REPORT TEXTKompetensiSetelah mempelajari modul ini : 1. Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi makna gagasan dalam teks report 2. Siswa dapat mengidentifkasi langkah-langkah retorika teks report 3. Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi dan menggunakan dengan tepat to be, dan the simple present tense. Pendahuluan Dalam materi ini anda akan mempelajari salah satu jenis teks ( genre ) yakni teks report yangmempunyai langkah retorika yaitu General Classification – Description dan mempunyai fungsi sosial ( socialfunction ) untuk menjelaskan sesuatu apa adanya, yang menyangkut kejadian alam, karya manusia, danfenomena sosial di sekitar kita . Teks ini mempunyai kebahasaan khusus (lexico grammar ) di antaranyapenggunaan simple present dan to be . Berbagai jenis latihan reading comprehension, grammar dan vocabularyyang diberikan secara intensif dan bervariatif akan lebih mempermudah anda memahami teks. Key words : Report text, General Classification, Description, Social Function, block-faultmountain, volcano, fold mountain Teks report adalah salah satu jenis teks ( genre ) dalam bahasa Inggris yang menjelaskansesuatu apa adanya. Teks ini mempunyai langkah-langkah retorika ( generic structure) yang terdiri dari: General Classification dan Description. • General Classification : Klasifikasi umum tentang apa yang dijelaskan ( tells what the phenomenon under discussion is ) • Description : menjelaskan fenomena-fenomena yang sedang dijelaskan dalam bagian- bagian, kualitas, kebiasaan dan tingkah laku ( tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behavior ).Fungsi sosial teks report ( social function of a report text ) adalah untuk menjelaskan sesuatu apaadanya Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is. Generic Structure 1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general 2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials Dominant Language Feature 1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using Simple Present Tense Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect • Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc • Using simple present tense PL AT YPU S ; A R E POR T T EXT Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Platypus is anative Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick,and woolly layer of fur. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Platypus eyes and head are small. It has noears but has ability to sense sound and light. Platypus lives in streams, rivers, and lakes. Female platypususually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intrudersand flooding. In the other hand, male platypus does not need any burrow to stay Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification; stating general classification, the animal of platypus. Description; describing in detail characterization of platypus body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group; the animal of platypus conditional, logical connective; but, in the other hand Simple present tense pattern; Platypus lives in streams, male platypus does not need any burrow, etc THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REPORT AND DESCRIPTIVE TEXT Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity inthe social function and generic structure. However if they are analyzed carefully, the slight difference betweenthe two text types will reveal. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Both thereport and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object.Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. What make different, between report and descriptive text, is the scope of the written object. If we talk about, eg: bicycle, it belongs to report text. It will talk about bicycle in general; its parts,physical strengh, function for certain people or other general characters of bike. In the other hand, descriptivetext will convey more focus, for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters; colour, lengh, wheel style, etc. In short, report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon ofnature, animal and scientific object. Mostly, report is written after getting careful observation. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. The way ofdescriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. It describe the specific thing simply asthe thing is This sample report is labelled to show you the structure and language features of a report text.title Harvesting machines Headers harvest crops such as wheat, barley and oats. These machines are alsogeneral known as combine harvesters. Headers combine the three operations needed tostatement harvest a crop -- reaping, threshing and winnowing. The comb on the front of the header cuts the heads off the stalks (reaping). The augerseries of pulls the heads into the machine. The stalks left standing in the paddock are calleddescriptions stubble. Threshing involves separating the grains from the head. The drum rotates, beating the
heads. Straw and chaff (bits of stalk) are fed out the back of the header. Straw is spread over the ground. Stock can graze on this and the standing stubble left after harvest. There are a number of screens in the header. Grain passes over these and fans blow the husks away. This is called winnowing. The clean grain is stored in the box. When this is full the grain is augered out into a chaser bin or truck. A sample experimental report Experimental reports are very important in your course. You will use this type of writing todescribe experiments and to explain what you have learned from them. It is a mix of text types. The aim describes what you were trying to find out. Sometimes a list of materials andequipment is included -- this part can be called the apparatus. The method lists the steps you carried out during the experiment. A diagram is oftenincluded in the method as it can give a clear, concise description of how any apparatus was set up. Inthe example given the method is written as a procedure text in the present tense. At other times themethod is written in the third person and in the past tense. The results section describes what happened. (This is a report text.) The results are oftengraphed if appropriate. The conclusion explains what you found out. (This is an explanation text.) A discussion may be included in the conclusion or sometimes it is included in a separatesection. (This is often an exposition text.) Refer to the sample experimental report and information on other text types to answer these questions. 1 The aim and method are in the form of a procedure text. What are the language features and structure of procedure text? 2 The results section is in the form of a report text. What are the language features and structure of report text? 3 The conclusion is in the form of a explanation text. What are the language features and structure of explanation text?The results section and conclusion from a sample experimental report.title Soil type and plant growthaim Aim(goal) To observe the effects of soil type on the growth of tomatoes. Materials and equipment • tomato seeds (small variety)materials • permanent marking penand • nine plastic pots at least 30 cm deepequipme • sandy soilnt • clayey soil • loamy soil • fertiliser Method 1 Fill three pots with sandy soil and label S1, S2 and S3.steps 2 Fill another three pots with clayey soil. Label C1, C2, C3. 3 Fill the remaining three pots with loamy soil. Label L1, L2 and L3.
4 Mix fertiliser and apply to soil. 5 Choose three seeds at random. Plant to a depth of 6 mm in the pot labelled S1. Repeat, planting three seeds in each pot. 6 Place all pots in the same conditions. 7 Apply the same amount of water to each pot at the same time every day. Seedlings should emerge in 10Ð14 days. 8 Thin seedlings, leaving the healthiest plant in each pot. 9 Observe tomato plants after 4 - 6 weeks. 10 Record observations. The results section and conclusion from a sample experimental report.title Resultsgeneral statement These observations were made three weeks after the seedlings were thinned. Trial Height (cm) Vigour S1 24 small leaves, pale in colour S2 28 few leaves, slightly yellow S3 17 small leaves; spindly stemdescription C1 26 very green leave C2 29 large, healthy leaves and stem C3 24 few leaves, weak stem L1 30 healthy plant, green, strong stem L2 35 very healthy plant L3 32 large leaves, strong stemtitle Conclusionphenomenon Tomatoes grow better in loamy soil than sandy or clayey soil.identification Loamy soil has good drainage. The soil retains enough water to supply the plantsexplanation needs. Sandy soil doesnt retain much water so the plants become water stressed onsequence hot windy days. Clayey soil retains too much water, so the plantÕs roots become waterlogged. Another sample method.
Three pots were filled with sandy soil and labelled S1, S2, S3. Three other pots were filled with clayey soil and labelled C1, C2, C3. The remaining three pots were filled with loamy soil and labelled L1, L2, L3. Mixed fertiliser was applied to the soil. Three seeds were chosen at random and planted to a depth of 6 mm in the pot labelled S1. This step was repeated for each pot, with three seeds in each pot.steps All pots were placed in the same conditions. The same amount of water was applied to each pot at the same time every day. Seedlings emerged between 10 adn 14 days. The seedlings were then thinned and only the healthiest plant was left in each pot. The tomato plants were observed after 4 weeks. The observations were recorded. Lexico Grammar Simple PresentThe Simple Present Tense is used to express that something was true in the past, is true in the present,and will be true in the future.It is used for general statements of fact.
Example: 1. Every continent has mountain chains. 2. The power of forming comes from the depth in the earth. 3. It snows in Alaska 4. Diana washes her hair everyday. 5. They have beautiful garden
Activity 1 Retell the following report about camel in your own words. Use the pictures if necessary.
Activity 2 Read and understand the following text.
Activity3 Answer the questions based on the text in Activity 2. Do it in pairs. 1. Are kangaroos and wallabies indigenous animals of Australia? 2. What does the word "these" in paragraph 2 refer to? 3. What do people call the largest kangaroos? 4. Where do you find the pouch of the female kangaroo? 5. What does the word "it" in sentence ... it crawls at once ….... refer to? 6. Can you fi nd the sentence considered the definition of a kangaroo? State it. 7. Which sentences tell you about the description of the kangaroos appearance?Activity 3 Read the text and answer the questions. 1. What is meant by lightning? 2. When does lightning usually happen? 3. What does the word "this" in the last sentence of paragraph 1 refer to? 4. What does the word "it" in paragraph 2 refer to? Grammar ReviewSimple Present TenseStudy the following sentences.1. Lightning occurs in hot, wet storms.2. Whales are sea-living mammals.3. Kangaroos eat grass and plants.4. An iceberg is an enormous piece of ice floating in the sea.5. A tiger is a wild animal. The tiger eats meat. The tense that are used in a report text is the simple present tense. The simple present tense is used togive general truths and habitual actions. The sentences above tell you about the general truth: Everyone knowsthat a tiger is a wild animal. And everyone also knows that whales are sea-living mammals.
Besides, everyone also knows that kangaroos eat grass and plants. That the tiger eats meat, but thetiger does not eat grass and plants. Verbs that are used in the simple present tense are: to be (is, am, are) and verb (eat, occurs, etc.) or theverbs are usually named as infinitive verbs. The form of simple present tense: Subject + Verb + O Kangaroos eat grass and plants. Subject + Verb + (–s) + O The tiger eats meat. The use of simple present tense in a report text is to define something.Activity 4 Rearrange the following text.