Nanotechnology in textiles-wired and ready to wear textiles

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  • 1. A BIG FUTURE FOR SMALL SCIENCE : NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILES Wired And Ready To Wear Textiles Saravana Gouthem.R M.Tech (NANO) 1821310011
  • 2. Basic Needs Of Every Human Being Food Clothing Shelter
  • 3. What Is Clothing? Clothing is any covering for the human body. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on the functional considerations such as the need for warmth. In some societies, the minimum amount of clothing covering a person may be acceptable while in others, more clothing is expected.
  • 4. Evolution of clothes
  • 5. Evolution of clothes The first clothes were made from natural elements: animal skin and furs, grasses and leaves, and bones and shells.  Clothing was often draped or tied however, simple needles made out of animal bone provide evidence of sewn leather and fur garments from at least 30,000 years ago.
  • 6. Steps In Manufacture Of Clothes Picking: Removing foreign matter (dirt, insects, leaves, seeds) from the fiber. Early pickers beat the fibers to loosen them and removed debris by hand. Machines used rotating teeth to do the job, producing a thin "lap" ready for carding.
  • 7. Steps In Manufacture Of Clothes Carding: combines the fibers to align and join them into a loose rope called a "sliver." Hand carders pulled the fibers between wire teeth set in boards. Machines did the same thing with rotating cylinders, where Slivers were combined, twisted, and drawn out into "roving."
  • 8. Steps In Manufacture Of Clothes Spinning: twist’s and drew out the roving and wound the resulting yarn on a bobbin. A spinning wheel operator drew out the cotton by hand. A series of rollers accomplished this on machines called "throstles" and "spinning mules."
  • 9. Steps In Manufacture Of Clothes Warping: Gathered yarns from a number of bobbins and wound them close together on a reel or spool. From there they were transferred to a warp beam, which was then mounted on a loom, Warp threads were those that ran lengthwise on the loom.
  • 10. Steps In Manufacture Of Clothes Weaving: Final stage in making cloth. Crosswise woof threads were interwoven with warp threads on a loom. A 19th century power loom worked essentially like a hand loom, except that its actions were mechanized.
  • 11. Various Types Of Cloth materials  Cotton  Denim  Wool  Microfiber  Rayon  Polyester  Silk  Velvet  Venise  A Blend  Linen  Nylon  Acrylic  Acetate  Bark Cloth  Cheesecloth  Chiffon  Corduroy  Georgette  Hemp
  • 12. Nanotechnology In Textiles Nanotechnology can be applied in 'smart textiles', which has a great influence in the field of garment and protective clothing. Nanotechnology play a major role in the following fields of textile: Nano-fibers Nano-finish Nano-dyeing Nano-composites
  • 13. Nanotechnology In Textiles The use of nanotechnology in the textile industry has increased rapidly due to its unique and valuable properties. Application of nanotechnology economically extend the properties and values of textile processing and products. Use of nanotechnology allows textiles to become multifunctional and produce fabrics with special functions, including antibacterial, UV protection, easy-clean, water- and stain repellent and anti-odour.
  • 14. Nanotechnology In Textiles Future success of nanotechnology in textile applications lies in areas where new principles will be combined into durable, multifunctional textile systems without compromising the inherent textile properties, including processability, flexibility.
  • 15. Application Of Nanotechnology In Textiles
  • 16. Application Of Nanotechnology In Textiles
  • 17. Application Of Nanotechnology In Textiles
  • 18. Wired & Ready to Wear
  • 19. What is wired and ready to wear textiles? Wired and ready to wear textiles are fabrics that are wired to transfer information within a piece of clothing. Right now, you can buy jackets with disc players and controls sewn in, but designers envision e-wear that will heat or cool its wearer, monitor vital signs, and change color on command.
  • 20. What is wired and ready to wear textiles? Smart clothes and e-textiles offer a second skin to help us understand what goes on under our real skin. They enable us to wear sensors comfortably and unobtrusively to track our physiological signals and our surrounding environmental conditions in real time – anytime, anywhere. They influence the health of patients, the training of athletes, and the safety of fire fighters.
  • 21. What is wired and ready to wear textiles? Sensors that detect physiological signals may be embedded or integrated directly into a textile (such as part of a yarn that is woven or knitted into the fabric) or they may be applied on top of the fabric, such as in an ink. Since the sensors are part of the garment, they are usually in direct contact with your skin.
  • 22. History of Electronic Textiles 1970s First Interactive Fabric - The first interactive fabric was made in the 1970’s. It had rows and columns that looked like a keyboard. When you pressed two points together, two conducting layers had a current flowing through them.
  • 23. History of Electronic Textiles 1996 Smart Shirt - The SMART shirt was introduced in 1996. A SMART shirt can take and send data about the wearer, and record heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and pulse.
  • 24. History of Electronic Textiles 2000 Jackets with Wearable Electronics - The first wired electronic garments were introduced in 2000 by Levi Strauss & Co, and Philips Research Labs. These were wired jackets with wearable electronics. These jackets connected to MP3 players and mobile phones. They had hidden wires in the fabric that allowed the user to operate the devices with a remote control.
  • 25. History of Electronic Textiles 2004 Two Rings of Light-Sensitive Semiconductor Material in Fiber - Researchers created the world’s first metal insulator semiconductor fiber device that detected light in 2004. Then it was used in 2009 by Yoel Fink when he discovered how to make fabrics operate like a camera. It is a fabric that can see using a new generation of fibers.
  • 26. History of Electronic Textiles In 2012 a New Electronic Textile is Made From Layers of Carbon Nanotubes - They are woven into a new material called Power Felt. It is a thermoelectric fabric. This material is flexible and changes body heat into an electric current.
  • 27. Wired & Ready to Wear E-textiles or electronic-textile are essential fabrics with electronics and other components that are embedded in, or intrinsic to the fabric. At first glance, the piece looks like a hand-woven, multicoloured textile.
  • 28. Wired & Ready to Wear The flip side reveals a computer display that can program conductive fibers woven into the textile. The fibers can be programmed to change the textile's colours in several sequences, so that different patterns subtly form on the wall hanging.
  • 29. Wired & Ready to Wear Fashion designers are adding wires, circuits, and optical fibers to traditional textiles, creating garments that glow in the dark or keep the wearer warm.
  • 30. Wired & Ready to Wear Smart fabrics are fabric that can not only sense the environment, but also react to it. Fabric that warms you when you’re cold, cleans itself when it’s dirty, lights up to ensure you’re visible when it’s dark, and automatically stiffens to protect you when you’re falling.
  • 31. Application of wired and ready to wear textiles
  • 32. Wired & Ready to Wear- sports Smart clothes could monitor your fitness Under Armour E39 Electronic compression shirt parameters as you train and give you advice to modify your workout, during your workout. Under Armour E39 shirt, developed through a partnership with Zephyr Technology (which makes the BioHarness), features a removable electronic monitor, or “bug.”
  • 33. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sports “Bug” is a combined sensor pack, processor, and hard drive that plugs into the shirt. The sensor measures heart rate, breathing rate, skin’s surface temperature, and triaxial (3 axes – X, Y, Z – thus three dimensional) accelerometry. Sensor data can be sent via Bluetooth to smart phones and laptops for viewing by coaches and friends.
  • 34. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sports Shoes The “football boot with a brain”, the adidas Adidas Adizero F50 Soccer Shoe adizero F50 soccer shoe contains a space in the outsole (bottom) to tuck a miCoach Speed Cell. This tracking device captures performance metrics such as speed, maximum speed, number of sprints, distance, steps and stride rates.
  • 35. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sports Shoes  The data are stored and can be wirelessly uploaded to a PC, Mac or smart phone so you can share and compare your stats with friends or adidas professional players.
  • 36. Wired & Ready to Wear- Mobile Charging Smart clothes could recharge your mobile device while it was tucked in your pocket. This jacket has a foil-esk lining that keeps your body heat regulated along with battery packs that warm the entire coat throughout- you can also charge your cell phone through the batteries.
  • 37. Wired & Ready to Wear- Mobile Charging  There are 3 different heat setting to choose from depending on how cold you are.
  • 38. Wired & Ready to Wear- Printing biometric sensors on underwear What better place to put sensors than the elastic band of your underwear? This location enables sensors to be in direct and continuous contact with the skin. Researchers have screen-printed amperometric carbon sensor arrays directly onto the elastic band of underwear. Biometric Sensors On Underwear
  • 39. Wired & Ready to Wear- Printing biometric sensors on underwear The sensors survive repetitive stretching, pulling, and folding. The sensors can measure hydrogen peroxide and NADH, and could potentially monitor chemicals found in sweat through dehydrogenase- and oxidase-based enzyme sensors (for example, ethanol and lactate).
  • 40. Wired & Ready to Wear- Printing biometric sensors on underwear The biometric sensor could be used for sports athlete to monitor their heart rate, and other crucial data to ensure optimum body performance and giving early info and warning regarding diseases or heart failure possibility. Applications include healthcare, sport, and military monitoring.
  • 41. Wired & Ready to Wear-(Personalized Monitoring System for Care in Mental Health) The PSYCHE (Personalized monitoring SYstems for Care in mental HEalth) aims to develop a cost-effective, continuous portable monitoring system for patients affected by mood disorders, such as bipolar illness.
  • 42. Wired & Ready to Wear-(Personalized Monitoring System for Care in Mental Health)  The goal is to empower patients to proactively monitor their mood status in order to predict, detect and manage critical events and health issues; to improve patient-physician interaction; and to alert physicians in case of depressive or manic episodes.  This system is currently being implemented and validated technically, functionally, and clinically.
  • 43. Wired & Ready to Wear-(Personalized Monitoring System for Care in Mental Health) Potential measurements include: Physiological: heart rate (electrocardiogram, ECG), respiratory rate, movement, galvanic skin resistance, brain wave activity (electroencephalogram, EEG), eye activity (electrooculogram, EOG), blood pressure, body temperature. Biochemical: levels of prescribed drugs such as lithium; glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and other indicators of metabolic disorders that can develop as a side effect of medication use. Behavioral: obtained from correlating biochemical measures, voice analysis, and a behavioral index.
  • 44. Wired & Ready to Wear-(Personalized Monitoring System for Care in Mental Health) Potential features include data that are collected along with “subjective annotations” and then integrated into an electronic health record (EHR) with information such as medication; measurement of both thoracic and abdominal respiration through textile sensors, thus potentially offering a mechanism for biofeedback training exercises; and night monitoring of heart rate, breathing rate and ambient conditions (temperature, light, noise) to deduce sleep status, which could be combined with sensorized bed sheets.
  • 45. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sensors Fit like Glove  How do you measure hand function in individuals that have a neurological disorder? Researchers have developed a instrumented glove that measures finger and wrist flexion based on bend sensors that contain a carbon/polymer-based ink whose resistance increases with bending. Finger movements can be measured while the user is performing specific tasks, and even slight changes in fine motor skills can be detected.
  • 46. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sensors Fit like Glove Several commercialized, instrumented gloves are already available, mainly for virtual reality and computer gaming: CyberGlove II P5 Glove The Peregrine glove Nintendo Power Glove
  • 47. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire The ProeTEX project is a tour de force of sensor technology and usability. The goal is to develop e-textiles for emergency disaster personnel in order to improve their safety.
  • 48. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire
  • 49. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire T-shirt or inner garment: This assesses the health status of the emergency worker through measurement of physiological parameters. An elastic region contains textile electrodes for measurement of heart rate, as well as a body temperature sensor.
  • 50. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire Sensors for blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and sodium (Na+) can also be integrated. A detachable band contains a piezoelectric breathing rate sensor and the electronic modules.  Since this garment is in contact with the user’s skin, comfort is considered a key design feature.
  • 51. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire Jacket or outer garment (shown): This monitors the user’s activity state and the surrounding environment. There are two triaxial accelerometers. One at the collar detects inactivity and falls to the ground and one at the wrist also detects inactivity.
  • 52. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire Together they provide a estimation of body inclination. A textile motion sensor located in the elbow region provides redundancy in measuring user movement. A carbon oxide sensor is located in the lapel area, near the user’s mouth and nose. There’s also an external temperature sensor, a heat flux sensor, and a GPS antenna, as well as a visual alarm and acoustic alarm to warn the user of detected dangers. The jacket contains electronics for data storage and transmission.
  • 53. Wired & Ready to Wear- Fighting fire with wire Boots: At the request of the end users, the boots contain sensors to measure the concentration of toxic gases, like carbon dioxide (CO2), that are heavier than air and accumulate at ground level. The boots also monitor the contact of the foot with the ground, thus tracking the activity of the user. The data from all the sensors are recorded in a device located in the jacket and transmitted wirelessly to a remote post where all the parameters of the emergency personnel can be monitored in real time.
  • 54. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sencessories (Jawbone “UP”) The Jawbone “UP” is a band made of medical-grade, hypoallergenic TPU rubber, which is latex-free. It is designed to be worn on wrist like a bracelet 24/7. It is meant to put it on and not even remove it when you take a shower, since it’s water resistant. Jawbone “UP”
  • 55. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sencessories (Jawbone “UP”)  The band is designed to track your movement and sleeping patterns using a built in accelerometer and motion sensor and then turn the data into useful info like steps, distance, calories burned, hours slept, time it took you to get to sleep, how many times you woke up during the night, etc.
  • 56. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sencessories (Jawbone “UP”)  You can also use the built-in calibration feature to dial in the accuracy even more.  You can also set the band to vibrate when you’ve been inactive for a certain length of time.  In addition to steps and sleep, eating and workouts can also be tracked, but that requires manual data entry.
  • 57. Wired & Ready to Wear- Sencessories (Jawbone “UP”) Jawbone “UP” is used as cuff links, earrings, a brooch, belt, bracelet, tie bar, pendant, finger ring or toe ring that you can mix and match to monitor your heart rate, breathing rate, blood glucose, calories burned, and ambient air quality.
  • 58. Wired & Ready to Wear- MagIC (Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata)  The MagIC (Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata) is a vest with embedded sensors made of conductive fibers to measure heart rate and breathing rate, and an electronic module with a triaxial accelerometer, data storage, and signal transmission.
  • 59. Wired & Ready to Wear- MagIC (Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata) The washable vest comes in several sizes, is specifically tailored to minimize artifacts, and has a front or side opening with Velcro or a zipper so it can be worn by people with impaired movement.
  • 60. Wired & Ready to Wear- MagIC (Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata) The garment has been validated in several diverse telemedicine applications. In one scenario, patients with congestive heart failure who had recently been discharged from the hospital wore the vest in their homes for a few minutes each day for a month. The data were viewed remotely by a cardiologist. Patients reported that the garment was comfortable and that they felt “safely supervised.”
  • 61. Wired & Ready to Wear- MagIC (Maglietta Interattiva Computerizzata) In extreme scenario, climbers wore the vest on a Mount Everest expedition. The vest was made of polypropylene instead of cotton, and the position of the electronic module was moved higher up so it didn’t interfere with the climber’s backpack belts.  Measurements were collected during the day and during sleep. Again, the vest was comfortable and provided accurate real-life telemonitoring.
  • 62. Wired & Ready to Wear- camouflage fabrics  Quantum Stealth or camouflage fabrics is a material that renders the target completely invisible by bending light waves around the target.  Material removes not only our visual, infrared (night vision) and thermal signatures but also target’s shadow.
  • 63. Wired & Ready to Wear- camouflage fabrics New Camouflage fabric on the market called Nature-Rised, it is a special fabric created by adding natural shapes from nature to the fabric. These special textures refract the light, thus breaking up reflection and stopping glare and shine, and making Camouflage to work.
  • 64. Wired & Ready to Wear- camouflage fabrics This fabric helps you become a part of the woods, not a large shiny object. Many other fabrics are made only in one or two layers; the new Nature-Rised fabric is made of 8 layers and procedure, each having a special function to create the ultimate hunting fabric.
  • 65. Wired & Ready to Wear- camouflage fabrics Camouflage fabric are burr proof and won't snag or grab the brush. It is soft and quiet. It is tough and comfortable, strong and wind-proof, water-repellent. It won't fade or shine.
  • 66. Wired & Ready to Wear- Military  Military systems designers are adapting and fielding wearable computers perfected in the commercial world for defence personnel worldwide.  Armed Forces are adopting wearable computers rapidly as well, but their devices will tend to be more rugged than commercial wearable's and their missions more critical than just scheduling meetings or doing inventory.
  • 67. Wired & Ready to Wear- Military Worldwide Many country has developed and are testing its lightweight, bullet proof and electronic uniform for the military that has conductive fibres woven into it, Rather than carrying seperate batteries for each device, a central battery can be carried and devices powered via the conductive fabrics.
  • 68. Wired & Ready to Wear- Military  Wearable computers - devices that are attached or integrated into an individual’s clothing are considered to be the electronic heart of the soldier of the future.  Engineers are developing computers that are wired into clothing and have the capability to track enemy targets, network the soldier with air, land, and sea forces, monitor his physical health, and even translate native languages.
  • 69. Wired & Ready to Wear-Military
  • 70. Numerous Challenges to Overcome when Designing E-textiles Sensors need to be accurate, reliable, sensitive, specific, low cost, reproducible, have a short analysis time, a high signal to noise ratio (low motion artifacts), and work over a wide range of temperatures. Clothes need to maintain their key properties, such as bending, stretching and drapability. They should also be washable, long lasting, light weight, and should be easy to put on and off if they are going to be worn by people with disabilities.
  • 71. Electronic-Dress for Successful Future Sensors that detect not only what goes on under our skin, but also on our skin. Tracking our skin micro-biome to better gauge our health status and disease risks. Advances in data analytics to identify trends and anticipate critical events (imagine being able to predict an epileptic seizure or migraine). Sensor tattoos.
  • 72. Electronic-Dress for Successful Future Utilizing data for real-time personal biofeedback training, such as stress reduction. Harvesting or scavenging energy from our body to power smart clothes, Energy sources include breath, blood flow, body heat, and foot strike during walking.
  • 73. Reference  http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1379503776_Patra%20and%2 0Sgouda.pdf  http://dev.nsta.org/evwebs/932m/time.html  http://www.pinterest.com/pin/432556739180097170/  http://wearable.mlog.taik.fi/  http://www.caroltorgan.com/self-tracking-smart-clothes/  http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_making_textiles.html  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369702103010289
  • 74. THANK YOU