At this point, the trainer should explain the meaning of ethics and facilitate discussion.
Each of these issues will be discussed to show how they contribute to the ethical crisis facing people and law enforcement officers. Reference: 1998 Michael C. Braswell, Belinda McCarthy, and Bernard McCarthy, Justice, Crime and Ethics , 3 rd ed., Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing.
What is your purpose? What kind of person do you want to be? Have a balanced amount of pride-not too much or too little. Be patient. Persist, even when it is not popular. Have perspective-choose your battles and make priorities.
Additional principles. Be just, truthful, and trustworthy. Be morally courageous and do the right thing in the face of hardship. Exercise autonomy and make your own ethical choices. Be benevolent-kind. Reference: 1998 Michael C. Braswell, Belinda McCarthy, and Bernard McCarthy, Justice, Crime and Ethics , 3 rd ed., Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing.
Raise the question of whether we can do anything about the ethical crisis.
If a complaint is filed with the BOEE, the teacher could be held in violation of Standard III: falsification of information.
If a complaint is filed with the BOEE, the teacher could be held in violation of Standard V (3) abandoning a contract without release.
General Ethics An Introduction By Md. Shamsul Arefin, A member of Bangladesh civil service (Admn), 1984 Batch . (This lecture note is prepared for the ACAD, BPATC) Dated:30 October 2011 BPATC, DHAKA
Professional Ethics Ethics for Civil Service Professionals Md. Shamsul Arefin Joint Secretary Government of Bangladesh
Being ethical is also not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe.
But laws, like feelings, can deviate from what is ethical. USA pre-Civil War slavery laws and the apartheid laws of present-day South Africa are obvious examples of laws that deviate from what is ethical.
Ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on.
It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT:
Ethics is not religion. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. Most religions do advocate high ethical standards .
Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical.
Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" is not a satisfactory ethical standard.
Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do.
A situation that arises when all alternative choices or behaviors have been deemed undesirable because of potentially negative ethical consequences, making it difficult to distinguish right from wrong.
Constitution is the prime source of upholding the spirits of ethics. Civil servants are expected to maintain and strengthen the public's trust and confidence in government, by demonstrating the highest standards of professional competence, efficiency and effectiveness, upholding the Constitution and the Rule laws.
b. Laws and procedures which require civil servants to give reasons for their official decisions.
c. Management approaches which encourage all public officials and civil servants to deal with ethical practice.
d. Religion: The universal basis for achieving uniformity in human behavior regarding rightness and wrongness should be some impersonal ethical code, which can be achieved from religion
e. Society can articulate an idea, logic about ethics.
Sources of Ethics f. Family is the foundation for attaining some rationale behavior. g. Rules and Regulations can create compulsion of doing things right. h. National policy can enhance broader concept of hypothetical criteria for assessing the appropriateness. i. Role model in the Civil service can influence fellow civil servants to follow some of his/her attitude and conduct in running day to day official practice and life style.
Sources of Ethics j. Good practices and procedures based on legislation, and backed by management leadership and high-level political commitment are another source of maintaining high ethical standard. k. The civil service Conduct Rules & Discipline and Appeal Rules to stop errant behavior, and non-performance. l. The core education service values in the rules are considered to be neutrality, integrity, fairness and equity, and an ethos of serving for the teaching learning process.
Accountability is a concept in ethics and governance with a meaning of responsibility, answerability or liability of account-giving.
As the definition of accountability, some focusing on official processes, some dealing with official actions, some dealing with policy outcomes, but actually it holds officials to account to the citizen.
Challenges of Ethics Erosion of Values Now in many cases, people do not feel any hesitation to take paper, pen or ink from the office to home for personal use. But once taking pen or pencil or ink from office to home for personal use was considered a serious mental pressure. Mr Mohammad Ali Ex, Chief Minister of Pakistan after submitting resignation letter from his office, he took pen of Bangabhaban with him beyond his knowledge. But when he had seen the pen in his pocket, he came back and returned it to Bangabhaban. If this is happened now a days, people might say it is done just as a administrative standbazi.
Materialistic social expectations Now demand of a family has increased. In a family it needs many things to run life. Once employee did not expect any color TV, car and or anything like that costly items. This has increased cost of living which compels in many cases to do unfair means. d. Unwanted intervention: Unwanted intervention also creates some impediments for maintaining ethical judgment of a person. e. Undue pressure: This is also responsible for demoralizing of ethical judgments.
Sense of insecurity like undue transfer, excluding from the scope of promotion etc. are also responsible for not maintaining high morale standard in many cases. Insecurity also derives from sense of shelters like a plot or a flat. After departure from service where they will go, this is a pertinent question to all of them. If they are provided at least a plot or a flat after departure from their service anywhere in countryside.
This will help create a sense of security which will tighten their integrity at large.
Teaching of Hazrat Muhammed SA (Peace be upon him) An example is seen in the life of Prophet Muhammed sa (Peace be upon him) As the head of the Madina state, the Prophet once appointed Abdullah-bin –Laithai of Banu Jargan tribe as Amil (tax collector). At the time of depositing the collected zakat (compulsory tax on wealth from Muslims) before the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), Abdullah had divided that into two parts and said, “O Prophet (Peace be upon you)! One part of this is zakat money from people, and the other is the gift presented by people to me.” Hearing this, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “Would the people have given the gifts to you if you had not been given the responsibility of collecting zakat?” Saying this, the Prophet of Islam instructed Abdullah to deposit the gifted amount along with the collected revenue to Baitulmal (government treasury), and the following morning issued an official circular prohibiting officials to receive any gift from people. He added further: “If anybody is entrusted with official responsibility, he will be given salary sufficient to meet his needs. If he receives anything beyond this, that would be a breach of trust”(Al-Buraey,1985:245). Another related Hadith (Teachings of Prophet Muhammed sa, (Peace be upon him) is that: “ He who receives bribe, he who offers bribe and the mediator between the two, are all equally doers of punishable offence”.
Transparency : We should be accountable for the decisions we make, even in applying discretionary power.
Integrity: Public employment being a public trust, the improper use of a public service position for private advantage should be more clearly regarded as a serious breach of duty.
Legitimacy : The power and authority should be exercised legitimately, impartially and without fear or favor, for its proper public purpose as determined by the government.
Way Ahea d Fairness : We should make decisions and act in a fair and equitable manner, without bias or prejudice, taking into account only the merits of the matter respecting the rights of affected people. Responsiveness: We are required to serve the legitimate interests of citizens, in a timely manner with care, respect and courtesy and without any special favor to a particular cast, creed, race and religion. Efficiency and Effectiveness : We are required to obtain best value for public assets deployed in or through public management, and to avoid waste in expenditure and the use of public assets.
“ No responsibility of a Government is more fundamental than the responsibility for maintaining the highest standards of ethical behavior by those who conduct the public business. There can be no dissent from the principle that all officials must act with unwavering integrity, absolute impartiality, and complete devotion to the public interest. This principle must be followed not only in reality but in appearance. For the basis of effective government is public confidence, and that confidence is endangered when ethical standards weaken or appear to weaken”. President John F. Kennedy, April 27, 1961.
Concluding Remarks It goes without say that, we are required to observe a number of responsibilities of good citizenship, in relation to honesty , lawfulness, and the prevention of corruption. Discipline and management practices must be objective, fair, and reasonable. Perhaps most important of all, Our salaries must reflect the cost of an adequate standard of living, both to minimize individuals' temptation to corruption, and to maximize the ability to attract and retain talented officers in the profession who can make a contribution to the society. The promotions also may be ensured after a certain duration of time as per rules equitably without prejudice.
1. We provide the highest level of service to all citizens’ through appropriate resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests.
2. We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to humiliate people.
7. We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation of the aims of our institutions.
8. We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing our own knowledge and skills, by encouraging the professional development of officers, and by fostering the aspirations of potential members of the profession.