PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND              PRACTICEIII. NEW PARADIGMS OF PUBLIC     ADMINISTRATION        Graduate S...
CONTENTSTHE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION1. REINVENTING GOVERNMENT2. THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)3 NEW PUBLIC SERVICE3.4. P...
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURE ISCHANGING TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE INNOVATIVE                     FLEXIBLE, INNOVATIVE,PROBLEM S...
THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATEPLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ‘WHAT MATTERS IS   C S              SSO ‘              S ...
THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION  IN 1968, DWIGHT WALDO, SPONSORED A  CO  CONFERENCE OF YOUNG PUBLIC            C O OU G U C ...
THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WASDISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONALPHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENES...
FOR EXAMPLE, GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1980), IN HISNEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ARGUED IN BEHALFOF SOCIAL EQUITY AS A GUIDING CO...
SCHOLARS DURING THAT PERIOD EMPHASIZED THENEED TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONALTOP-DOWN HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF BU...
MAIN AGREEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION:ADMINISTRATION  1)   PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARE       N...
5)   COOPERATION, CONSENSUS, AND DEMOCRATIC     ADMINISTRATION ARE MORE LIKELY THAN THE SIMPLE     EXERCISE OF ADMINISTRAT...
THE OVERRIDING SPIRIT OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION WAS A MORAL TONE.                              TONETHE NEW PUBLIC AD...
THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION NEVER LIVED UP TOITS AMBITIONS OF REVOLUTIONIZING THE DISCIPLINE.NEVERTHELESS,NEVERTHELESS T...
REINVENTING GOVERNMENTBUREAUCRATIC MODEL DEVELOPED IN CONDITIONS VERYDIFFERENT FROM THOSE EXISTING TODAY.IT DEVELOPED IN A...
AND IT DEVELOPED WITH STRONG GEOGRAPHICCOMMUNITIES –TIGHTLY KNIT NEIGHBORHOODS ANDTOWNS.TODAY STODAY’S ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS...
MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORMINCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE,RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, WITH“CUSTOME...
BY THE FINAL TWO DECADES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, A                O  C    SO                 C   U ,NUMBER OF FORCES—INT...
THESE KINDS OF SOCIAL TRENDS RESULTED IN ANEXPLOSION OF PUBLICATIONS IN THE EARLY 1990s THATCALLED FOR A NEW KIND OF GOVER...
1.   CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT:       STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING.2.   COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT:       EMPOWERING RATHER THAN...
6.6     CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:      CUSTOMER DRIVEN        MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THE        BUREAUCR...
THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)  IN THE EARLY 1990s, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOL...
A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTAPPROACH       DATE SELECTED FEATURESCLASSICAL      1900   ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED...
APPROACH          DATE     SELECTED FEATURESOPEN SYSTEM/      1965   ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTSCO...
THE TERM "NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT" (NPM) WASCOINED IN 1989 BY CHRISTOPHER HOOD TORETROSPECTIVELY CHARACTERIZE THE “QUITE    ...
IT CALLED FOR AMONG OTHERS: PUTTINGCUSTOMERS FIRST, MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS            FIRSTCOMPETE, CREATING MARKET ...
TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANTMANAGERIAL APPROACH.ITS KEY CONCEPT-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY ADECADE AGO- ARE NOW THE ...
CHRISTOPHER HOOD (1991), CHARACTERIZE NPM‘sPRINCIPAL THEMES TO INCLUDE:   A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON POLICY TOWARD A...
MANY SCHOLARS ATTRIBUTE THE ASCENDANCY OFTHE NPM MOVEMENT TO THE RISING ANDENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT OF GOVERNMENT.ACCORDING ...
ACCORDING TO HENRY, THE ROOT THE NEW PUBLIC                  ,MANAGEMENT IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING SIXIDEAS:  GOVERNMEN...
TOONEN (2001) DEVISED AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF NPM,AS:      A BUSINESS-ORIENTED APPROACH TO GOVERNMENT;      A QUALITY AND P...
A LINKAGE OF PUBLIC DEMAND, PROVISION, AND                    DEMAND PROVISIONSUPPLY UNITS BY TRANSACTIONAL DEVICES(PERFOR...
NEW PUBLIC SERVICE JANET V. DENHANDT AND ROBERT B. DENHANDT POSTULATE THAT WHILE THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT HAS BEEN TOUTED...
IN CONTRAST TO THESE MAINSTREAM MODELS OF PUBLICADMINISTRATION OR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT THAT AREROOTED IN THE IDEA OF RATIONAL...
DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP CITIZENS LOOK BEYOND THEIR SELF-INTEREST TO THE LARGER PUBLIC INTEREST ADOPTING A BROADER AND LONG ...
CONSISTENTLY WITH THIS PERSPECTIVE, KING AND STIVERS(1998) ASSERT THAT ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD SEECITIZENS AS CITIZENS (RATH...
MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY CITIZENS FELT GREAT FRUSTRATION AND ANGER THAT THEY HAD BEEN PUSHED OUT OF THE POLIT...
FIRST, WHERE STRONG NETWORKS OF CITIZEN INTERACTIONAND HIGH LEVELS OF SOCIAL TRUST AND COHESION AMONGCITIZENS EXIST, PUBLI...
BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING BROAD-SCALEEFFORTS IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, JOSEPH GRAY AND LINDACHAPIN (1998) COMMENT...
ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION     OVER THE PAST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS PUBLIC                       ...
IN MOST ORGANISATION PEOPLE HAVE RELATIVELY LITTLE        ORGANISATION,CONTROL OVER THEIR WORK. IN MANY CASES, THEY ARE EX...
OTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONSTRUCTINGMORE HUMANISTIC ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORWERE MADE BY THE GROUP OF S...
ALL THOSE ARGUMENTS, AND THE CURRENTDISCOURCES ON POST MODERN ADMINISTRATIONCONTRIBUTE TO THE NEW APPROACH IN PUBLICADMINI...
POSTMODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION   POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION   THEORY CAN BE MOST EASILY UNDERSTOOD   AS THE ANTITHE...
MODERNISM IS THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGHREASON, AND KNOWLEDGE THUS DERIVED IS SIMPLYASSUMED TO BE FACTUAL AND THEREFO...
POSTMODERNISTS DESCRIBE MODERN LIFE ASHYPERREALITY, A BLURRING OF THE REAL AND THEUNREAL.UNREAL POSTMODERNISTS CLAIM THAT ...
MODERNITY IS ALSO CHARACTERIZED IN POSTMODERNITYAS PARTICULARLY AUTHORITARIAN AND UNJUST. MUCH OFPOSTMODERN LANGUAGE HAS T...
FINALLY, MODERNITY, IN THE POSTMODERNPERSPECTIVE, IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITHOBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT;POSTM...
TO POSTMODERNISTS, MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONBASED ON ENLIGHTENMENT LOGIC IS SIMPLY MISGUIDED.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEO...
THE IDEAL OF AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE SEES ADMINISTRATORSAND CITIZENS AS ENGAGING FULLY WITH ONE ANOTHER, NOTMERELY AS RATIONAL...
THROUGH APPROACHES SUCH AS THESE, SCHOLARS HOPED                             THESETO BUILD ALTERNATIVES APPROACHES TO THE ...
GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICAL GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANT ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO ...
THE TRADITIONAL, HIERARCHICAL MODEL OFGOVERNMENT SIMPLY DOES NOT MEET THE DEMANDS OFTHIS COMPLEX, RAPIDLY CHANGING AGE.RIG...
IN MANY WAYS, TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGESAND THE MEANS OF ADDRESSING THEM ARE MORENUMEROUS AND COMPLEX THAN EVER BEFOR...
• PARADIGM SHIFT GLOBAL                         POLITICAL NATIONAL                       ECONOMIC LOCAL                   ...
GLOBALIZATION               UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC                                 POLITICAL AUTHORITY            ...
QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEYARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS A LONGHISTOR...
POLITICAL  DEMOCRACY                                     STRUCTURE AND   SOCIETAL                            VALUES OFTRAN...
IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESSPARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIESWITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OFAUT...
CORE VALUES OF                        ?             VALUES & NEEDS    PUBLIC                             OF SOCIETY ATADMI...
A COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIALDIFFERENTIATION HAS GRADUALLY ERODED THERIGIDITIES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY STR...
?               ABSORB SCALE ANDCOMPLEXITY     PROCESS                PUBLIC                                       U C OF ...
THE STRAINS ON MODERN GOVERNMENT CAUSED BYTHE GROWING COMPLEXITY AND SCALE OF OPERATIONHAVE BROUGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS THE P...
SOCIAL   PARTICIPATION             CHALENGE THEVALUES   DEMOCRACY                STRUCTURES OF                            ...
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TODAY, THERE IS AMOUNTING CHALLENGE TO CENTRALIZED,HIERARCHICAL, CONTROL-ORIENTED      C C     CO   O...
CORE VALUES       ><   SOCIAL VALUES                                                 ETHICS CENTRALIZED,    OPEN          ...
FROM ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE, JAN KOOIMAN (2006) OFFERS               PERSPECTIVEA WORKING DEFINITION OF SOCIAL-POLITICAL ORIN...
GOVERNANCE REFERS TO SELF-ORGANIZING,INTERORGANIZATIONAL NET-WORKS CHARACTERIZED BYINTERDEPENDENCE, RESOURCE-EXCHANGE, RUL...
NETWORKSTRUCTURE                                STAKEHOLDERSHIERARCHY                       PARTICIPATION            www.g...
ACCORDING TO H. GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1997)THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE DISTINCT CONCEPTIONSOF GOVERNANCE:1) )   GO     GOVERNA...
2)   GOVERNANCE EQUATES TO THE MANAGERIALIST OR     NPM MOVEMENT. THIS IS PARTICULARLY EVIDENT IN     NATIONS ASSOCIATED W...
THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENT PERSISTS,BUT ITS INFLUENCE IS STEADILY WANING, PUSHED BYGOVERNMENTS NEEDS TO SOLVE EV...
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, BUREAUS, DIVISIONS, ANDOFFICES ARE BECOMING LESS IMPORTANT AS DIRECTSSERVICE PROVIDERS, BUT MORE IMPO...
NETWORKS CAN SERVE A RANGE OF IMPROMPTU PURPOSES,SUCH AS CREATING A MARKETPLACE OF NEW IDEAS INSIDE ABUREAUCRACY OR FOSTER...
MODELS OF GOVERNMENTSPublic private collaboration   High                                            Outsourced            ...
THE NEW USE OF GOVERNANCE DOES NOT POINT ATSTATE ACTORS AND INSTITUTIONS AS THE ONLYRELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND ACTORS IN TH...
THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY                                   TWENTY-FIRST            Private ...
THE CHALLENGES THE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKED GOVERNMENT WITH ITS MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE. WHEN AUTHORITY ...
HOW DO NETWORK MANAGERS BALANCE THE NEED FORACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OFFLEXIBILITY?GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRADITIONAL...
NETWORK PARTNERS, FACED WITH INTRUSIVE ANDFREQUENT PERFORMANCE AND PRICE AUDITS, TEND TOBECOME RIGID AND RISK AVERSE. INNO...
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE WHEREAS THE GOVERNANCE DISCUSSIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERM GOVERNANCE IS...
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE’ IS THE WATCHWORD OFTHOSE WHO WISH TO IMPROVE THE ACCOUNTABILITYAND TRANSPARENCY OF THE ACTIONS OFMAN...
GLOBAL GOVERNANCE ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IS THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF TRANSNATIONAL POLI...
THE DEREGULATIONS OF CAPITAL IN THE 1980 SET IN                                    1980sTRAIN A MASSIVE RESTRUCTURING OF B...
NEW DEMANDS OF ACCOUNTABILITY TOINTERNATIONAL MARKETS AND STANDARDS MAY CLASHWITH THE TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY....
PESSIMIST SUGGEST THAT GLOBALIZATION MEANS THATGOVERNMENT EVERYWHERE HAVE BECOME POWERLESS ANDTHAT MANAGING GLOBALIZATION ...
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  1. 1. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICEIII. NEW PARADIGMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Graduate School of Asia and Pacific Studies University of Waseda, Tokyo-JAPAN 2008
  2. 2. CONTENTSTHE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION1. REINVENTING GOVERNMENT2. THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM)3 NEW PUBLIC SERVICE3.4. POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION5 GOVERNANCE5. www.ginandjar.com 2
  3. 3. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURE ISCHANGING TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE INNOVATIVE FLEXIBLE, INNOVATIVE,PROBLEM SOLVING, ENTREPRENEURIAL, ANDENTERPRISING AS OPPOSED TO RULE-BOUND RULE BOUND,PROCESS-ORIENTED, AND FOCUSED ON INPUTSRATHER THAN RESULTS. www.ginandjar.com 3
  4. 4. THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATEPLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ‘WHAT MATTERS IS C S SSO ‘ S SNOT WHAT WE DO, BUT HOW PEOPLE FEEL ABOUTWHAT WE DO AND THAT ‘PROCESSES MATTER OR DO’ PROCESSES MATTER’PUT DIFFERENTLY, ‘THE ENDS DO NOT JUSTIFYTHE MEANS’.HERE ARE SOME OF THE NEW PARADIGMS INPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. www.ginandjar.com 4
  5. 5. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN 1968, DWIGHT WALDO, SPONSORED A CO CONFERENCE OF YOUNG PUBLIC C O OU G U C ADMINISTRATIONISTS ON THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. THE PROCEEDINGS WERE PUBLISHED AS A BOOK IN 1971, TITLED TOWARD A NEW PUBLIC 9 , O U C ADMINISTRATION: THE MINNOWBROOK PERSPECTIVE. www.ginandjar.com 5
  6. 6. THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WASDISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONALPHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS,BUDGETING, AND ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES.THE QUESTIONS IT RAISED DEALT WITH VALUES,ETHICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUALMEMBER IN THE ORGANIZATION, THE RELATION OF THE ORGANIZATIONCLIENT WITH THE BUREAUCRACY, AND THE BROADPROBLEMS OF URBANISM, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIALCONFLICTS. www.ginandjar.com 6
  7. 7. FOR EXAMPLE, GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1980), IN HISNEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ARGUED IN BEHALFOF SOCIAL EQUITY AS A GUIDING CONCEPT INADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL DECISION MAKING.HE WROTE THAT "IT IS INCUMBENT ON THE PUBLICSERVANT TO BE ABLE TO DEVELOP AND DEFENDCRITERIA AND MEASURES OF EQUITY AND TOUNDERSTAND THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SERVICES ONTHE DIGNITY AND WELL BEING OF CITIZENS". WELL-BEING CITIZENS www.ginandjar.com 7
  8. 8. SCHOLARS DURING THAT PERIOD EMPHASIZED THENEED TO EXPLORE ALTERNATIVES TO THE TRADITIONALTOP-DOWN HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF BUREAUCRATICORGANIZATION. INDICTING THE OLD MODEL FOR ITSOBJECTIFICATION AND DEPERSONALIZATION OFORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS AND CALLING FOR MODELSBUILT AROUND OPENNESS TRUST AND HONEST OPENNESS, TRUST,COMMUNICATIONS. www.ginandjar.com 8
  9. 9. MAIN AGREEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION:ADMINISTRATION 1) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARE NOT AND CANNOT BE EITHER NEUTRAL OR OBJECTIVE. 2) ) TECHNOLOGY IS OFTEN DEHUMANIZING. 3) BUREAUCRATIC HIERARCHY IS OFTEN INEFFECTIVE AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY. 4) BUREAUCRACIES TEND TOWARD GOAL DISPLACEMENT AND SURVIVAL. www.ginandjar.com 9
  10. 10. 5) COOPERATION, CONSENSUS, AND DEMOCRATIC ADMINISTRATION ARE MORE LIKELY THAN THE SIMPLE EXERCISE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY TO RESULT IN ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS.6) MODERN CONCEPTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MUST BE BUILT ON POSTBEHAV-IORAL AND POSTPOSITIVIST LOGIC- MORE DEMOCRATIC, MORE ADAPTABLE, MORE RESPONSIVE TO CHANGING SOCIAL ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL, ECONOMIC POLITICAL CIRCUMSTANCES. (MARINI 1971) www.ginandjar.com 10
  11. 11. THE OVERRIDING SPIRIT OF THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION WAS A MORAL TONE. TONETHE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CAN BE VIEWED AS ACALL FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM BOTH POLITICAL SCIENCE(IT WAS NOT, AFTER ALL, EVER CALLED THE NEWPOLITICS OF BUREAUCRACY) AND MANAGEMENT (SINCEMAN-AGEMENTMAN AGEMENT ALWAYS HAD BEEN EMPHATICALLYTECHNICAL RATHER THAN NORMATIVE IN APPROACH). (H. GEORGE FREDERICKSON, TOWARD A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 1977). www.ginandjar.com 11
  12. 12. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION NEVER LIVED UP TOITS AMBITIONS OF REVOLUTIONIZING THE DISCIPLINE.NEVERTHELESS,NEVERTHELESS THE MOVEMENT HAD A LASTING IMPACTON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THAT THEY NUDGEDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONISTS INTO RECONSIDERING THEIRTRADITIONAL INTELLECTUAL TIES WITH BOTH POLITICALSCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT, AND INTO CONTEMPLATINGTHE PROSPECTS OF ACADEMIC AUTONOMY. AUTONOMYHOWEVER, THEY LATER INSPIRE THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANEW APPROACHES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SUCH ASTHE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE AND THE POSTMODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION. www.ginandjar.com 12
  13. 13. REINVENTING GOVERNMENTBUREAUCRATIC MODEL DEVELOPED IN CONDITIONS VERYDIFFERENT FROM THOSE EXISTING TODAY.IT DEVELOPED IN A SLOWER PACED SOCIETY, WHEN SLOWER-PACED SOCIETYCHANGE PROCEEDED AT A LEISURELY GAIT.IT DEVELOPED IN AN AGE OF HIERARCHY, WHEN ONLY HIERARCHYTHOSE AT THE TOP OF THE PYRAMID HAD ENOUGHINFORMATION TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS.IT DEVELOPED IN A SOCIETY OF PEOPLE WHO WORKEDWITH THEIR HANDS, NOT THEIR MINDS.IT DEVELOPED IN A TIME OF MASS MARKETS, WHEN MOSTPEOPLE HAD SIMILAR WANTS AND NEEDS. www.ginandjar.com 13
  14. 14. AND IT DEVELOPED WITH STRONG GEOGRAPHICCOMMUNITIES –TIGHTLY KNIT NEIGHBORHOODS ANDTOWNS.TODAY STODAY’S ENVIRONMENT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT AREEXTREMELY FLEXIBLE AND ADAPTABLE.IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT DELIVER HIGH QUALITYGOODS AND SERVICES SERVICES,IT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE RESPONSIVE TOTHEIR COSTUMERS, OFFERING CHOICES OFNONSTANDARDIZED SERVICES THAT LEAD BY PERSUASION SERVICES;AND INCENTIVES RATHER THAN COMMANDS; THAT GIVETHEIR EMPLOYEES A SENSE OF MEANING AND CONTROL,EVEN OWNERSHIP. OWNERSHIPIT DEMANDS INSTITUTIONS THAT EMPOWER CITIZENSRATHER THAN SIMPLY SERVING THEM. www.ginandjar.com 14
  15. 15. MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORMINCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE,RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, WITH“CUSTOMERS” WHO WANT QUALITY AND CHOICE. www.ginandjar.com 15
  16. 16. BY THE FINAL TWO DECADES OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, A O C SO C U ,NUMBER OF FORCES—INTELLECTUAL, POLITICAL, ANDFISCAL—WERE MAKING THEMSELVES FELT WITHINGOVERNMENTS.GOVERNMENTS THESE FORCES INCLUDED THE EMERGENCEOF LARGE, HIGH PERFORMANCE CORPORATIONS,INNOVATIONS UNDERTAKEN TO REDUCE NATIONAL DEFICITS, ,RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES, THE END OF THE COLDWAR, WITH ITS ATTENDANT REFOCUSING BY CITIZENS INMANY NATIONS ON DOMESTIC ISSUES, A DECLINING FAITH ISSUES FAITH—A “TRUST DEFICIT“—IN THE GOVERNMENTS, AND NEWRESTRICTIONS ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS THAT LED TOTHEIR SEEKING NEW WAYS OF MANAGING. www.ginandjar.com 16
  17. 17. THESE KINDS OF SOCIAL TRENDS RESULTED IN ANEXPLOSION OF PUBLICATIONS IN THE EARLY 1990s THATCALLED FOR A NEW KIND OF GOVERNMENT REFORM. THE REFORMMOST FAMOUS OF THESE CRITIQUES WAS THE NATIONALBEST SELLER REINVENTING GOVERNMENT: HOW THEENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT IS TRANSFORMING THE PUBLICSECTOR. (DAVID OSBORN AND TED GAEBLER, 1992) www.ginandjar.com 17
  18. 18. 1. CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT: STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING.2. COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT: EMPOWERING RATHER THAN SERVING.3.3 COMPETITIVE GOVERNMENT: INJECTING COMPETITION INTO SERVICE DELIVERY.4.4 MISSION-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT: TRANSFORMING RULE-DRIVEN ORGANIZATIONS5.5 RESULTS ORIENTED RESULTS-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT: FUNDING OUTCOMES, NO INPUTS. www.ginandjar.com 18
  19. 19. 6.6 CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT: CUSTOMER DRIVEN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THE BUREAUCRACY.7. ENTERPRISING GOVERNMENT: ERANING RATHER THAN SPENDING.8. ANTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT: PREVENTION RATHER THAN CURE.9. DECENTRELAIZED GOVERNMENT: FROM HIERARCHY TO PARTICIPATION AND TEAMWORK.10. MARKET-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT: LEVERAGING CHANGE THROUGH THE MARKET. www.ginandjar.com 19
  20. 20. THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM) IN THE EARLY 1990s, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOLD. LIKE THE TRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL APPROACH AT ITS INCEPTION, THE NEW APPROACH IS REFORM-ORIENTED AND SEEKS TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE IT STARTS FROM THE PREMISE THAT TRADITIONAL, BUREAUCRATICALLY ORGANIZED PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS "BROKE" AND "BROKEN“, AND CONSEQUENTLY THE PUBLIC HAS LOST FAITH IN GOVERNMENT. MANAGERIALISM REFERS TO AN ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, ONE THAT EMPHASIZES THE RIGHTS OF MANAGERS TO RUN THE ORGANIZATION AND THE APPLICATION OF REINVIGORATED SCIENTIFIC-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES. (LEMAY, 2002) www.ginandjar.com 20
  21. 21. A BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTAPPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURESCLASSICAL 1900 ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMS; SYSTEMS STRESS ON EFFICIENCY, CONTROL AND THE BUREAUCRATIC FORMBEHAVIORAL/ 1930 EMPHASIS ON PEOPLE RATHER THAN MACHINES;HUMAN CLOSE ATTENTION TO FACTORS SUCH AS GROUPRELATIONS DYNAMICS, COMMUNICATION, MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP AND PARTICIPATIONQUANTITATIVE 1940 PROVISION OF QUANTITATIVE TOOLS TO SUPPORT MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING; FOUND IN ; MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS www.ginandjar.com 21
  22. 22. APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURESOPEN SYSTEM/ 1965 ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTSCONTIGENCY WHICH RELATE TO THE ENVIRONMENT; EMPHASIS ON FITTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO THE SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONPOWER/ POLITICS 1965 ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION-MAKING IS NOT GUIDED BY TECHNICAL RATIONALITY BUT IS DETERMINED BY POLITICAL PROCESSES; A DOMINANT COALITION WILL BE THE MAJOR LOCUS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWERQUALITY 1955 STRONGLY PURSUED IN JAPANESE POSTWAR INDUSTRIALMOVEMENTS DEVELOPMENT AND MUCH LATER ADOPTED ELSEWHERE; CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT BY WORKING TOGETHER AND CLIENT FOCUS; TYPIFIED IN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, BENCHMARKING, QUALITY CIRCLES AND ISO 9000MANAGERIALISM 1980 ADOPTION BY THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF PRIVATE SECTOR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES; APPLICATION OF PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY AND NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMICS TO PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT (TURNER AND HULME, 1997) www.ginandjar.com 22
  23. 23. THE TERM "NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT" (NPM) WASCOINED IN 1989 BY CHRISTOPHER HOOD TORETROSPECTIVELY CHARACTERIZE THE “QUITE QSIMILAR ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES" OFAUSTRALIA, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, THE UNITEDKINGDOM,KINGDOM AND (WITH A DIFFERENT EMPHASIS) THEUNITED STATES OF THE 1970s AND 1980s.IN KÖNIGS TERMS NPM IS A POPULARISED MIXTUREOF MANAGEMENT THEORIES, BUSINESS MOTIVATIONPSYCHOLOGY AND NEO-LIBERAL ECONOMY (1997,219).219) www.ginandjar.com 23
  24. 24. IT CALLED FOR AMONG OTHERS: PUTTINGCUSTOMERS FIRST, MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS FIRSTCOMPETE, CREATING MARKET DYNAMICS, USINGMARKET MECHANISMS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS,EMPOWERING EMPLOYEES TO GET RESULTS,DECENTRALIZATION DECISION MAKING POWER,STREAMLINING THE BUDGET PROCESS,DECENTRALIZATION PERSONNEL POLICY, ANDSTREAMLINING PROCUREMENT PROCUREMENT. www.ginandjar.com 24
  25. 25. TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANTMANAGERIAL APPROACH.ITS KEY CONCEPT-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY ADECADE AGO- ARE NOW THE STANDARD LANGUAGEOF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. ADMINISTRATIONTERMS SUCH AS "RESULTS ORIENTED", "CUSTOMERSFOCUSED",FOCUSED" "EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT", EMPOWERMENT""ENTREPRENEURSHIP", AND "OUTSOURCING", HAVEDOMINATED THE MAINSTREAM MAINSTREAM. www.ginandjar.com 25
  26. 26. CHRISTOPHER HOOD (1991), CHARACTERIZE NPM‘sPRINCIPAL THEMES TO INCLUDE: A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON POLICY TOWARD AN EMPHASIS ON MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE; A SHIFT AWAY FROM RELIANCE ON TRADITIONAL BUREAUCRACIES TOWARD LOOSELY COUPLED, QUASI QUASI- AUTONOMOUS UNITS AND COMPETITIVELY TENDERED SERVICES; A SHIFT AWAY FROM AN EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTMENT TOWARD COST-CUTTING; ALLOWING PUBLIC MANAGERS GREATER "FREEDOM TO MANAGE" ACCORDING TO PRIVATE SECTOR CORPORATE PRACTICE; PRACTICE AND A SHIFT AWAY FROM CLASSIC COMMAND-AND-CONTROL REGULATION TOWARD SELF-REGULATION. www.ginandjar.com 26
  27. 27. MANY SCHOLARS ATTRIBUTE THE ASCENDANCY OFTHE NPM MOVEMENT TO THE RISING ANDENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT OF GOVERNMENT.ACCORDING TO NICHOLAS HENRY (2004), THE NEWPUBLIC MANAGEMENT IS AN EXPANDED VIEW OFREINVENTING ENTREPRENEURIAL GOVERNMENT. www.ginandjar.com 27
  28. 28. ACCORDING TO HENRY, THE ROOT THE NEW PUBLIC ,MANAGEMENT IS COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING SIXIDEAS: GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE ENTREPRENEURIAL AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF ITS SERVICE. GOVERNMENT SHOULD COLLABORATE AND WORK WITH OTHER GOVERNMENT AND THE NONPROFIT AND PRIVATE SECTORS TO ACHIEVE SOCIAL GOALS. GOVERNMENT SHOULD JUDGE ITS PERFORMANCE WITH MEASURABLE RESULT. GOVERNMENT SHOULD IMPROVE ITS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE PUBLIC INTEREST, WHICH SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD IN TERMS OF LAW, COMMUNITY, AND SHARED VALUES. GOVERNMENT SHOULD EMPOWER CITIZENS AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEES ALIKE. GOVERNMENT SHOULD ANTICIPATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS. www.ginandjar.com 28
  29. 29. TOONEN (2001) DEVISED AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF NPM,AS: A BUSINESS-ORIENTED APPROACH TO GOVERNMENT; A QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ORIENTED APPROACH TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT; AN EMPHASIS ON IMPROVED PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY AND FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIVENESS; AN INSTITUTIONAL SEPARATION OF PUBLIC DEMAND FUNCTIONS, FUNCTIONS PUBLIC PROVISION AND PUBLIC SERVICE PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS. www.ginandjar.com 29
  30. 30. A LINKAGE OF PUBLIC DEMAND, PROVISION, AND DEMAND PROVISIONSUPPLY UNITS BY TRANSACTIONAL DEVICES(PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT, INTERNAL CONTRACTMANAGEMENT, CORPORATIZATIONMANAGEMENT CORPORATIZATION,INTERGOVERNMENTAL COVENANTING ANDCONTRACTING, CONTRACTING OUT) AND QUALITYMANAGEMENT;WHEREVER POSSIBLE, THE RETREAT OF(BUREAUCRATIC) GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS INFAVOR OF AN INTELLIGENT USE OF MARKETS ANDCOMMERCIAL MARKET ENTERPRISES (DEREGULATION,PRIVATIZATION, COMMERCIALIZATION, ANDMARKETIZATION) OR VIRTUAL MARKETS (INTERNALCOMPETITION, BENCHMARKING, COMPETITIVETENDERING). www.ginandjar.com 30
  31. 31. NEW PUBLIC SERVICE JANET V. DENHANDT AND ROBERT B. DENHANDT POSTULATE THAT WHILE THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT HAS BEEN TOUTED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, IT ACTUALLY HAS MUCH IN COMMNON WITH THE MAINSTREAM MODEL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ADMINISTRATION SPECIFICALLY A DEPENDENCE ON AND COMMITMENT TO MODELS OF RATIONAL CHOICE. SO WHILE THERE ARE CLEARLY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, THE BASIC THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THESE TWO "MAINSTREAM" VERSIONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY ARE IN FACT VERY MUCH ALIKE. www.ginandjar.com 31
  32. 32. IN CONTRAST TO THESE MAINSTREAM MODELS OF PUBLICADMINISTRATION OR PUBLIC MANAGEMENT THAT AREROOTED IN THE IDEA OF RATIONAL CHOICE, THEY SUGGEST OO O O C OC , SUGG SAN ALTERNATIVE CALLED THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE.THEY BASE THEIR THEORY ON CONTEMPORARY PRECURSORSINCLUDING (1) THEORIES OF DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP. (2)MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY, (3)ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION, AND (4) POST MODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION. www.ginandjar.com 32
  33. 33. DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP CITIZENS LOOK BEYOND THEIR SELF-INTEREST TO THE LARGER PUBLIC INTEREST ADOPTING A BROADER AND LONG INTEREST. LONG- TERM PERSPECTIVE THAT REQUIRES A KNOWLEDGE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND ALSO A SENSE OF BELONGING, A CONCERN FOR THE WHOLE, AND A MORAL BOND WITH THE WHOLE COMMUNITY WHOSE FATE IS AT STAKE. PUBLIC SPIRIT NEEDS TO BE NOURISHED AND MAINTAINED, AND THAT CAN BE AIDED BY CONSTANT ATTENTION TO PRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND DELIBERATION. www.ginandjar.com 33
  34. 34. CONSISTENTLY WITH THIS PERSPECTIVE, KING AND STIVERS(1998) ASSERT THAT ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD SEECITIZENS AS CITIZENS (RATHER THAN MERELY VOTERS, VOTERSCLIENTS, OR "CUSTOMERS"), SHOULD SHARE AUTHORITY ANDREDUCE CONTROL, AND SHOULD TRUST IN THE EFFICACY OFCOLLABORATION.COLLABORATIONMOREOVER, IN CONTRAST TO MANAGERIALIST CALLS FORGREATER EFFICIENCY, KING AND STIVERS SUGGEST THATPUBLIC MANAGERS SHOULD SEEK GREATER RESPONSIVE-NESSAND A CORRESPONDING INCREASE IN CITIZEN TRUST. www.ginandjar.com 34
  35. 35. MODELS OF COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY CITIZENS FELT GREAT FRUSTRATION AND ANGER THAT THEY HAD BEEN PUSHED OUT OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM BY A PROFESSIONAL POLITICAL CLASS OF POWERFULL LOBBYISTS, INCUMBENT POLITICIANS, CAMPAIGN MANAGERS AND A MEDIA POLITICIANS ELITE. THEY SAW THE SYSTEM AS ONE IN WHICH VOTES NO LONGER MADE ANY DIFFERENCE. THEY SAW A SYSTEM WITH ITS DOORS CLOSED TO THE AVERAGED CITIZEN (MATHEWS, (MATHEWS 1994). AS A CONSEQUENCE, CITIZENS FELT ALIENATED AND DETACHED. HOW ARE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AFFECTED BY AND HOW DO THEY AFFECT COMMUNITY AND CIVIL SOCIETY? www.ginandjar.com 35
  36. 36. FIRST, WHERE STRONG NETWORKS OF CITIZEN INTERACTIONAND HIGH LEVELS OF SOCIAL TRUST AND COHESION AMONGCITIZENS EXIST, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN COUNT ON THESE EXISTEXISTING STOCK OF SOCIAL CAPITAL TO BUILD EVEN STRONGERNETWORKS, TO OPEN NEW AVENUES FOR DIALOGUE AND DEBATE,AND TO FURTHER EDUCATE CITIZENS WITH RESPECT TO MATTERSOF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE (WOOLUM, 2000).SECOND, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN CONTRIBUTE TOBUILDING COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL. SOME ARE ARGUING CAPITALTODAY THAT THE PRIMARY ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORIS THAT OF BUILDING COMMUNITY (NALBANDIAN, 1999). OTHERSARGUE THAT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CAN PLAY AN ACTIVE ROLEIN PROMOTING SOCIAL CAPITAL BY ENCOURAGING CITIZENINVOLVEMENT IN PUBLIC DECISION MAKING. www.ginandjar.com 36
  37. 37. BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING BROAD-SCALEEFFORTS IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, JOSEPH GRAY AND LINDACHAPIN (1998) COMMENT, "CITIZENS DON T ALWAYS GET CITIZENS DONTWHAT THEY WANT, BUT INCLUDING THEM PERSONALIZES THEWORK WE DO-CONNECTS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TO THEPUBLIC.PUBLIC AND THIS CONNECTION LEADS TO UNDERSTANDINGFOR BOTH CITIZENS AND ADMINISTRATORS". SUCH ANUNDERSTANDING ENRICHES BOTH GOVERNMENT AND THECOMMUNITY. www.ginandjar.com 37
  38. 38. ORGANIZATIONAL HUMANISM AND THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION OVER THE PAST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS PUBLIC YEARS, ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS HAVE JOINED OTHER DISCIPLINES IN SUGGESTING THAT TRADITIONAL HIERARCHICAL APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ORGANIZATION ARE RESTRICTIVE IN THEIR VIEW OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR, AND THEY HAVE JOINED IN A CRITIQUE OF BUREAUCRACY AND A SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION. COLLECTIVELY, THESE APPROACHES HAVE SOUGHT TO FASHION PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS LESS DOMINATED BY ISSUES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL AND MORE ATTENTIVE TO THE NEEDS AND CONCERNS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONSTITUENTS . www.ginandjar.com 38
  39. 39. IN MOST ORGANISATION PEOPLE HAVE RELATIVELY LITTLE ORGANISATION,CONTROL OVER THEIR WORK. IN MANY CASES, THEY ARE EXPECTEDTO BE SUBMISSIVE, DEPENDENT, AND LIMITED IN WHAT THEY CANDO.DO SUCH AN ARRANGEMENT ULTIMATELY BACKFIRES, AS IT LIMITS BACKFIRESTHE CONTRIBUTIONS EMPLOYEES CAN MAKE TO THEORGANIZATION (ARGYRIS, 1962).IN ORDER TO PROMOTE INDIVIDUALS GROWTH AS WELL ASIMPROVED ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE, ARGYRIS SOUGHT ANAPPROACH TO MANAGEMENT IN WHICH MANAGERS WOULDDEVELOP AND EMPLOY “SKILL IN SELF-AWARENESS, IN EFFECTIVE SKILL SELF-AWARENESSDIAGNOSING, IN HELPING INDIVIDUALS GROW AND BECOME MORECREATIVE, [AND] IN COPING WITH DEPENDENT-ORIENTED …EMPLOYEESEMPLOYEES”. www.ginandjar.com 39
  40. 40. OTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONSTRUCTINGMORE HUMANISTIC ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORWERE MADE BY THE GROUP OF SCHOLARS COLLECTIVELYKNOWN AS THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (ASDISCUSSED EARLIER) , ESSENTIALLY THE PUBLICADMINISTRATION’S COUNTERPART TO THE LATESIXTIES/EARLY SEVENTIES RADICAL MOVEMENTS IN SOCIETYGENERALLY AND IN OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES.THE PROPONENTS OF NEW PUBLIC SERVICE RECALL SOME OFTHE IDEAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NEW PUBLICADMINISTRATION WITH RESPECT TO THE ISSUE OFORGANIZATION HUMANISM. HUMANISM www.ginandjar.com 40
  41. 41. ALL THOSE ARGUMENTS, AND THE CURRENTDISCOURCES ON POST MODERN ADMINISTRATIONCONTRIBUTE TO THE NEW APPROACH IN PUBLICADMINISTRATION: THE NEW PUBLIC SERVICE. www.ginandjar.com 41
  42. 42. POSTMODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATION POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORY CAN BE MOST EASILY UNDERSTOOD AS THE ANTITHESIS OF POSITIVISM AND THE LOGIC OF OBJECTIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE. www.ginandjar.com 42
  43. 43. MODERNISM IS THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGHREASON, AND KNOWLEDGE THUS DERIVED IS SIMPLYASSUMED TO BE FACTUAL AND THEREFORE TRUE. TRUEEQUALLY IMPORTANT, THE AGE OF REASON REJECTEDKNOWLEDGE BASED ON SUPERSTITION OR PROPHECY ANDREPLACED IT WITH KNOWLEDGE BASED ON SCIENCE. ALLMODERN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES AND FIELDS OF SCIENCEARE ROOTED IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND IN ANEPISTEMOLOGY BASED ON THE OBJECTIVE OBSERVATIONOF PHENOMENA AND THE DESCRIPTION, EITHER ,QUANTITATIVELY OR QUALITATIVELY, OF PHENOMENA. www.ginandjar.com 43
  44. 44. POSTMODERNISTS DESCRIBE MODERN LIFE ASHYPERREALITY, A BLURRING OF THE REAL AND THEUNREAL.UNREAL POSTMODERNISTS CLAIM THAT A FUNDAMENTALBREAK LITH THE MODERN ERA HAS OCCURRED RECENTLY.MASS MEDIA, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, AND TECHNOLOGYARE NEW FORMS OF CONTROL THAT CHANGE POLITICSAND LIFE. BOUNDARIES BETWEEN INFORMATION ANDENTERTAINMENT ARE IMPLODING, AS ARE BOUNDARIES IMPLODINGBETWEEN IMAGES AND POLITICS. INDEED, SOCIETY ITSELFIS IMPLODING. www.ginandjar.com 44
  45. 45. MODERNITY IS ALSO CHARACTERIZED IN POSTMODERNITYAS PARTICULARLY AUTHORITARIAN AND UNJUST. MUCH OFPOSTMODERN LANGUAGE HAS TO DO WITH THE ABUSE OFGOVERNMENTAL POWER, INCLUDING BUREAUCRATICPOWER.POWER KEY SUBJECTS IN THE POSTMODERN LEXICON ARECOLONIALISM, ILLCLUDING CORPORATE COLONIALISM,SOCIAL INJUSTICE, GENDER INEQUALITY, AND THEDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH BETWEEN THE DEVELOPED ANDSO-CALLED THIRD WORLD. www.ginandjar.com 45
  46. 46. FINALLY, MODERNITY, IN THE POSTMODERNPERSPECTIVE, IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITHOBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT;POSTMODERNITY IS MORE CONCERNED WITH VALUESAND THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH THAN INCHARACTERIZATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE. (FREDERICKSON & SMITH, 2003) www.ginandjar.com 46
  47. 47. TO POSTMODERNISTS, MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONBASED ON ENLIGHTENMENT LOGIC IS SIMPLY MISGUIDED.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THEORISTS EMPLOYING THEPOSTMODERN PERSPECTIVE ARE PARTICULARLY CRITICAL OFTHE FIELDS APPARENT PREOCCUPATION WITH RATIONALISM(ESPECIALLY MARKET-BASED RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY) ANDTECHNOCRATIC EXPERTISE.IN CONTRAST POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CONTRAST,THEORISTS HAVE A CENTRAL COMMITMENT TO THE IDEA “OFDISCOURSE,“ THE NOTION THAT PUBLIC PROBLEMS ARE MORELIKELY RESOLVED THROUGH DISCOURSE THAN THROUGH"OBJECTIVE" MEASUREMENTS OR RATIONAL ANALYSIS((McSwite, 1997). , ) www.ginandjar.com 47
  48. 48. THE IDEAL OF AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE SEES ADMINISTRATORSAND CITIZENS AS ENGAGING FULLY WITH ONE ANOTHER, NOTMERELY AS RATIONALLY SELF-INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS BEINGBROUGHT TOGETHER TO TALK, BUT AS PARTICIPANTS IN A TALKRELATIONSHIP IN WHICH THEY ENGAGE WITH ONE ANOTHER ASHUMAN BEINGS.THE RESULTING PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION AND CONSENSUSBUILDING IS ONE IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS ENGAGE WITH ONEANOTHER AS THEY ENGAGE WITH THEMSELVES, FULLYEMBRACING ALL ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN PERSONALITY NOTMERELY RATIONAL, BUT EXPERIENTIAL, INTUITIVE, ANDEMOTIONAL.POSTMODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DERIVES ITS COREIDEAS FROM SOME CONCEPTS AND ASSUMPTIONS OF THE NEWPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. www.ginandjar.com 48
  49. 49. THROUGH APPROACHES SUCH AS THESE, SCHOLARS HOPED THESETO BUILD ALTERNATIVES APPROACHES TO THE STUDY ANDPRACTICE OF PUBLIC ADIMINISTRATION, ALTERNATIVES C C O U C S O , SMORE SENSITIVE TO VALUES (NOT JUST FACTS), TOSUBJECTIVE HUMAN MEANING (NOT JUST OBJECTIVEBEHAVIOR),BEHAVIOR) AND THE FULL RANGE OF EMOTIONS ANDFEELINGS INVOLVED IN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANDAMONG REAL PEOPLE. www.ginandjar.com 49
  50. 50. GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICAL GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANT ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO DELIVER PUBLIC SERVICES AND FULFILL PUBLIC POLICY GOALS. PUBLIC MANAGERS WON ACCLAIM BY ORDERING THOSE UNDER THEM TO ACCOMPLISH HIGHLY ROUTINE, ALBEIT PROFESSIONAL, TASKS WITH UNIFORMITY BUT WITHOUT DISCRETION. TODAY, INCREASINGLY COMPLEX SOCIETIES FORCE PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO DEVELOP NEW MODELS OF GOVERNANCE. www.ginandjar.com 50
  51. 51. THE TRADITIONAL, HIERARCHICAL MODEL OFGOVERNMENT SIMPLY DOES NOT MEET THE DEMANDS OFTHIS COMPLEX, RAPIDLY CHANGING AGE.RIGID BUREAUCRATIC SYSTEMS THAT OPERATE WITHCOMMAND-AND-CONTROL PROCEDURES, NARROW WORKRESTRICTIONS, AND INWARD-LOOKING CULTURES ANDOPERATIONAL MODELS ARE DEEMED TO BEPARTICULARLY ILL-SUITED TO ADDRESSING PROBLEMSTHAT OFTEN TRANSCEND ORGANIZATIONALBOUNDARIES. www.ginandjar.com 51
  52. 52. IN MANY WAYS, TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGESAND THE MEANS OF ADDRESSING THEM ARE MORENUMEROUS AND COMPLEX THAN EVER BEFORE. BEFOREPROBLEMS HAVE BECOME BOTH MORE GLOBAL ANDMORE LOCAL AS POWER DISPERSES AND BOUNDARIES(WHEN THEY EXIST AT ALL) BECOME MORE FLUID.ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL SOLUTIONS HAVE GIVEN WAY TOCUSTOMIZED APPROACHES AS THE COMPLICATEDPROBLEMS OF DIVERSE AND MOBILE POPULATIONSINCREASINGLY DEFY SIMPLISTIC SOLUTIONS SOLUTIONS. www.ginandjar.com 52
  53. 53. • PARADIGM SHIFT GLOBAL POLITICAL NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOCAL CULTURE/ VALUES) www.ginandjar.com 53
  54. 54. GLOBALIZATION UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC POLITICAL AUTHORITY GLOBAL ECONOMY, MARKET, CAPITAL PRIVATIZATION HOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATE OVERIDE THE ABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET AND STANDARD x TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY www.ginandjar.com 54
  55. 55. QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEYARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS A LONGHISTORY. BUT SELDOM HAVE THE FORMS OF S O U S O O SOGOVERNMENT BEEN UNDER GREATER CHALLENGE.DISSATISFACTION AND DISILLUSIONMENT ABOUTPOLITICAL SOLUTIONS ARE RIFE. www.ginandjar.com 55
  56. 56. POLITICAL DEMOCRACY STRUCTURE AND SOCIETAL VALUES OFTRANSFORMATION PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS www.ginandjar.com 56
  57. 57. IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESSPARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIESWITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OFAUTHORITY AND CONTROL ARE ANACHRONISTIC. (PFEFFER AND SALANCIK, 1978)POLITICAL DEMOCRACY, SOCIETALTRANSFORMATIONS,TRANSFORMATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSHAVE MODIFIED THE STRUCTURES AND VALUES OFPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. www.ginandjar.com 57
  58. 58. CORE VALUES OF ? VALUES & NEEDS PUBLIC OF SOCIETY ATADMINISTRATION LARGE www.ginandjar.com 58
  59. 59. A COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIALDIFFERENTIATION HAS GRADUALLY ERODED THERIGIDITIES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY STRUCTURESAND FURTHER MITIGATED THE OLD PERCEIVEDANTINOMY BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CHANGE. www.ginandjar.com 59
  60. 60. ? ABSORB SCALE ANDCOMPLEXITY PROCESS PUBLIC U C OF MODERN EFFECTIVELY ADMINISTRATIONGOVERNMENT ACCOMPLISH www.ginandjar.com 60
  61. 61. THE STRAINS ON MODERN GOVERNMENT CAUSED BYTHE GROWING COMPLEXITY AND SCALE OF OPERATIONHAVE BROUGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS THE PROBLEM OFCAPACITY: HOW MUCH, A HUMAN ORGANIZATION CANCOMPREHEND, ABSORB, PROCESS AND ACCOMPLISHEFFECTIVELY. www.ginandjar.com 61
  62. 62. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION CHALENGE THEVALUES DEMOCRACY STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL BASIC VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION www.ginandjar.com 62
  63. 63. THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TODAY, THERE IS AMOUNTING CHALLENGE TO CENTRALIZED,HIERARCHICAL, CONTROL-ORIENTED C C CO O OSTRUCTURES. www.ginandjar.com 63
  64. 64. CORE VALUES >< SOCIAL VALUES ETHICS CENTRALIZED, OPEN PARTICIPATION/DEMOCRACYCLOSED SYSTEM SYSTEM TRANSPARANCY ACCOUNTABILITY www.ginandjar.com 64
  65. 65. FROM ANOTHER PERSPECTIVE, JAN KOOIMAN (2006) OFFERS PERSPECTIVEA WORKING DEFINITION OF SOCIAL-POLITICAL ORINTERACTIVE GOVERNING AND GO C GO G GOVERNANCE AS FOLLOWS: C S O O SGOVERNING CAN BE CONSIDERED AS THE TOTALITY OFINTERACTIONS, IN WHICH PUBLIC AS WELL AS PRIVATEACTORS PARTICIPATE, AIMED AT SOLVING SOCIETALPROBLEMS OR CREATING SOCIETAL OPPORTUNITIES;ATTENDING TO THE INSTITUTIONS AS CONTEXTS FOR THESEGOVERNING INTERACTIONS; AND ESTABLISHING ANORMATIVE FOUNDATION FOR ALL THOSE ACTIVITIES.GOVERNANCE CAN BE SEEN AS THE TOTALITY OFTHEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS ON GOVERNING. www.ginandjar.com 65
  66. 66. GOVERNANCE REFERS TO SELF-ORGANIZING,INTERORGANIZATIONAL NET-WORKS CHARACTERIZED BYINTERDEPENDENCE, RESOURCE-EXCHANGE, RULES OF THEGAME, AND SIGNIFICANT AUTONOMY FROM THE STATE.GOVERNANCE MEANS THERE IS NO ONE CENTRE BUT MULTIPLE CENTRES; THERE IS NO SOVEREIGN AUTHORITYBECAUSE NETWORKS HAVE CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY. HAVE (RHODES, 1997) www.ginandjar.com 66
  67. 67. NETWORKSTRUCTURE STAKEHOLDERSHIERARCHY PARTICIPATION www.ginandjar.com 67
  68. 68. ACCORDING TO H. GEORGE FREDERICKSON (1997)THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE DISTINCT CONCEPTIONSOF GOVERNANCE:1) ) GO GOVERNANCE IS SIMPLY A SURROGATE WORD FOR PUBLIC C SS SU OG O O U C ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION. THUS GOVERNANCE THEORY IS AN INTELLECTUAL PROJECT ATTEMPTING TO UNIFY THE VARIOUS INTELLECTUAL THREADS RUNNING THROUGH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY LITERATURE INTO A FRAMEWORK THAT COVERS THIS BROAD AREA OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY THIS, ACTIVITY. THIS ESSENTIALLY, IS THE POSITION STAKED BY LYNN ET AL. (2000, 2001). www.ginandjar.com 68
  69. 69. 2) GOVERNANCE EQUATES TO THE MANAGERIALIST OR NPM MOVEMENT. THIS IS PARTICULARLY EVIDENT IN NATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WESTMINSTER MODEL, WHERE NPM FOLLOWED FROM SERIOUS ATTEMPTS TO REFORM THE PUBLIC SECTOR BY DEFINING AND JUSTIFYING WHAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT DO AND TO RESHAPE PUBLIC SERVICE PROVISION BY DO, ATTACKING THE PATHOLOGIES OF BUREAUCRACY (KETTL, 2000).3) GOVERNANCE IS A BODY OF THEORY THAT COMPREHENDS LATERAL RELATIONS, INTERINSTITUTIONAL RELATIONS, THE DECLINE OF SOVEREIGNTY, THE DIMINISHING , IMPORTANCE OF JURISDICTIONAL BORDERS, AND A GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL FRAGMENTATION (FREDERICKSON, 1997). www.ginandjar.com 69
  70. 70. THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENT PERSISTS,BUT ITS INFLUENCE IS STEADILY WANING, PUSHED BYGOVERNMENTS NEEDS TO SOLVE EVER MORECOMPLICATED PROBLEMS AND PULLED BY NEW TOOLSTHAT ALLOW INNOVATORS TO FASHION CREATIVERESPONSES.THIS PUSH AND PULL IS GRADUALLY PRODUCING A NEWMODEL OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH EXECUTIVES CORERESPONSIBILITIES NO LONGER CENTER ON MANAGINGPEOPLE AND PROGRAMS BUT ON ORGANIZINGRESOURCES, OFTEN BELONGING TO OTHERS, TOPRODUCE PUBLIC VALUE. www.ginandjar.com 70
  71. 71. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, BUREAUS, DIVISIONS, ANDOFFICES ARE BECOMING LESS IMPORTANT AS DIRECTSSERVICE PROVIDERS, BUT MORE IMPORTANT AS C O S, U O O SGENERATORS OF PUBLIC VALUE WITHIN THE WEB OFMULTIORGANIZATIONAL, MULTIGOVERNMENTAL, ANDMULTISECTORAL RELATIONSHIPS THAT INCREASINGLYCHARACTERIZE MODERN GOVERNMENT.THUS GOVERNMENT BY NETWORK BEARS LESSRESEMBLANCE TO A TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONALCHART THAN IT DOES TO A MORE DYNAMIC WEB OFCOMPUTER NETWORKS THAT CAN ORGANIZE ORREORGANIZE, EXPAND OR CONTRACT, DEPENDING ONTHE PROBLEM AT HAND. www.ginandjar.com 71
  72. 72. NETWORKS CAN SERVE A RANGE OF IMPROMPTU PURPOSES,SUCH AS CREATING A MARKETPLACE OF NEW IDEAS INSIDE ABUREAUCRACY OR FOSTERING COOPERATION BETWEENCOLLEAGUES.PUBLIC-PRIVATEPUBLIC PRIVATE NETWORKS COME IN MANY FORMS, FROM AD FORMSHOC NETWORKS THAT ARE ACTIVATED ONLYINTERMITTENTLY—OFTEN IN RESPONSE TO A DISASTER—TOCHANNEL PARTNERSHIPS IN WHICH GOVERNMENTS USEPRIVATE FIRMS AND NONPROFITS TO SERVE ASDISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR PUBLIC SERVICES ANDTRANSACTIONS. www.ginandjar.com 72
  73. 73. MODELS OF GOVERNMENTSPublic private collaboration High Outsourced Networking government government c Hierarchical Joined-up Joined p government government Low L Low High Network management capabilities (GOLDSMITH AND EGGERS, 2004) EGGERS www.ginandjar.com 73
  74. 74. THE NEW USE OF GOVERNANCE DOES NOT POINT ATSTATE ACTORS AND INSTITUTIONS AS THE ONLYRELEVANT INSTITUTIONS AND ACTORS IN THEAUTHORITATIVE ALLOCATION OF VALUES.THEY ALL, TO SOME EXTENT, FOCUS ON THE ROLE OFNETWORKS, IN THE PURSUIT OF COMMON GOALS. www.ginandjar.com 74
  75. 75. THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY TWENTY-FIRST Private sector Public sector Third sectorSupranational Transnational Intergovernmental Nongovernmental corporations organization organization level National National Twentieth century Twentieth-century National level corporations model nonprofits Subnational Local State and local Local level business government business (KAMARACK AND NYE JR., 2002) JR www.ginandjar.com 75
  76. 76. THE CHALLENGES THE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKED GOVERNMENT WITH ITS MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE. WHEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ARE PARCELED OUT ACROSS THE NETWORK, WHO IS TO BLAME WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG? HOW DOES GOVERNMENT RELINQUISH SOME CONTROL AND STILL ENSURE RESULTS? www.ginandjar.com 76
  77. 77. HOW DO NETWORK MANAGERS BALANCE THE NEED FORACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OFFLEXIBILITY?GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRADITIONALLY TRIED TOADDRESS MOST OF THESE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE ANDACCOUNTABILITY THROUGH NARROW AUDIT ANDCONTROL MECHANISMS. ALTHOUGH SUCH TOOLS HELP, MECHANISMS HELPTHEY SHOULD NOT CONSTITUTE THE GREATER PART OFAN ACCOUNTABILITY REGIME. REGIME www.ginandjar.com 77
  78. 78. NETWORK PARTNERS, FACED WITH INTRUSIVE ANDFREQUENT PERFORMANCE AND PRICE AUDITS, TEND TOBECOME RIGID AND RISK AVERSE. INNOVATION AVERSECOLLAPSES AND TRUST SUFFERS, REDUCING THEESSENTIAL VALUE OF THE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP.ADDITIONALLY, TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTABILITYMECHANISMS, WHICH RELY ON PROCESSSTANDARDIZATION, CLASH WITH THE VERY PURPOSE OFTHE NETWORK: TO PROVIDE A DECENTRALIZED,FLEXIBLE, INDIVIDUALIZED, AND CREATIVE RESPONSETO A PUBLIC PROBLEM. www.ginandjar.com 78
  79. 79. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE WHEREAS THE GOVERNANCE DISCUSSIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERM GOVERNANCE IS MUCH MORE COMMON IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR WHERE A DEBATE ABOUT CORPORATE GOVERNANCE HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR QUITE SOME TIME. COORPORATE GOVERNANCE REFERS TO ISSUES OF CONTROL AND DECISION-MAKING POWERS WITHIN THE PRIVATE (CORPORATE) ORGANIZATIONS. ORGANIZATIONS www.ginandjar.com 79
  80. 80. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE’ IS THE WATCHWORD OFTHOSE WHO WISH TO IMPROVE THE ACCOUNTABILITYAND TRANSPARENCY OF THE ACTIONS OFMANAGEMENT, BUT WITHOUT FUNDAMENTALLYALTERING THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF FIRMS. (ROE, 1994) www.ginandjar.com 80
  81. 81. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IS THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF TRANSNATIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU), WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO), ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN), AND NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA). (NAFTA) www.ginandjar.com 81
  82. 82. THE DEREGULATIONS OF CAPITAL IN THE 1980 SET IN 1980sTRAIN A MASSIVE RESTRUCTURING OF BOTH DOMESTICECONOMIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICSYSTEM.WHAT SEEMS TO BE THE MAIN CONSEQUENCE OF S S O CO S QU C OGLOBALIZATION IN THE PRESENT CONTEX IS THEEROSION OF TRADITIONAL, DOMESTIC POLITICALAUTHORITY.INTERNATIONAL FORCES APPEAR TO OVERRIDE THEABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIROWN PROBLEM. www.ginandjar.com 82
  83. 83. NEW DEMANDS OF ACCOUNTABILITY TOINTERNATIONAL MARKETS AND STANDARDS MAY CLASHWITH THE TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY. ACCOUNTABILITYSOME COMMENTATORS (RHODES 1994, 1997; DAVIS1997) HAVE CHARACTERISED THESE TRENDS AS AHOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATE, IN WHICH THECOMBINED EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION,INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS, PRIVATISATION ANDREDUCED REGULATION DEPLETE THE CAPACITY OFGOVERNMENT TO SHAPE AND ORGANISE SOCIETY. www.ginandjar.com 83
  84. 84. PESSIMIST SUGGEST THAT GLOBALIZATION MEANS THATGOVERNMENT EVERYWHERE HAVE BECOME POWERLESS ANDTHAT MANAGING GLOBALIZATION IS IMPOSSIBLE, SINCEGLOBALIZATION IS SHAPED BY MARKETS NOT BY GOVERNMENT MARKETS,SOME HAVE SUGGESTED THAT THIS POWERLESSNESS ISREINFORCED BY THE COMING OF THE INTERNET AGE –THATTHERE IS NO GOVERNANCE AGAINST THE ELECTRONIC HERD(FRIEDMAN, 2000).GLOBAL GOVERNANCE HAS THEN BECOME VERY TOPICAL.IN A NUTSHEEL, GLOBAL GOVERNANCE IS ABOUT HOW TO COPEWITH PROBLEMS WHICH TRANSCEND THE BORDERS (SUCH ASAIR POLLUTION, NARCOTICS, TERRORISM OR THEEXPLOITATION OF CHILDS WORKERS) GIVEN THE LACK OF AWORLD GOVERNMENT. www.ginandjar.com 84
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