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  • 1. The Brain Fingerprinting Technology 1
  • 2. ABSTRACT Brain Fingerprinting is a new computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes. Why Brain Fingerprinting??? Brain Fingerprinting is based on the principle that the brain is central to all human acts. In a criminal act, there may or may not be many kinds of peripheral evidence, but the brain is always there, planning, executing, and recording the crime. The fundamental difference between a perpetrator and a falsely accused, innocent person is that the perpetrator, having committed the crime, has the details of the crime stored in his brain, and the innocent suspect does not. This is what Brain Fingerprinting detects scientifically. 2
  • 3. CONTENTS: 1. Introduction. 2. MERMER Methodology. 3. Technique. 4. Four phases of Farwell Brain Fingerprinting. 5. Scientific procedures, Research and Applications. 6. Advantages and Limitations of Brain Fingerprinting. 7. Conclusion. 8. References. 3
  • 4. 1.Introduction: Brain Fingerprinting is a Related Multifaceted controversial proposed Electroencephalographic investigative technique that Response") response to detect measures recognition of familiarity reaction. One of familiar stimuli by measuring the applications is lie electrical brain wave detection. Dr. Lawrence A. responses to words, phrases, Farwell has invented, or pictures that are presented developed, proven, and on a computer screen. Brain patented the technique of fingerprinting was invented Farwell Brain Fingerprinting, by Lawrence Farwell. The a new computer-based theory is that the suspect's technology to identify the reaction to the details of an perpetrator of a crime event or activity will reflect if accurately and scientifically the suspect had prior by measuring brain-wave knowledge of the event or responses to crime-relevant activity. This test uses what words or pictures presented Farwell calls the MERMER on a computer screen. ("Memory and Encoding Farwell Brain Fingerprinting 4
  • 5. has proven 100% accurate in in situations where over 120 tests, including tests investigators have a sufficient on FBI agents, tests for a US amount of specific intelligence agency and for information about an event or the US Navy, and tests on activity that would be known real-life situations including only to the perpetrator and actual crimes. investigator. In this respect, Brain Fingerprinting is What is Brain considered a type of Guilty Fingerprinting? Knowledge Test, where the Brain Fingerprinting is "guilty" party is expected to designed to determine react strongly to the relevant whether an individual detail of the event of the recognizes specific activity. Existing (polygraph) information related to an procedures for assessing event or activity by the validity of a suspect's measuring electrical brain "guilty" knowledge rely wave responses to words, on measurement of phrases, or pictures presented autonomic arousal (e.g., on a computer screen. The palm sweating and heart technique can be applied only 5
  • 6. rate), while Brain of the perpetrator. Brain Fingerprinting measures Fingerprinting provides a electrical brain activity via a means to objectively and fitted headband containing scientifically connect special sensors. Brain evidence from the crime Fingerprinting is said to be scene with evidence stored in more accurate in detecting the brain. (This is similar to "guilty" knowledge distinct the process of connecting from the false positives of DNA samples from the traditional polygraph perpetrator with biological methods, but this is hotly evidence found at the scene disputed by specialized of the crime; only the researchers. evidence evaluated by Brain Fingerprinting is evidence The secrets of Brain stored in the brain.) Brain Fingerprinting: Fingerprinting measures Matching evidence at the electrical brain activity in crime scene with response to crime-relevant evidence in the brain words or pictures presented When a crime is committed, a on a computer screen, and record is stored in the brain reveals a brain MERMER 6
  • 7. (memory and encoding presented via computer to the related multifaceted subject for a fraction of a electroencephalographic second each. Each of these response) when, and only stimuli are organised by the when, the evidence stored in test-giver to be a “Target,” the brain matches the “Irrelevant,” or a “Probe.” evidence from the crime The Target stimuli are chosen scene. Thus, the guilty can be to be relevant information to identified and the innocent the tested subject, and are can be cleared in an accurate, used to establish a baseline scientific, objective, non- brain response for invasive, non-stressful, and information that is significant non-testimonial manner to the subject being tested. The subject is instructed to press on button for Targets, 2.MERMER and another button for all Methodology: other stimuli. Most of the The procedure used is similar non-Target stimuli are to the Guilty Knowledge Irrelevant, and are totally Test; a series of words, unrelated to the situation that sounds, or pictures are the subject is being tested for. 7
  • 8. The Irrelevant stimuli do not response does not elicit a elicit a MERMER, and so MERMER, indicating that establish a baseline brain the information is absent response for information that from their mind. Note that is insignificant to the subject there does not have to be an in this context. Some of the emotional response of any non-Target are relevant to the kind to the stimuli- this test is situation that the subject is entirely reliant upon being tested for. These recognition response to the stimuli, Probes, are relevant stimuli, and relies upon a to the test, and are significant difference in recognition- to the subject, and will elicit hence the association with the a MERMER, signifying that Oddball effect the subject has understood that stimuli to be significant. 3.Technique: A subject lacking this The person to be tested wears information in their brain, the a special headband with response to the Probe electronic sensors that stimulus will be measure the indistinguishable from the electroencephalography from irrelevant stimulus. This 8
  • 9. several locations on the scalp. milliseconds after it is In order to calibrate the brain confronted with a stimulus of fingerprinting system, the test special significance, e.g. a is presented with a series of rare vs. a common stimulas irrelevant stimuli, words, and or a stimulas the proband is pictures, and a series of asked to count. The novel relevant stimuli, words, and interpretation in brain pictures. The test subject's fingerprinting is to look for brain response to these two P300 as response to stimuli different types of stimuli related to the crime in allow the tester to determine question e.g., a murder if the measured brain weapon or a victim's face. responses to test stimuli, Because it is based on EEG called probes, are more signals, the system does not similar to the relevant or require the testee to issue irrelevant responses. The verbal responses to questions technique uses the well or stimuli. Brain known fact that an electrical fingerprinting uses cognitive signal known as P300 is brain responses, brain emitted from an individual's fingerprinting does not brain approximately 300 depend on the emotions of 9
  • 10. the subject, nor is it affected suspect is apprehended, is by emotional responses. scientifically compared with Brain fingerprinting is evidence on the person of the fundamentally different from suspect to detect a match that the polygraph (lie-detector), would place the suspect at the which measures emotion- crime scene. Farwell Brain based physiological signals Fingerprinting works such as heart rate, sweating, similarly, except that the and blood pressure. Also, evidence collected both at the unlike polygraph testing, it crime scene and on the does not attempt to determine person of the suspect (i.e., in whether or not the subject is the brain as revealed by lying or telling the truth. electrical brain responses) is informational evidence rather 4.Four phases of Farwell than physical evidence. There Brain Fingerprinting: are four stages to Farwell In fingerprinting and DNA Brain Fingerprinting, which fingerprinting, evidence are similar to the steps in recognized and collected at fingerprinting and DNA the crime scene, and fingerprinting: preserved properly until a 10
  • 11. 1. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Collection in order to Scene Evidence Collection; determine whether or not the evidence from the crime 2. Brain Fingerprinting Brain scene matches evidence Evidence Collection; stored in the brain of the 3. Brain Fingerprinting suspect. In the Computer Computer Evidence Analysis; Evidence Analysis, the and Farwell Brain Fingerprinting system makes a mathematical 4. Brain Fingerprinting determination as to whether Scientific Result. or not this specific evidence In the Crime Scene Evidence is stored in the brain, and Collection, an expert in computes a statistical Farwell Brain Fingerprinting confidence for that examines the crime scene determination. This and other evidence connected determination and statistical with the crime to identify confidence constitute the details of the crime that Scientific Result of Farwell would be known only to the Brain Fingerprinting: either perpetrator. The expert then "information present" – the conducts the Brain Evidence details of the crime are stored 11
  • 12. in the brain of the suspect – Fingerprinting presents a new or "information absent" – the paradigm in forensic science. details of the crime are not This new system detects stored in the brain of the information directly, on the suspect. basis of the electrophysiological 5.Scientific procedures, manifestations of Research and information-processing brain Applications: activity, measured non-  Informational invasively from the scalp. Evidence Detection. Since Brain Fingerprinting depends only on brain The detection of concealed information processing, it information stored in the does not depend on the brains of suspects, witnesses, emotional response of the intelligence sources, and subject. others is of central concern to all phases of law  The Brain MERMER enforcement, government and Brain Fingerprinting utilizes private investigations, and multifaceted intelligence operations. Brain electroencephalographic 12
  • 13. response analysis (MERA) to computerized signal- detect information stored in detection algorithm. the human brain. A memory  Scientific Procedure and encoding related multifaceted Brain Fingerprinting electroencephalographic incorporates the following response (MERMER) is procedure. A sequence of elicited when an individual words or pictures is presented recognizes and processes an on a video monitor under incoming stimulus that is computer control. Each significant or noteworthy. stimulus appears for a When an irrelevant stimulus fraction of a second. Three is seen, it is insignificant and types of stimuli are not noteworthy, and the presented: "targets," MERMER response is "irrelevants," and "probes." absent. The MERMER The targets are made relevant occurs within about a second and noteworthy to all after the stimulus subjects: the subject is given presentation, and can be a list of the target stimuli and readily detected using EEG instructed to press a amplifiers and a particular button in response 13
  • 14. to targets, and to press MERMER. For an innocent another button in response to subject lacking this detailed all other stimuli. Since the knowledge of the crime, the targets are noteworthy for the probes are indistinguishable subject, they elicit a from the irrelevant stimuli. MERMER. Most of the non- For such a subject, the probes target stimuli are irrelevant, are not noteworthy, and thus having no relation to the probes do not elicit a crime. These irrelevants do MERMER. not elicit a MERMER. Some  ComputerControlled of the non-target stimuli are relevant to the crime or The entire Brain situation under investigation. Fingerprinting System is These relevant stimuli are under computer control, referred to as probes. For a including presentation of the subject who has committed stimuli and recording of the crime, the probes are electrical brain activity, as noteworthy due to his well as a mathematical data knowledge of the details of analysis algorithm that the crime, and therefore compares the responses to the probes elicit a brain three types of stimuli and 14
  • 15. produces a determination of 2: Aid in identifying trained "information present" terrorists with the potential to ("guilty") or "information commit future terrorist acts, absent" ("innocent"), and a even if they are in a “sleeper” statistical confidence level cell and have not been active for this determination. At no for years. time during the testing and 3: Help to identify people data analysis do any biases who have knowledge or and interpretations of a training in banking, finance system expert affect the or communications and who stimulus presentation or brain are associated with terrorist responses. teams and acts. Counter terrorism: Brain 4: Help to determine if an fingerprinting can help individual is in a leadership address the following critical role within a terrorist elements in the fight against organization. Brain terrorism: fingerprinting technology is 1: Aid in determining who based on the principle that has participated in terrorist the brain is central to all acts, directly or indirectly. human acts. In a terrorist act, 15
  • 16. there may or may not be to determine scientifically peripheral evidence such as whether or not a person has fingerprints or DNA, but the terrorist training and brain of the perpetrator is knowledge of terrorist always there, planning, activities. With the Brain executing, and recording the Fingerprinting system, a crime. The terrorist has significant scientific knowledge of organizations, breakthrough has now training and plans that an become a practical applied innocent person does not technology. A new era in have. Until the invention of security and intelligence Brain Fingerprinting testing, gathering has begun. Now, there was no scientific way to terrorists and those detect this fundamental supporting terrorism can be difference. Brain identified quickly and Fingerprinting testing accurately. No longer should provides an accurate, any terrorist be able to evade economical and timely justice for lack of evidence. solution to the central And there is no reason why problem in the fight against an innocent individual should terrorism. It is now possible be falsely imprisoned or 16
  • 17. convicted of terrorist activity. Fingerprinting testing, there A Brain Fingerprinting test was no scientifically valid can determine with an way to detect this extremely high degree of fundamental difference. accuracy those who are Brain Fingerprinting testing involved with terrorist does not prove guilt or activity and those who are innocence. That is the role of not. a judge and jury. This exciting technology gives the Criminal justice: A critical judge and jury new, task of the criminal justice scientifically valid evidence system is to determine who to help them arrive at their has committed a crime. The decision. DNA evidence and key difference between a fingerprints are available in guilty party and an innocent only about 1% of major suspect is that the perpetrator crimes. It is estimated that of the crime has a record of Brain Fingerprinting testing the crime stored in their will apply in approximately brain, and the innocent 60 to 70% of these major suspect does not. Until the crimes. The impacts on the invention of Brain criminal justice system will 17
  • 18. be profound. The potential first time, how memory and now exists to significantly cognitive functioning of improve the speed and Alzheimer sufferers are accuracy of the entire system, affected by medications. First from investigations to parole generation tests have proven hearings. Brain to be more accurate than Fingerprinting testing will be other routinely used tests, and able to dramatically reduce could be commercially the costs associated with available in 18-24 months. investigating and prosecuting The 30 minute test involves innocent people and allow wearing a headband with law enforcement built-in electrodes; professionals to concentrate technicians then present on suspects who have words, phrases and images verifiable, detailed that are both known and knowledge of the crimes. unknown to the patient to determine whether Medical: information that should be in ‘Brain Fingerprinting’ is the the brain is still there. When patented technology that can presented with familiar measure objectively, for the information, the brain 18
  • 19. responds by producing be able to offer significantly MERMERs, specific more advanced, scientific increases in neuron activity. methods to help determine The technician can use this the effectiveness of response to measure how campaigns and be very cost quickly information is competitive with current disappearing from the brain methodologies. This and whether the drugs they technology will be able to are taking are slowing down help determine what the process. information is actually retained in memory by Additional Applications: individuals. For example, in a In advertising, Brain branding campaign do people Fingerprinting Laboratories remember the brand, the will offer significant product, etc. and how do the advances in measuring results vary with campaign and media demographics? We will also effectiveness. Most be able to measure the advertising programs today comparative effectiveness of are evaluated subjectively multiple media types. In the using focus groups. We will insurance industry, Brain 19
  • 20. Fingerprinting Laboratories will be able to help reduce the incidence of insurance 6.Advantages and fraud by determining if an Limitations of Brain individual has knowledge of Fingerprinting: fraudulent or criminal acts. Advantages: The same type of testing can a. Identify the Crime help to determine if an Perpetrator quickly and individual has specific scientifically knowledge related to b. Record of 100 % Accuracy computer crimes where there c. Reduced expenditure of is typically no witness or Money and Man Hours of physical evidence. Law enforcement d. Provide smooth handling The devices used in brain of suspects to the Law fingerprinting Enforcement Agency e. Human rights friendly f. Likely to be an admissible evidence in Court of Law, because the evidence is 20
  • 21. scientific, objective, accurate 7.Conclusion: and non-invasive in nature. Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new scientific Limitations: technology for solving a.It does not detect how that crimes, identifying information got there. perpetrators, and exonerating innocent suspects, with a b. Brain Fingerprinting record of 100% accuracy in detects only information, and research with US government not intent. agencies, actual criminal c. Where the suspects knows cases, and other applications. everything that the The technology fulfills an investigator can ask. urgent need for governments, law enforcement agencies, d. Authorities have no corporations, investigators, information about what crime crime victims, and falsely may have taken place. Brain accused, innocent suspects. Fingerprinting does not detect lies. It simply detects information. 21
  • 22. 8.References: • Farwell LA and Smith SS. Using Brain MERMER Testing To Detect Concealed Knowledge Despite Efforts To Conceal Journal of Forensic Sciences 2001. • Farwell LA and Donchin E. The Truth Will Out:Interrogative Polygraphy (“Lie Detection”) With Event Related Potentials. • Farwell LA. brainwavescience.com. • Lander ES. DNA fingerprinting on trial. Nature 1989. • Lambourne GTC. The Use of Fingerprints in Identification. Med. Sci Law 1979. 22
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