. Finally, the most easily seen in the importance of learning English is that most top requirement in filling job opportunities is the ability using English; active or passive. Job applicants who master English are more favorable than ones who do not. The above facts prove that everybody needs to learn English if he likes to greet the global era. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 8
    • Activity 3 From the analytical exposition monolog text below, analyze the generic structure and language feature, work in pairs . Global warming Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near- surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise, and is expected to increase the intensity of extreme weather events and to change the amount and pattern of precipitation. Other effects of global warming include changes in agricultural yields, trade routes, glacier retreat, species extinction and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. Remaining scientific uncertainties include the amount of warming expected in the future, and how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but there is ongoing political and public debate worldwide regarding what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences. Climate model projections summarized by the IPCC indicate that average global surface temperature will likely rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-fi rst century. The range of values results from the use of differing scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions as well as models with differing climate sensitivity. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, warming and sea level rise are expected to continue for more than a thousand years even if greenhouse gas levels are stabilized. The delay in reaching equilibrium is a result of the large heat capacity of the oceans. Taken from en.wikipedia.org Present Perfect Tense Study the following sentences. 1. The overuse of rainforests for tourist activities has led governments to pass laws restricting activities in these forests. 2. The Dain tree region in northern Queensland is one area where the government has passed laws regulating rainforests activities. 3. Unfortunately, the widespread destruction of many of the world's rainforests has caused a signifi cant decline in the number of plant and animal species on Earth. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 9
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    • ( Speaking ) • Expressing request • Expressing feeling of relief, pain, and pleasure • Responding to an analytical exposition text Activity 1 Answer these questions. 1. What do you say fulfilling your sister's request? 2. What do you say when you have a serious toothache? 3. How do you feel when your close friend gives you a bunch of flowers? Activity 2 Read the following dialogues and then answer the questions orally ! Dialogue 1 Krisna : Mom, may I ask you something? Mother : Yes, of course. What's wrong with you? Krisna : I need a lot of money to buy a text book. Mother : Okay. I'll give it to you if it is important for you. Krisna : Thank you, Mom. 1. Does Krisna's mother fulfi ll Krisna's request? Howdo you know? 2. Why does mother not refuse Krisna's request? Dialogue 2 Yenny : Den, you look pale today. What's wrong with you? Denni : I am suffering from a relapse. Yenny : What do you suffer from? Denni : I've had diarrhoea since last night. I couldn't sleep well. Yenny : I'm sorry to hear that. 1. Why did Denni look pale? 2. What did Yenny say when she heard that Denni had diarrhoea? Study the following expressions of fulfi lling request, relief, pain and pleasure. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 13
    • ( Speaking ) Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 14
    • ( Speaking ) Activity 3 Complete the following dialogue using expressions provided in the box a. By all means b. I am glad it was done c. Don't mention it d. We are excited e. I had a gastric problem f. I am happy you made a quick recovery g. It's a relief to hear that h. That's wonderful i. I am suffering from a relapse j. That's great Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 15
    • Activity 4 Work in pairs. Create a short dialogue to respond to the topic of the text. Use the expressions you have learnt. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 16
    • B. Written Cycle Reading Activity 5. Answer the question based on the text , do individually Accredited School Why is It Important to Choose the Accredited School? Most of teenagers need to go to school and there are a lot of schools over there. Nowadays, schools grow to offer plenty of choice; private and state ones. However it is a hard choice since there are many factors which need to be considered before making the selection. Some will be influenced by friends; because some friend got to certain school than we go to there too. Some prefer to choose certain school because of the closer distance. In fact, the primary decisive matter for selecting school is whether the school has been accredited or not. Why is important to choose an accredited school? Well, accredited schools have an edge over the unaccredited schools. This label of Accredited School has an impact in employment opportunities. As result, if there are two or more students with similar qualifications, the student who comes from the accredited school will have an edge over the other candidate. Student from an accredited school has more open door than student with an accredited one. Many students select certain school depending more on short term factors like friend influence and short distance from home. It is not bad since commuting actually needs much cost. Choosing school which is closer to home will save time, energy and money. However if that school is not accredited, the time and money spent along studying seems to be waste in the long term because it could become a limiting factor in gaining future opportunities. Accredited school is not the only factor which will drive student’s success. Personality and characterization are very important too. However a student with good personality who comes from an accredited school is better than the others. 1. What is the main topic of discourse in analytical exposition text ? 2. What kind of the arguments are the heart of an analytical exposition text ? 3. Do you know the absence of argument, written in the text ? 4. From the text above we see that choosing school will be wiser and safer, what does this statement explicitly meaning ? 5. What is the writer’s thesis which is re-stated in another word ? Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 17
    • Reading Activity 6. Analyze Generic Structure and Language Feature of the Text below ! Determine Thesis, Argument and Reiteration Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every students' desk, this method will help student to get better understanding. Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. That is really easy and save time and money. From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provide several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 18
    • Activity 7 Do you know how much oxygen the air is made up of? Study the following diagram. Then State whether the following statements are true or false according to the diagram Grammar Review Present Perfect Tense Study the following sentences. 1. The overuse of rainforests for tourist activities has led governments to pass laws restricting activities in these forests. 2. The Daintree region in northern Queensland is one area where the government has passed laws regulating rainforests activities. 3. Unfortunately, the widespread destruction of many of the world's rainforests has caused a signifi cant decline in the number of plant and animal species on Earth. The present perfect tense consists of have/has before the past participle form of a verb. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 19
    • Writing • write an analytical exposition text; Activity 1 The following text consists of five paragraphs, but they are not in correct order. Arrange them into a good text. 1. Many of the plants and trees that exist in this savannah occur nowhere else in the world. In Europe, the continent least affected by climate change, survival rates were better. Studies in Mexico's Chihuahua desert confirmed that on flatter land extinction was more likely because a small change in climate would require migrations over vast distances for survival. One third of 1,870 species examined would be in trouble. So many species are already destined for extinction because it takes at least 25 years for the greenhouse effect - or the trapping of the sun's rays by the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide to have its full effect on the planet. The continuous discharge of more greenhouse gases, particularly by the United States and European nations, is making matters worse. The research says that, if mankind continues to burn oil, coal and gas at the current rate, up to one third of all life forms will be doomed by 2050. 2. The research in Europe, Australia, Central and South America, and South Africa, showed that species living in mountainous areas had a greater chance of survival because they could move uphill to get cooler. Professor Thomas said: "When scientists set about research they hope to come up with definite results, but what we found we wish we had not. It was far, far worse than we thought, and what we have discovered may even be an underestimate." Among the more startling findings of the scientists was that of 24 species of butterfly studied in Australia, all but three would disappear in much of their current range, and half would become extinct. 3. In South Africa, major conservation areas such as Kruger National Park risked losing up to 60% of the species under their protection, while of 300 South African plant species studied, more than one third were expected to die out, including the national flower, the King Protean. In the Cerrito region of Brazil which covers one fifth of the country, a study of 163 tree species showed that up to 70 would become extinct. 4. The results are described as "terrifying" by Chris Thomas, professor of conservation biology at Leeds University, who is lead author of the research from four continents published last week in the magazine Nature. Much of that loss – more than one in 10 of all plants and animals Œ is already irreversible because of the extra global warming gases already discharged into the atmosphere. But the scientists say that action to curb greenhouse gases now could save many more. It took two years for the largest global collaboration of experts to make the first major assessment of the effect of climate change on six biologically rich regions of the world taking in 20% of the land surface. 5. The changing climate over the next 50 years is expected to drive a quarter of land animals and plants into extinction, according to the first comprehensive study into the effect of higher temperatures on the natural world. The scale of the disaster facing the planet shocked those involved in the research. They estimate that more than 1 million species will be lost by 2050. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 20
    • Activity 2 Answer the following questions based on the paragraphs you have just arranged 1. What is a suitable title for the text? 2. What is the topic of the text? 3. What is the main idea of each paragraph? 4. What is the conclusion of the text? Demand for beef speeds destruction of Amazon forest An international report says that last year was a very bad year for the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Satellite photographs show that almost 26,000 sq km of the world’s largest forest was lost, 40% more than the year before. The Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) says that this year’s loss could be even greater. The main reason for the loss of forest, or deforestation, is that farmers are cutting down trees so that they can produce grasslands for their cows. Brazil exports a lot of beef to Europe and Brazilian beef is very popular in Europe because there is no mad cow disease in Brazil. The CIFOR report says that EU countries now buy almost 40% of Brazil's 578,000 tones of exported beef. Egypt, Russia and Saudi Arabia import 35%. The US takes only 8%. "Beef exports are the main reason for the damage to the forest, as cattle ranchers are destroying the rainforests, "said David Kaimowitz, the director general of CIFOR. He said that logging is not a direct cause of deforestation. The number of cattle in the Amazon region increased by more than 100% to 57 million between 1990 and 2002, the report says. "[In that time] the percentage of Europe's meat imports coming from Brazil increased from 40% to 74%.la The Americans say that soya farming for the European market causes deforestation. The CIFOR report does not agree with this "Soya bean farming in the Amazon region is increasing but it only causes a small percentage of total deforestation," it says. The report says that enormous ranching operations are now controlling the beef export market. "In the 1970s and 1980s small ranchers produced most of the beef in the Amazon region. They sold it to local slaughterhouses. Now large commercial ranchers are producing the beef and selling it to European supermarkets.ls Last month the Brazilian government said it was going to spend $133 million to help to save the rainforest. This is a very positive step. Without urgent action to save the rainforest, a huge area of forest will disappear during the next 18 months. CIFOR says that the Brazilian government must stop ranchers using government land, stop building roads in the forest, and give money to people to keep land as forest. Adopted from John Vidal The Guardian Weekly Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2004 www.onestopenglish.com Activity 3 Study the text and Decide whether these sentences are true or false: 1. Logging is the main cause of deforestation. 2. Brazilian beef is not popular in Europe. 3. The US buys more Brazilian beef than the EU does. 4. Soyabean farming causes only a small percentage of deforestation. 5. In the 1970s and 1980s enormous ranching operations produced most of the beef in the Amazon region. 6. The Brazilian government is spending money to help save the rainforest. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 21
    • Activity 4 Write your responds of the following analytical exposition text that based on the questions below ! a. What are the main causes of global warming? b. How can greenhouse gases be controlled? Global warming threatens to kill off a million species Recently a group of scientists published the first comprehensive study into the effect of higher temperatures on the natural world. The scientists involved in the research were shocked by what they found. Over the next 50 years about 25% of land animals and plants will become extinct. More than 1 million species will be lost by 2050. The head of the research team, Chris Thomas, who is professor of conservation biology at Leeds University, described the results of the research as isterrifying. The loss represents more than 10% of all plants and animals and a large part of this is already irreversible because of the extra global warming gases that are already in the atmosphere. But the scientists say that immediate action to control greenhouse gases now could save many more plants and animals from extinction. The research took two years to complete and provides an assessment of the effect of climate change on six biologically rich regions of the world taking in 20% of the land surface. The research in Europe, Australia, Central and South America, and South Africa, showed that species living in mountainous areas had a better chance of survival because they could move uphill to get cooler Professor Thomas said: "When scientists start a research project they hope to produce definite results, but we wish we had not found what we found. It was much, much worse than we expected, and what we have discovered may even be an underestimate." One of the more shocking findings of the scientists was that half of the 24 species of butterfly they studied in Australia would become extinct. In South Africa, major conservation areas such as the Kruger National Park could lose up to 60% of the species under their protection, while more than one third of 300 South African plant species studied were expected to die out, including the national flower, the King Protean. A study of 163 tree species in the Cerrito region of Brazil which covers one fifth of the country, showed that up to 70 would become extinct. Many of the plants and trees that exist in this savannah occur nowhere else in the world. In Europe, the continent least affected by climate change, survival rates were better. Studies in Mexico's Chihuahua desert confirmed that extinction was more probable on flatter land because a small change in climate would mean that plants and animals would have to migrate for huge distances in order to survive. One third of the 1,870 species that were studied would be in trouble. Many species are already certain to become extinct because it takes at least 25 years for the greenhouse effect - or the trapping of the sun's rays by the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide - to have its full effect on the planet. The continuing production of more greenhouse gases, particularly by the United States and European nations, is making matters worse. The research says that, if mankind continues to burn oil, coal and gas at the current rate, up to one third of all life forms will be become extinct by 2050. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 22
    • Writing Activity 5. Fill the gaps using these key words from the text. extinct conservation irreversible species startling migration curb (verb) doomed 1. ____________ means ‚surprising™ or ‚very unusual™. 2. An ____________ condition or situation is one which is impossible to change or bring back. 3. If something is ____________ , it is certain to fail or to be destroyed. 4. An ____________ animal or plant no longer exists. 5. If you ____________ something, you limit or control it. 6. ____________ is the process by which land and water is managed to prevent it being destroyed or damaged. 7. A ____________ is a plant or animal group whose members all have similar general features. 8. ____________ is the process of moving to another part of the world. Activity 6. Look in the text and answer these questions. 1. How many species are expected to be lost by the year 2050? 2. How much of the land surface of the world does the report on global warming cover? 3. How many species of butterfly did they study in Australia? 4. How many species of South African plants are expected to die out? 5. How many species were examined in Mexico? 6. How long does it take for the greenhouse effect to have its full effect on the planet? 7. Which gases cause the greenhouse effect? 8. Which human activities produce greenhouse gases? Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 23
    • Activity 7 Look in the text and find these words: 1. A word which means a wrong idea that something is smaller or less important than it really is. 2. Another word for ‚size” or ‚extent”. 3. A noun which means the process of working together with other people on a specific project. 4. A noun used to describe a large flat area of land covered with grass in a warm part of the world. 5. A two-word verb which means the same as ‚to become extinct”. 6. An adjective which means ‚extremely large”. Activity 4 Elaborate on the following main ideas as an analytical exposition text. Work with a partner 1. Types of Pollution 2. Air Pollution 3. Water Pollution 4. Soil Pollution Summary Learning Reflection After learning the lesson in this Module , you are expected to be able to: 1. respond to someone fulfilling a request; 2. express feelings of relief, pain, and pleasure; 3. fulfill someone's request; 4. read analytical exposition texts; 5. write an analytical exposition text; Now, answer the questions: 1. What do you say when you get a sudden pain on your body? 2. What is a thesis in an analytical exposition text? If you find some difficulties, consult to your teacher or discuss with your friends. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 24
    • Examination Preparation Text I : ‘Old’ Europe reuniting East with West’ The crisis in Iraq has created problems for many countries but now it could also have a negative effect on the European Union and, in particular on the plans to welcome the Eastern European countries into the EU in 2004. Jacques Chirac , the French president , criticized the Eastern European countries last week for their support for George Bush’s policy on Iraq. At the end of the EU summit on Iraq in Brussels, Chirac said their behavior was "childish" and "dangerous". Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the other EU candidates should keep quiet, he said. "When you are in the family, after all, you have more rights than when you are asking to join the family, and you are knocking on the door. "Romania and Bulgaria were particularly careless, he said, because they were still applying to join the EU. This was a strong warning . France has never really liked the plans to enlarge the EU because it sees the enlargement as a British plan to change the character of the EU. It will be more difficult for French farmers when Polish farmers are in the EU. French has been replaced by English as the main language of the European Union. And , worst of all, the post-communist governments in War saw, Prague, Budapest , the Baltic’s, Slovenia and Slovakia are mostly pro American . Last month Chirac was very angry when Donald Rumsfeld, the US defense secretary, criticized France and Germany as "old Europe" in contrast to the friendly countries of "new Europe". The pro-American open letter of five current EU members and three of the new candidates was another example of the division between "old" and "new" Europe. France is not the only country that has criticized the Eastern Europe countries. Germany says that it is wrong for these countries to accept money from the EU and then support the Americans. Romano Prodi, the president of the European Commission, said he was "very, very disappointed" by the position of the future member states. Chirac even said there might be a referendum in France on the question of the enlargement of the European Union . The European Union summit in Copenhagen last December made the final decision on enlargement. The treaty for the 10 new members, which include Po l a n d ,Slovakia , Malta and Estonia, will be signed in Athens in April . They should join the EU on May 1st 2004. The Eastern European countries replied carefully to the criticism. Bronislaw Geremek , the former Polish foreign minister, said that France and Germany had not consulted the other current EU member states over the crisis in Ira q .Some people recognized that this was s not really an attack on the Eastern European countries. "Every time I have an argument with my wife I shout at my s o n s," explained Romania's prime minister, Adrian Nastase. France has a problem with the US and Britain but it is easier to criticise the Eastern European countries. Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 25
    • 1. Match the words with their meanings The words Meanings 1. a crisis a. to take the place of something 2. to criticise b. to write to ask for something 3. an effect c. a time of great danger or difficulty 4. to apply d. to make something bigger 5. a warning e. an agreement between countries 6. to replace f. to say that somebody is wrong or bad 7. to enlarge g. saying that something bad will happen 8. a treaty h. a change that happens because of something 2. Fill the gaps using the words in the list European foreign president defence minister the USA 1. Jacques Chirac is the ______________________________ of France. 2. George Bush is the president of ___________________________ . 3. Donald Rumsfeld is the US _________________________ secretary. 4. Romano Prodi is the president of the _______________ Commission. 5. Bronislaw Gemerk is the former Polish _______________ minister. 6. Adrian Nastase is the Romanian prime ___________________ . Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 26
    • Global warming threatens to kill off a million species The earth is getting warmer. People burn coal, oil and gas and this produces carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. These gases, called ‚greenhouse gases™, stop the heat of the sun from leaving the earth’s upper atmosphere and this makes the earth warmer, a process called ‚global warming™. A few weeks ago a group of scientists produced a report about global warming and the natural world. They wanted to find out if global warming was dangerous for plants and animals. The scientists were shocked by what they found. They say that during the next 50 years about 25% of land animals and plants will become extinct. More than 1 million plant and animal species will become extinct by 2050. The head of the research team, Chris Thomas, who is professor of conservation biology at Leeds University, said the results of their research were ieterrifyingly . More than 10% of all plants and animals will become extinct. It is too late to save many plants and animals because of the greenhouse gases that are already in the atmosphere. But the scientists say if we control greenhouse gases now, we could save many more plants and animals from extinction. The scientists studied some regions of the world with a very rich biology. These regions were Europe, Australia, Central and South America, and South Africa. Their studies showed that species living in mountainous areas had a better chance of survival because they could move uphill to get cooler. In flat areas, such as deserts, plants and animals would have to move very long distances to get cooler, so they are in greater danger of extinction. The scientists found many shocking things. For example, they found that half of the 24 species of butterfly they studied in Australia would soon become extinct. 60% of the species in the Kruger National Park in South Africa would also die out, and more than 100 of the 300 South African plant species they studied would also become extinct. One of the plants in danger of extinction is the national flower of South frica, the King Protea. They studied 163 tree species in the Cerrado region of Brazil and found that 70 would become extinct. Many of the plants and trees that live in this region live nowhere else in the world. In Mexico, they studied 1,870 species and found that more than 30% of these were in danger of extinction. Global warming is getting worse. Many countries, particularly the USA and the European countries, are continuing to produce greenhouse gases. We will not know the true results of this for 25 years but if people continue to burn oil, coal and gas at the same rate as today, about 30% of all life forms will become extinct by 2050. I. Look in the text and correct the information in these sentences. 1. 50% of land animals and plants will become extinct during the next 60 years. 2. More than 10 million plants and animals will become extinct by 2080. 3. More than 20% of all plants and animals will become extinct. 4. They studied 12 species of butterfly in Australia. 5. 80% of the species in the Kruger National Park will die out. 6. They studied 70 species of tree in Brazil. 7. They studied 2,870 species in Mexico. 8. We will not know the true results for 50 years Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 27
    • II. Choose the best answer. 1. Why are greenhouse gases dangerous? a. Because people burn coal, oil and gas. b. Because they cause global warming. c. Because they stop the heat of the sun reaching the earth. 2. Why is global warming bad for animals and plants? a. Because many of them will become extinct if global warming continues. b. Because it is too late to save many plants and animals. c. Because some regions of the world have a very rich biology. 3. Why do animals in mountainous regions have a better chance of survival? a. Because they have to move long distances to get cooler. b. Because they can move uphill to get cooler. c. Because there are no deserts in mountainous regions. 4. What could happen to the national flower of South Africa? a. It could become extinct. b. It could grow in the Kruger National Park. c. People could study it. 5. What will happen if people continue to produce greenhouse gases? a. The earth will get colder. b. We will not know the true results for 25 years. c. 30% of all life forms will become extinct by 2050. III. Find the words in the text which mean: 1. Very, very surprised 2. Very, very frightening 3. The opposite of ‚poor 4. A flat, dry area without many plants or water 5. Another expression for ‚to become extinct 6. The opposite of ‚downhill 7. Another word for ‚regions 8. A word which means ‚especially Modul Bahsa Inggris XI SMAN2 Mataram UNIT 3 ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 28