Infusing thinking into instruction

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  • 1. 1 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 19/11/1430Ah Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 2. ‫2‬ ‫‪Infusing Thinking into Instruction‬‬ ‫قال تعالي:‬ ‫(الذيه يذكزون هللا قياماً وقعىداً وعلى‬ ‫جىىبهم ويتفكزون في خلق السماوات‬ ‫واألرض ربىا ما خلقت هذا باطال ً سبحاوك‬ ‫فقىا عذاب الىار)‬ ‫آل عمزان 191‬ ‫‪Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal‬‬
  • 3. 3 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Improving the quality of student thinking should be given a high priority in any educational system as good thinking is essential in meeting the challenges of living in a rapidly changing and technologically oriented world. Research on thinking convinced that skillful thinking process can be inculcated in students if thinking skills are taught explicitly and are integrated into content instruction. Basic critical and creative thinking skills like determining parts- whole relationships, comparing and contrasting, classification, sequencing, finding reasons, and decision making play an important role in professional lives. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 4. 4 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Every day we apply our brains to questions and problems, and there are many possible approaches to finding solutions. In fact, we often use more than one way of thinking at the same time:  turning an idea over in your mind  examining all sides of an argument  reflecting on something that’s happened  looking for connections  breaking a process into parts  imagining what might happen in the future  remembering something from the past  being aware of what is happening around you ….and no doubt you can think of other methods we use on a daily basis. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 5. 5 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Daily Schedule Day section Subject presenter  The Definitions of Thinking 1st  The Importance of Supervisor Rana Thinking One  The Levels of thinking  The definition of basic 2nd thinking. Supervisor Hend  Basic thinking skills 1st Creative Thinking Supervisor Rana Two 2nd Creative Thinking Supervisor Rana 1st Critical Thinking Supervisor Hend Three 2nd Metacognitive Thinking Supervisor Hend The Infusion approach 1st Supervisor Hend and its steps Four An applied lesson on 2nd infusing thinking into Supervisor Rana instruction 1st Application Supervisors Rana Five - Hend 2nd Evaluation Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 6. 6 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The Program Name of the program Infusing Thinking into Instruction The ultimate improve the participants skills in infusing objective thinking into instruction To get the participant to :  Give the definition of thinking  Give the importance of thinking  define the different thinking skills  apply thinking skills in the syllabus The thorough aims  mention the meaning of the infusion approach  give the importance of the infusing thinking into instruction  construct a lesson using the infusion approach The recipients English Language supervisors Duration 5 days (20 hours) Booklet, computer, projector, Materials transparencies, paper poster, markers Activities, games, workshop, case study, Training methods discussion, brainstorming Assessment methods Application, discussion, review Assessment tools Questionnaire, presentation Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 7. 7 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The Program 1-Basic thinking 3-Critical thinking 2-Creative thinking 4- metacognition 5-The infusion approach Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 8. 8 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Thinking activities need to be planned and scaffolded. Students need to be aware that they are thinking (meta- cognition) and that different thinking strategies are required for different problems. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 9. 9 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Day one Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 10. 10 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Two roads divergent in a wood, I- I took the one less travelled by And that has made all the difference. Robert Frost Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 11. 11 Infusing Thinking into Instruction KWL Chart 1/1/1 What I think I Connections What I know for What I would know, but am between this sure about this like to learn not sure about topic and other topic about this topic this topic things I know Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 12. 12 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/2 Write the numbers from (1to 7) inside the circles, so that the total of the three circles on one line equals to 12. Note: use the number only once : Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 13. 13 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/2 1 5 2 4 6 3 7 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 14. 14 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/3 The Definitions of Thinking  It is every mental activity that includes even the simplest ideas to solving a problem (The Psychology of Education Encyclopedia)  It is the detection of experience in order to reach the aim of understanding, taking decision, planning, solving problems and judging work. (De Bono)  It is the sequence of mental activities when the mind is exposed to a stimuli received by one or more of the five senses. (Barell)  It is the mental analysis of the sensual inputs in order to form ideas. (Costa)  It is representative reactions towards stimuli from internal chemical reactions or external environmental factors. (http://en.wikipedia.org) Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 15. 15 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/4 Re-arrange the following words in each column to form the correct definition: student- think – memorize information – student – develop experience –same experience – pen down information – choose & try - test – mental development & experience. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 16. 16 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/4 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 17. 17 Infusing Thinking into Instruction True learning involves figuring out how to use what you already know in order to go beyond what you already think. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 18. 18 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The Importance of Thinking - 16 verses 129 verses Thinking Contemplation 148 verses 7 verses reflection Insights 20 verses Meditation 4 verses Prudence Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 19. 19 Infusing Thinking into Instruction  It helps one to know the greatness of his creator which is necessary in one’s faith.  It is related to the importance of the human being because Allah created and distinguished the individual from other creatures by enabling him to speak and think.  Mind is the greatest blessing from Allah to mankind. It is necessary in every moment of the daily life because the way individuals think influence their future.  It helps in achieving the third strategic goal of education policy in the kingdom.  It enables students to view the different international issues from various prospective.  It makes learning more enjoyable and last longer.  It helps students to produce knowledge which enables them be more confident.  Independent thinking and problem solving give us our freedom and the ability to achieve our highest goals. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 20. 20 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/1/5  Swim at the surface of the sea, then dive slowly till you reach the depth of the sea. Tell us the difference between swimming & diving?  What’s your telephone number?  What will happen if we stop thinking for twenty years starting from now?  What’s the difference between the two type of thinking? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 21. 21 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Thinking differs in its strength & depth like the water of the sea & ocean. Thinking skills Lower-order Higher-order thinking thinking 1. Lower order thinking: it deals with the limited thinking activities of the daily routines. 2. Higher order thinking: it deals with the wider range of mental activities. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 22. 22 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Levels of thinking Complex thinking Basic thinking classifying Creative Decision Critical thinking making thinking ordering comparing Metacognitive Problem thinking solving interpreting summarizing Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 23. 23 Infusing Thinking into Instruction BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 24. 24 Infusing Thinking into Instruction One’s destination is never a place, but a new way of looking at things. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 25. 25 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/1 Try to play the game without loosing any of the colored balls. What do we mean by a skill? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 26. 26 Infusing Thinking into Instruction A skill: A skill (also called talent) is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. Practice makes perfect By following the four-step approach, the person is shifted from being ―consciously incompetent‖ (realising she can’t do it) to being ―consciously competent‖ (being able to do it with great thought) . Only with repeated practice will she be able to perform satisfactorily in a variety of situations. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 27. 27 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/2 Read the following definitions and explain the difference. Thinking skills: Thinking skills include thinking analytically, logically and creatively to form reasoned judgments and solve problems. Basic thinking: Core thinking skills are relatively discrete operations that can be considered the building blocks of thinking. They resemble the lower three levels of blooms taxonomy. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 28. 28 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Thinking: Thinking refers to the process o f creating structured series o f connective transactions between items o f perceived information. Thinking skills: Thinking skills are cognitive processes that enable us to make meaning from and create with information. Often included under the definition of thinking skills are habits of mind or thinking behaviors that define attitudes and dispositions of good thinkers. When pupils use thinking skills they focus on knowing how to learn as well as knowing what to learn. Thinking Thinking Skills A comprehensive A specific process process Not comprehended Intentional process Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 29. 29 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Aesthetic needs The desire to know and Understand The need for self actualization The esteem needs The love needs The safety needs The psychological needs Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 30. 30 Infusing Thinking into Instruction “Watch your thoughts, for they become words. Watch your words, for they become actions. Watch your actions, for they become habits. Watch your habits, for they become character. Watch your character, for it becomes your destiny.” Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 31. 31 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1-Basic thinking 1/2/3 3rd inter. Unit 13 How do you shop? Several women shop for their fridges. Write the number of each person’s preferences in the correct section of the Venn diagram. Fruits Vegetables Dairy products 1. Huda buys only vegetables. 2. Mona brings apples and low fat milk. 3. Nuha, Sarah’s sister, likes cream cheese and eggplants. 4. Maha prefers fruits. 5. Chili pepper and oranges are Fatimah’s favorites. 6. Yoghurt, grapes and cucumbers are selected by Sarah. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 32. 32 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1-Classifying: Classifying is a thinking skill that we use naturally to organise information and ideas. It is a vital skill for processing information and for the ability to use and apply information in new ways. Students work together to sort information into groups that have shared characteristics, which establish criteria for a classification group. Classifying develops students’ ability to identify common features, improves their ability to handle and interpret information and enables them to retrieve information from their long-term memories more easily. It encourages students to critically examine information. They construct categories and then test them. Through this process they have the opportunity to develop their own concepts. This then allows the students to gain an insight into the principles and structures of the subject for themselves. Classifying is particularly strong for addressing:  Information Processing: where students are required to classify and sequence, compare and contrast and analyse part and whole relationships.  Reasoning: where students are required to justify their categories, thus explaining their decisions based on inferences and deductions.  Evaluation.  Enquiry. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 33. 33 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/4 3rd inter. Unit 3 1. The family vacation Your family is planning to rent a car to drive on vacation. Every car rental company claims to be the best. You have to look carefully to see which offer is best for your family. You want the car for three days. You plan to drive the car about 600 miles. Awesome Autos Speed Rentals 60 SR per day 50 SR per day 10 SR per 100 miles 40 SR per 100 miles Comfy Cars Cool Tour 200 SR per day 75 SR per day No charge for mileage 20 SR per 100 miles List the rental companies in order from the best deal to the worst. 1. 2. 3. 4. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 34. 34 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/4 2. a. Look closely Read the set of clues about an ordinary object. Draw a picture of the object that is being described. This object can be found in the kitchen. The top part of this object is a long, skinny stick. It can be any color. It feels smooth to the touch. The bottom part is made of many bristles tied together. It is usually pale yellow in color. The end of it feels sharp and prickly. It has no taste. When used, it makes a swishing sound. b. Write down four characteristics on each item and give the reasons behind each. Item characteristic reasons 1. 1. 2. 2. Flag 3. 3. 4. 4. 1. 1. Coin 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 1. 1. 2. 2. brick 3. 3. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal 4. 4.
  • 35. 35 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/5 4. Name the differences and similarities between: similarities differences teacher Screw driver teacher Screw driver Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 36. 36 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2-Ordering: Ordering is sequencing entities according to a given criterion. 3. Observing: Observing is obtaining new information "from the environment through one or more senses." Observe! Think! Do not just look!  Think about what is happening  Think about the causes of happenings  Think about the effects of what is happening. 4. Comparing: Comparing is "identifying similarities and differences between or among entities."It could be open or closed comparison. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 37. 37 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/6 1. Give an interpretation on the following: Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 38. 38 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1/2/6 2. Summarize the following article. The Green Colour in Quran Sunday, 07 June 2009 19:26 The word greenness is mentioned several times in the verses of the Quran; describing the state of the inhabitants of paradise, and what surrounds them of blessings in a luxury atmosphere of happiness, amusement and reassurance. For instance: Allah says in the holly Quran : (Reclining on green Cushions and rich Carpets of beauty) (SURAH AL RAHMAN:76). A psychologist called: Ardtcham stated that colors exert a marked influence on humans. In order to prove this idea a number of experiments have been conducted, demonstrating how colors affect our enthusiasm and wariness, it also gives a cold or warm feeling, brings happiness and sadness and have an impact on our personality and the way we see life. Nowadays hospitals weigh up the role colors play in changing the inner of human beings, by taking into account the specialist’s suggestions about the colors that should be used inside hospitals for the walls and clothing. Trials have indicated the stimulation of the nervous system by the yellow color. The orange brings reassurance and calm, the blue makes people feel cold unlike the red which makes them feel warm. However, it was found that the color of joy and happiness is the green, which makes it the favorite color for surgical rooms and surgeon’s uniform. One example concerning this tremendous effects colors have, comes to our minds, concerning the experiment that was carried in a London bridge called ―black friar‖ known as the suicide bridge, as many of the suicides were committed from it. When its color was changed from grey to a nice green color the rate of suicide has declined enormously. It is known that the green color eases the vision due to its small vision area in addition to its medium wave length which is shorter than the red one and longer that the blue one. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 39. 39 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Interpretation: Interpretation is an explanation of the meaning of anothers work. Prompts that encourage students to interpret when speaking or writing: • Explain how the concrete idea of . . . helps to describe the abstract concept of . . . • What can this (event, etc.) teach us about how to act today? • What did his/her/their actions mean? • Change the end of the story. • What did he really mean by . . . ? • Write an entry from the diary of . . . ? • Come up with ways in which these two very different concepts are similar. Summarizing: Summarizing "is combining information efficiently into a cohesive statement." Summary Frame Forms 01. Cause-Effect Summary 02. Character Trait Summary 03. Chronological Summary 04. Comparison/Contrast Summary 05. Conclusion/Generalization Summary 06. Definition Summary 07. Main Idea/Details Summary 08. Problem-Solution Summary 9. Sequence Summary Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 40. 40 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Day two Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 41. 41 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2/1/1 The Definitions of Creative Thinking Creative or innovative thinking is the kind of thinking that leads to new insights, novel approaches, fresh perspectives, whole new ways of understanding and conceiving of things. It is the ways of putting a question that expand the horizons of possible solutions, or ways of conceiving of relationships that challenge presuppositions and lead one to see the world in imaginative and different ways. Peter Facione, Santa Clara University A simple definition is that creativity is the ability to imagine or invent something new. As we will see below, creativity is not the ability to create out of nothing (only God can do that), but the ability to generate new ideas by combining, changing, or reapplying existing ideas. Some creative ideas are astonishing and brilliant, while others are just simple, good, practical ideas that no one seems to have thought of yet. (Robert Harris) It is a complex intended mental activity that is inspired by a strong need to seek new solutions & results. (Jerwain 1999) It is an original type of thinking that concentrates on the variety of results which according to Guilford generates new information. (Kaleel) Creativity is a mental and social process that involves generating new ideas or new associations of existing concepts. It is inspired by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative thinking Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 42. 42 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The importance of creative thinking:  Develop your potential beyond the boundaries of intelligence Expand on your abilities. Develop all of your potential!  Rapid growth of competition in business and industry In a world of increasing complexity, change, and competition, generating new ideas and bringing them to the table is now essential for corporate management. Successful businesses are the ones that instill creativity throughout the organization.  Effective use of human resources creativity is a human resource which exists in all organizations To survive in todays economy, it is imperative for an organization to nurture the creative potential of its human resources.  Discover new and better ways to solve problems Increasingly, the problems you face are complex and open- ended. Knowledge alone isnt enough to reach innovative solutions. Creative thinking skills are required.  Development of society Creativity is a central factor in our ability to continue to adapt to the changing environment. If a nation actively seeks to nurture creativity, it will play a part in making history.  Building on the nature of knowledge Creativity skills can assist an individual in enhancing his or her knowledge base. Without creative thinking, an individual is condemned to stay within the knowledge base as it is given.  Natural human phenomenon Creativity is very democratic! Everyone has some, but to varying levels and degrees. We know these abilities can be enhanced.  Important aspect of mental health Individuals who are capable of incorporating creativity into their Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 43. 43 Infusing Thinking into Instruction lives can enjoy the experience of discovering, developing, and utilizing their many talents. Skills relevant to creativity are also useful in coping with lifes challenges. There is no doubt, creative thinking is a critical life skill.  Growing body of interest There is a growing body of literature that represents impressive progress in understanding the nature of creativity. Moreover, there have been a large number of national and international conferences on creativity for over 50 years.  Builds on all disciplines Creativity is in all fields-from chemistry to engineering, education to computer science, sociology to business.  Contributes to effective leadership It is the application of creativity skills that distinguishes a manager who maintains the status quo from a leader who supplies a new direction or vision. By internalizing the spirit of creativity and the principles of creative problem solving, an individual can be transformed into a change leader.  Enhances the process of learning The nature of learning requires the use of skills associated with creativity. Educators adopt a creative approach to teaching are more likely to deliver content and create a learning environment that develops higher order thinking skills. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 44. 44 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1-Fluency It is the ability to generate quickly & easily many ideas or synonyms or solutions when reacting to a certain stimulus. It is actually a chosen remembrance process of previous experiences or learned information.(Guilford) It is the ability of the individual to produce the largest number of ideas or synonyms or solutions in a limited time. a-Verbal FluencyIt is the rapid ability of producing a large number of verbal words in alimited time such as saying as many as possible words starting withthe letter (B). Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 45. 45 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2/1/2 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 46. 46 Infusing Thinking into Instruction B-Intellectual FluencyIt is the ability to recall a large number of ideas in a limited timedespite their quality or value. 2/1/3 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 47. 47 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 48. 48 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 49. 49 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 50. 50 Infusing Thinking into Instruction C-Illustrative Fluency It is the ability to quickly draw a large number of illustrations & changing them by adding some simple details when reacting to a visual stimuli. Such as drawing an umbrella by using the two letters (j/u) or by completing a drawing.(Abu Zaied 1999) 2/1/4 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 51. 51 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2-Flexibility It is the ability to form various ideas that are not expected and to change the thinking track as the stimulus or the learning situation was modified. It is the ability of the individual to look at the problem or the situation from different angles. It means shifting perspective easily. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 52. 52 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1st inter. Classify the following words in various ways: Type of Division Words drink milk-tea-juice food eggs-bananas-bread- cheese-tomatoes-mangoes starts with letter ―b‖ Bread – bananas starts with letter ―t‖ tea – tomatoes plural eggs-bananas-tomatoes- mangoes uncountable tea-milk-bread-cheese-juice Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 53. 53 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1st inter. Unit: 1 Lesson: 1 Name the different usages of water bottle. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 54. 54 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2/1/5 Magic with Letters Rearrange the letters of the phrase "The Eyes" To form a new phrase Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 55. 55 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2/1/6 One day, I found out blood on the ceiling of my bedroom. Why? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 56. 56 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Fluency Flexibility Many ideas Different ideas From one direction From various angles Concentrates on quantity Concentrates on quantity Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 57. 57 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3- Originality It is the ability to come up with a new idea to people in a certain time & place which might not be new for others in a different era & location. 2/1/7 Laylia is a teacher and new to motherhood. One day when she came back from school, she found out that her maid had run out. She did not know what to do. The house was dirty, her son was crying and the kitchen was full of dirty dishes. She had to cook lunch quickly before her husband come back from work. Suddenly, her husband entered the house & was so angry that lunch had not been prepared. He shouted at Laylia & went to sleep in his bedroom. Come up with a new ending to this story. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 58. 58 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Come up with a new ending to this story A man was walking by. He took a few coins from his pocket and dropped them into the hat. He then took the sign, turned it around, and wrote some words. He put the sign back so that everyone who walked by would see the new words. Soon the hat began to fill up. A lot more people were giving money to the blind boy.. That afternoon the man who had changed the sign came to see how things were. The boy recognized his footsteps and asked, Were you the one who changed my sign this morning? What did you write? a Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 59. 59 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The man said, I only wrote the truth. I said what you said but in a different way. What he had written was: Today is a beautiful day and I cannot see it. Do you think the first sign and the second sign were saying the same thing? Of course both signs told people the boy was blind. But the first sign simply said the boy was blind. The second sign told people they were so lucky that they were not blind. Should we be surprised that the second sign was more effective? Moral of the Story: Be thankful for what you have. Be creative. Be innovative. Think differently and positively. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 60. 60 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2nd inter. Unit: 3 Lesson: 1 1st inter. Unit: 1 Lesson: 1 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 61. 61 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1st inter. Unit: 6 Lesson: 4 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 62. 62 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 4-Elaboration It means adding various new, minor exaggerated details to an idea, a solution or even to an illustration that help to enrich it and make it clearer. The Domains of Applying Elaboration  When planning a party & dealing with the various minor details that help to make it successful.  When writing an imaginary story and trying to add various details to let the reader enjoy it.  It helps in investigation where the policemen need to deal with every minor detail to find out the criminal. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 63. 63 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 2/2/1 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 64. 64 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 5-Imagination It is the ability to come up with various unrealistic, illogical ideas. It is considered the highest & rarest level of creativity that leads to invention. Einstein imagined himself riding ray of light & this lead him to discover…. Theory of Relativity 2/2/2 Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 65. 65 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1st inter. Unit: 6 Lesson: 1 Relax & close your eyes, then imagine how houses will look like in the year 3000!!!!!!!!!! Imagine that you were an arm-chair. Describe your feeling in details!!!!!!!!!! Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 66. 66 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 6-Brainstorming It depends on collective thinking & the discussion between small groups which leads to generating a collection of new fresh ideas that help in solving the given problem. The advantages of brainstorming  It encourages active participation  It builds self-confidence.  Gives various point of views to one idea.  Useful approach to solving problems The steps of brainstorming Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 67. 67 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 1-Preparing:  Prepare the place  Choose the right time of the period.  Choose the leader.  Choose the writer. 2) Performing:  Presenting the problem to the groups.  Restating the problem.  The leader asks her members to state their ideas.  The writer writes down the ideas so that all members can see them & combines similar ideas. 3) Evaluation: Evaluating ideas by deleting wrong & useless ideas Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 68. 68 Infusing Thinking into Instruction The Rules of Brainstorming  Don’t judge ideas immediately.  Correct & combing ideas.  Encourage a large number of ideas.  Accept strange ideas. The main factors to successful Brainstorming  The clarity of the problem to all members of the group before starting.  Each member should state her idea & no one has the right to judge it.  Numbering ideas so all members can see them.  Teacher’s experience & belief in brainstorming as a significant method that leads to creativity.  Having a joyful & encouraging classroom environment. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 69. 69 Infusing Thinking into Instruction You were looking for a new house. One evening you entered oneand the moment you went in, you heard a strange, loud voice. Then the electricity turned off and the door was locked. 1) Describe in details your feeling. 2) Work with your friends to come up with a solution to this problem. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 70. 70 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 71. 71 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Originality Realizing in ideas Relations The Characteristics of the Creative Flexible Generating ideas According to Edison, Creativity is 2% inspiration 98% efforts imagine Enjoy challenge try Creative Thinkers Hard curious worker optimistic risk Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 72. 72 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Day three Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 73. 73 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/1 3-Critical thinking 1. Is Critical Thinking a Creativity Killer? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 74. 74 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/2 1. Read the story There once was a little boy who had a bad temper. His Father gave him a bag of nails and told him that every time he lost his temper, he must hammer a nail into the back of the fence. The first day the boy had driven 37 nails into the fence. Over the next few weeks, as he learned to control his anger, the number of nails hammered daily gradually dwindled down. He discovered it was easier to hold his temper than to drive those nails into the fence. Finally the day came when the boy didnt lose his temper at all. He told his father about it and the father suggested that the boy now pull out one nail for each day that he was able to hold his temper. The days passed and the young boy was finally able to tell his father that all the nails were gone. The father took his son by the hand and led him to the fence. He said, "You have done well, my son, but look at the holes in the fence. The fence will never be the same. When you say things in anger, they leave a scar just like this one. You can put a knife in a man and draw it out. It wont matter how many times you say Im sorry, the wound is still there." A verbal wound is as bad as a physical one. Friends are very rare. Jewels, indeed! They make you smile and encourage you to succeed. They lend an ear, they share words of praise and they always want to open their hearts to us." *How did the father use critical thinking? *In your opinion what do students gain from practicing critical thinking? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 75. 75 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Critical thinking: Critical thinking is "reasonably and reflectively deciding what to believe or do." Critical thinking means making reasoned judgments. Basically, it is using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something: a statement, news story, argument, research, etc. {Quotation from Robert Ennis, and paraphrase of Barry Beyer} Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison, classification, sequencing, cause/effect, patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and inductive reasoning, forecasting, planning, hypothesizing, and critiquing. "Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience,reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action" (Scriven, 1996 ). "Most formal definitions characterize critical thinking as the intentional application of rational, higher order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, problem recognition and problem solving, inference, and evaluation" (Angelo, 1995, p. 6 ). Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 76. 76 Infusing Thinking into Instruction "Critical thinking is thinking that assesses itself" ( Center for Critical Thinking, 1996b ). "Critical thinking is the ability to think about ones thinking in such a way as 1. To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" (Center for Critical Thinking, 1996c ). Its importance: At school In life A constituent of good Improves self-learning citizenship Creates effective Helps to face problem and dialogues avoid mistakes gain self trust Gain honesty Improves educational Contributes in standards understanding other peoples’ views Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 77. 77 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/3 1. Give the rule We let our cat out of our house and notice that it runs behind a neighbor’s garage. We let our cat out the next day and it runs there again. And on the third day our cat again runs behind our neighbor’s garage. We conclude from these observations that our cat will ……………….......... 2. Give a conclusion for the following: -All chairs are furniture. -Some chairs are made from wood. Therefore,……………………………………………. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 78. 78 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Inductive reasoning: Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach .In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories. Inference can be done in four stages:  Observation: collect facts, without bias.  Analysis: classify the facts, identifying patterns of regularity.  Inference: From the patterns, infer generalizations about the relations between the facts.  Confirmation: Testing the inference through further observation. Strong induction  All observed crows are black.  Therefore:  All crows are black. Weak induction I always hang pictures on nails. Therefore: All pictures hang from nails. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 79. 79 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a "top- down" approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation (or not) of our original theories. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 80. 80 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Evaluative thinking Evaluative thinking (ET), on the other hand, is a means of thinking, of viewing the world, an ongoing process of questioning, reflecting, learning and modifying. What are we learning and how can we use those lessons to improve our performance? Both the lesson and the act of learning are at the heart of ET: learn to extend what’s working well and learn to fix what’s working poorly. Evaluative thinking is an inherently reflective process, a means of resolving the ―creative tension‖ between our current and desired levels of performance.1 It allows us to define the lessons we want to learn, to determine the means for capturing those lessons, and to design systems to apply them in improving our performance. By going beyond the more time- and activity-bound processes of monitoring and evaluation (M&E), ET is learning for change. It is learning to inform and shape action. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 81. 81 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/4 Thinking Activity: Distinguishing Between Inductive and Deductive Arguments Analyze the statements below for the kind of reasoning used. Place an ―I‖ in front of the inductive arguments and ―D‖ in front of deductive ones. 1. _____ Anything that questions the fact of its own existence must exist. I question the fact of my own existence. Therefore, I must exist. 2. _____ Asma knows French and German, Soad knows Swedish and Russian, Lana knows Spanish and French, Dania knows German and Swedish. If French is easier than German, and Russian is more difficult than Swedish, and German is easier than Swedish, and Spanish is more difficult than French, who speaks the most difficult languages? 3. _____ My friend is a very intellectual person but also quite fearful. So, I think intelligent people in general, perhaps because they are so overdeveloped in their intelligence, must be underdeveloped elsewhere, leaving them with somewhat disturbed personalities. 4. _____ No human being lies all the time. Therefore, Mary does not, as you suggest, lie all the time – maybe a lot but not all the time. 5. _____ No species on this planet has survived for more than 100 million years. The human race will be no exception. 6. If Ahmad had taken his medicine, he would have been cured. Ahmad did not recover because he left out the medicine. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 82. 82 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 83. 83 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/5 An Guide lines for critical thinking Role-play the following guideline: Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 84. 84 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Guidelines for Critical Thinking: The following are some guidelines for critical thinking.  Ask questions; be willing to wonder  Define the problem.  Examine the evidence.  Analyze assumptions and biases.  Avoid emotional reasoning.  Don’t use either/or thinking or over generalize.  Consider other interpretations.  Tolerate uncertainty. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 85. 85 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/1/6 Each of the statements below violates at least one of the guidelines for critical thinking. Identify the guideline that was violated and give a brief explanation for your choice. 1. Mona bought a bottle of pain reliever because a TV commercial claimed that most hospitals prescribe it. 2. You’re either for us or against us. 3. I get board with my science classes. We study the ―principle of this‖ and the ―theory of that.‖ Aren’t there any laws? Why can’t scientists make up their minds and stop acting like they don’t know anything for sure? 4. People tend to become forgetful as they get older. This is just one of the natural consequences of aging, and it would be a waste of time to look for specific causes or ways to prevent the problem. 5. You can tell that Maha is a lot smarter than her brother. She wears those thick glasses and has a high forehead. 6. Let’s just make up our minds and buy one or the other of the houses. I’m tired of thinking about it, and all this investigation and indecision is making me nervous. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 86. 86 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Answers 1. Analyze assumptions and biases (4). Mona is assuming that the hospital selected the pain reliever on the basis of its effectiveness. Perhaps the hospital gets the medication free of charge or at a greatly reduced cost. Define the problem (2). Defining the problem as ―pain relief‖ may be too broad. Perhaps the condition causing Mona’s pain problems calls for a different type of medication. 2. Oversimplification (6). An example of either/or thinking. Maybe I’m indifferent. 3. Tolerate uncertainty (8). The student seems more interested in answers than in ―truth.‖ 4. Ask questions; be willing to wonder (1). Statement shows a lack of willingness to search for causes and cures. 5. Examine the evidence (3). The statement expresses stereotypes for which there is little or no support. 6. Tolerate uncertainty (8). The statement suggests making a hasty decision to escape the discomfort of uncertainty. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 87. 87 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Teachers as models Discussion of the teachers role in fostering critical and creative thinking must begin from a recognition of the teacher as a person whose unique character, interests and desires can not be separated out from the idea of the teachers role. Good teachers are doing more when they teach than acting according to prescribed roles. Their desire to nurture a love for learning, to help students recognize and act upon their capabilities, and to establish a classroom climate which is based upon mutual regard and respect gives their teaching purpose and meaning beyond any technical description of the teachers role. What is required is that teachers be authentic individuals who are striving to improve their practice through the use of critical and creative thought. Acting upon their belief in the importance of critical and creative reflection, teachers would attempt to:  analyze their own thinking processes and classroom practices and provide reasons for what they do;  be open-minded, encouraging students to follow their own thinking and not simply repeat what the teacher has said;  change their own positions when the evidence warrants, being willing to admit a mistake;  consistently provide opportunities for students to select activities and assignments from a range of appropriate choices;  exhibit genuine interest, curiosity and commitment to learning;  undertake the organization and preparation required to achieve learning goals;  seek imaginative, appropriate and ethical solutions to problems;  be sensitive to others feelings, level of knowledge and degree of sophistication;  show sensitivity to the physical elements which contribute to a stimulating learning environment through the physical arrangements and displays they provide or facilitate;  allow for student participation in rule setting and decision making related to all aspects of learning, including assessment and evaluation. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 88. 88 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Critical thinking: TEN KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL THINKING 1. ACCURACY. The information a person is considering and evaluating must be accurate, factual, true and evidential. 2. CREDIBILITY. The data under discussion must be credible, believable, objective, consistent, justifiable and rational. 3. SPECIFIC. The statements made and the various arguments advanced should be specific, clear, precise and complete. 4. IMPARTIALITY. The information provided must be impartial, without prejudice, unbiased, neutral and free of strongly-held, personal beliefs. 5. RELEVANCE. The data used to make conclusions must be relevant and significant to the issue under consideration. 6. SUBSTANCE. The details relied upon to make a conclusion should be the result of broad, in-depth investigation, inquiry, research and all-encompassing study. 7. CONSISTENCY. The conclusion reached about an issue must be such that others assessing and evaluating similar data would arrive at a like judgment. 8. RELIABILITY. The evidence supporting a point of view being expressed must be reliable, dependable and trustworthy. 9. LOGICAL. The information presented in support of one’s argument must be logical, sequential, and progressive leading to the ultimate conclusion. 10. VERIFICATION. The data used to make a judgment or final conclusion, should be able to be easily verified, substantiated and validated Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 89. 89 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 4- metacognitive Thinking 3/2/1 Name things that you can see or could touch if you could physically enter the painting. Metacognitivee questioning: to raise levels of awareness 1. Describe what kind of thinking you did  What kind of thinking did you do?  What do you call this kind of thinking?  Was this kind of thinking .........? (name a kind of thinking) 2. Describe how you did your thinking  How did you do this thinking?  What did you think about? Why?  Did you have a plan (or strategy)? 3. Evaluate your thinking  Was your thinking good? Why?  Did you have a good plan (or strategy)?  How could you improve your thinking next time? Hend Al-Jamal Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and
  • 90. 90 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Metacognitive Thinking: Metacognition refers to higher order thinking that involves active control over the thinking processes involved in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature. Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning it is important for both students and teachers. Metacognition has been linked with intelligence and it has been shown that those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful thinkers. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 91. 91 Infusing Thinking into Instruction METACOGNITION consists of three basic elements:  Developing a plan of action  Maintaining/monitoring the plan  Evaluating the plan Before - When you are developing the plan of action, ask yourself:  What in my prior knowledge will help me with this particular task?  In what direction do I want my thinking to take me?  What should I do first?  Why am I reading this selection?  How much time do I have to complete the task? During - When you are maintaining/monitoring the plan of action, ask yourself:  How am I doing?  Am I on the right track?  How should I proceed?  What information is important to remember?  Should I move in a different direction?  Should I adjust the pace depending on the difficulty?  What do I need to do if I do not understand? After - When you are evaluating the plan of action ask yourself:  How well did I do?  Did my particular course of thinking produce more or less than I had expected?  What could I have done differently?  How might I apply this line of thinking to other problems?  Do I need to go back through the task to fill in any Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal "blanks" in my understanding?
  • 92. 92 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3/2/2 Think of a good teacher and then check if she has any of the following: A checklist of metacognitive practices: criteria  Teacher emphasized thinking about how students learn. Teacher encouraged students to improve their strategies of  learning.  Teacher told students how they think in their own learning.  Teacher asked students to explain how they learn.  Teacher encouraged students to try different ways to learn.  Teacher told students how class activities could help them learn. Teacher encouraged students to think about difficulties in their  learning. Teacher supported students when students tried to improve their  learning. Teacher told students how some learning practices might help  them learn. Teacher asked students to consider how to study/learn more  effectively.  Teacher supported students when they tried new ways to learn. Teacher told students how to improve learning with metacognitive  strategies. Teacher asked students to try new metacognitive strategies for  learning. Teacher encouraged students to talk with each other about  learning. Teacher gave ideas to help students think about new ways of  learning. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 93. 93 Infusing Thinking into Instruction STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING METACOGNITIVE BEHAVIORS 1. Identifying "what you know" and "what you dont know." At the beginning of a research activity students need to make conscious decisions about their knowledge. Initially students write "What I already know about..." and "What I want to learn about...." As students research the topic, they will verify, clarify and expand, or replace with more accurate information, each of their initial statements. 2. Talking about thinking. Talking about thinking is important because students need a thinking vocabulary. During planning and problem-solving situations, teachers should think aloud so that students can follow demonstrated thinking processes. Modeling and discussion develop the vocabulary students need for thinking and talking about their own thinking. Labelling thinking processes when students use them is also important for student recognition of thinking skills. Paired problem-solving is another useful strategy. One student talks through a problem, describing his thinking processes. His partner listens and asks questions to help clarify thinking. Similarly, in reciprocal teaching (Palinscar, Ogle, Jones, Carr, & Ransom, 1986), small groups of students take turns playing teacher, asking questions, and clarifying and summarizing the material being studied. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 94. 94 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 3. Keeping a thinking journal. Another means of developing metacognition is through the use of a journal or learning log. This is a diary in which students reflect upon their thinking, make note of their awareness of ambiguities and inconsistencies, and comment on how they have dealt with difficulties. This journal is a diary of process. 4. Planning and self-regulation. Students must assume increasing responsibility for planning and regulating their learning. It is difficult for learners to become self-directed when learning is planned and monitored by someone else. Students can be taught to make plans for learning activities including estimating time requirements, organizing materials, and scheduling procedures necessary to complete an activity. The resource centers flexibility and access to a variety of materials allows the student to do just this. Criteria for evaluation must be developed with students so they learn to think and ask questions of themselves as they proceed through a learning activity. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 95. 95 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 5. Debriefing the thinking process. Closure activities focus student discussion on thinking processes to develop awareness of strategies that can be applied to other learning situations. A three step method is useful. First, the teacher guides students to review the activity, gathering data on thinking processes and feelings. Then, the group classifies related ideas, identifying thinking strategies used. Finally, they evaluate their success, discarding inappropriate strategies, identifying those valuable for future use, and seeking promising alternative approaches. 6. Self-Evaluation. Guided self-evaluation experiences can be introduced through individual conferences and checklists focusing on thinking processes. Gradually self-evaluation will be applied more independently. As students recognize that learning activities in different disciplines are similar, they will begin to transfer learning strategies to new situations. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 96. 96 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Implicit & Explicit Metacognitive Thinking: Implicit Metacognitive Knowledge is the ability to monitor ones own cognitive activites. A perfect example from in the text (Childrens Thinking by Siegler and Alibali) was about a child who continually is monitoring his/her own speech. When the child makes a mistake when speaking they will stop and say the sentence over again but correctly. They are aware that they had made a mistake in their language whether it be a grammatical, pronouncing or naming error because their are monitoring their cognitive activities. Though in this type of metacognitive knowledge the individual is unaware that they are infact monitioring themselves. Explicit Metacognitive Knowledge is ones knowledge about tasks, strategies and people. An example of explicit metacognition would be taking a test at school. The student is aware of what they understand and what they need to work on (knowledge of self/people), they realize that if they don’t understand something they will have to search for the right information or ask for help (knowledge about tasks), and they are able to choose from a variety of strategies to assist them in studying for the test (knowledge about strategies). Most of the information gained about each of these categories occurs between the ages of 5 and 10. Lastly individuals are aware of their thoughts about these categories. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 97. 97 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Day four Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 98. 98 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 4/1/1 Arrange the steps of infusing thinking into instruction. Use the stars. Introduction to Content and Process Applying the thinking Thinking Actively Thinking About Thinking Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 99. 99 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Explicit introduction of thinking skills facilitates: 1. Students to reflect on what ways of doing specific types of thinking are good for them to practice, and what plans are the best ones for them to adopt in doing these kinds of thinking. 2. Practice directed at building the habit of doing specific types of thinking, and 3. Familiarity with occasions on which such thinking is appropriate or called for. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 100. 100 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Components of an Infusion Lesson Introduction to Content and Process • What do you understand by this component? • What examples did you see, read, or hear about in this workshop that illustrates this component? Thinking Actively • What is happening in this component? • What is the teacher’s role? Thinking About Thinking  Applying the Thinking • What value do you think these two components add to the teaching of thinking skills? Applying the thinking  Immediately transfer the learnt skill (near or far)  Reinforce later Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 101. 101 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Infusion lesson Plan Infusion Lessons Introduction Title: Thinking Actively Subject: Grade: Thinking about thinking Applying your thinking Objectives Content Thinking Skill/Process Methods And Materials Content Thinking Skill/Process Lesson Introduction to content and thinking skill/process Introducing thinking 1. Importance of thinking. 2. How do you do the thinking? 3. Importance of the content. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 102. 102 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Thinking Actively Thinking about thinking Thinking about thinking 1. Kind of thinking? 2. How did you do it? 3. Is it effective? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 103. 103 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Applying Thinking Applying thinking 1. Immediate transfer a. Near transfer b. Far transfer 2. Reinforcement later Reinforcement Later Extension Assessing Student Thinking Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 104. 104 Infusing Thinking into Instruction What Does Good Thinking Look Like?
Here are few examples of the types of thinking skills and behaviors evident in a Thinking Classroom. Notice how each point involves some sort of deliberate "action" around an idea, concept, or topic. The key to teaching thinking is to get students to take cognitive action. Thinking Classroom students tend to:  Take think time  Generate lots of options when making a decision  Look beyond the obvious toward a richer conception of a topic  Challenge assumptions and question the validity of given information  Find problems and solve them  Wonder about deep issues or structure  Seek alternative solutions and perspectives  Pay attention to detail to achieve deeper understanding  Make connections to ideas and subjects students already know about in or out of school  Seek hidden causes and explanations  Give examples and evidence to make a point  Produce reasons and arguments from multiple perspectives  Find new and effective ways to apply knowledge  Anticipate potential consequences  Demand and provide proof  Make plans, set goals and standards  Anticipate obstacles  Use diagrams, graphs, and organizers to illustrate ideas and concepts  Detect patterns of thinking  Describe strengths and weaknesses in learning Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 105. 105 Infusing Thinking into Instruction Levels of integration/infusion of teaching thinking into a curriculum Level of use Possible outcomes/implications Level 0: No teaching thinking National curriculum possible not strategies used. being delivered. Level 1: Occasional ready- Increased student interest in made strategies from books, lessons. National curriculum etc., used. beginning to be addressed. Students beginning to listen and Level 2: Many strategies used, respond to each other and most of which are ready made, thinking beginning to be some developed by dept. addressed. Debriefing process familiar and integral to students learning. Level 3: A lot of teaching Activities may be suggested by thinking strategies designed by students. Concepts (subject department and integrated into specific and generic) curriculum. understood and transfer to other topics and curriculum areas beginning. Students begin to be Level 4: Full consideration is independent learners. given to subject specific and Debriefing is integral to generic aims of lesson and IT most/many lessons. A high activities are designed to meet degree of metacognition. these. Improved examination results and uptake. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 106. 106 Infusing Thinking into Instruction 4/1/2 Decide the parts of the infusion lesson I’m going to tell you about a time when I had to make a decision. I wanted to take a vacation away from home, and I had to choose between going to abha where it was cold or going to Dammam where it was hot. I couldn’t go to both places, so I finally chose to go to Dammam. Now, think about a time when you had to decide about something and weren’t sure what was best. Take turns and tell your partner what you were thinking about doing. Give students enough time for both students in each pair to relate their decisions. If necessary, prompt the class to switch roles in order to give each partner a chance to relate his or her decision. •Let’s hear some of the examples you just discussed. Ask for three or four examples from the class. •What kind of thinking helped you figure out what to do? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: Picking, choosing, deciding. Write these words on the top of the board as a main heading. •The different things you were thinking about doing are called ―choices‖ or ―options.‖ Write these words on the board under the main heading. Let’s hear one of the choices or options you were thinking about when you were trying to decide. ANSWERS VARY. •In order to pick the best thing to do, we usually think about what will happen if we do it. We do this to figure out the good and bad things that might happen. These are usually called ―Results‖ or ―Consequences‖ of our options. Write these words on the board under options, and write ―Pro‖ and ―Con‖ after them. Explain that we use ―pro‖ for things that are good, things we want to happen, and ―con‖ for things that are bad, things we don’t want to happen. •Pick one of your options and discuss with your partner what might happen if you chose it. Which of these consequences would you want to happen and which would you not want to happen? •After we’ve thought about the consequences of our options, we can pick the best thing to do. The best thing will be the choice that has more pros and fewer cons than any of the other choices. Write ―Choose the best thing to do‖ under ―Consequences—pro and con.‖ This thinking map shows what we need to think about when we make a decision. CHOOSING 1. What are some things I can do? 2. What will happen if I do these things? 3. Which are good things to do? Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal •Now tell your partner what you decided to do. What did you think about in order to pick the best thing to do? •When we read stories, we hear about many characters who make
  • 107. 107 Infusing Thinking into Instruction •Now tell your partner what you decided to do. What did you think about in order to pick the best thing to do? •When we read stories, we hear about many characters who make decisions. It’s interesting to think about whether they picked the best thing to do. We’re going to read part of a story. As we do, we’re going to think about a decision that one of the characters makes and try to figure out the best thing to do. Our aim today is  to read a story about future plans.  To practice decision making through the ―choosing chart‖  I’m going to read the first part of the passage. Listen for the decisions that the main character makes. Let’s try to understand why she makes them. Read the first passage to the students and ask them to join in. •What decision did the character make at the beginning of the passage? ANSWER: I wanted to go to college and major in elementary education.  What does that tell you about the character? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: she’s a good person. She’s helpful. She wants to do good.  Were there any consequences that the character didn’t think about when she decided to be a teacher? POSSIBLE ANSWERS: She didn’t think about how difficult would it get.  Answering this question, ask them what things happened that the character didn’t expect.  Was it a good decision t? If you had thought about the consequences  before agreeing, would you have decided choose this career  Now let’s read a little farther in the story. Continue up to the part where the character writes an easy.  Suppose that you were the character. Let’s use our plan to decide what the character should do. Remember what comes first: What are the character’s options? What could she do? Talk to your partner and try to come up with three or four options. After a few minutes, ask the students to report. Get as many options as possible, one at a time, from different groups. Write the options on a transparency or drawing of the graphic organizer.  Now let’s figure out which option is the best thing to do. Let’s think about the consequences and list them as pros or cons. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 108. 108 Infusing Thinking into Instruction  Let me summarize the pros and cons of each option. Discuss with your partner what you think the best option is. Ask the students to vote on the best option. Check the one that gets the most votes. Then ask students why they voted for their option.  Is the character’s decision better than yours? Why? Ask this question only if what she decides is different from what the class decides.  When you were making your decision, you thought about the character’s options. Were the character’s options important to think about? Why or why not? Was it a good idea to think about the consequences of her’s options the way we did? Why?  If she had to make another decision, what would you tell her to think about?  Use your plan for decision making to figure out what you can do next weekend. Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 109. 109 Infusing Thinking into InstructionReferences :Websites: (1) Mind Power @work Judith Jewell (2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill (3) http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/181_06_200904/lak10499_fm.html (4) http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu/college/_e-assessglossary.aspx (5) http://www.tahoma.wednet.edu/SubSite/teachlearn/Basic_Skills/thinkingskills.htm (6) http://www.qcda.gov.uk/1841.aspx (7) http://www.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/home/learningandwork/cpd/cpd-teaching/cpd- teaching-thinkingskills/thinkingskills-strategies/thinkingskills-classifying.htm (8) http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/skills.htm (9) http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/skills.htm (10) http://www.qcda.gov.uk/5363.aspx (11) http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/skills.htm (12) . http://capetips.blogspot.com/2008/12/deepening-interpretation-skills.html (13) http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/skills.htm (14) http://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/cia/files/thinking_skills/corethinkingskills.pdf (15) http://www.borg.com/~rjgtoons/edu.html (16) http://homepage.mac.com/bobbdarnell/Show/Web%20page/sumframelist.ht m (17) http://www.tnewfields.info/Articles/sum.htm (18) http://www.you-can-teach-writing.com/how-to-write-a-summary.html (19) http://www.55a.net (20) http://www.almarefh.net/show_content_sub.php?CUV=359&Model=index&Sub Model=136&ID=365&ShowAll=On (21) http://lateralaction.com/articles/critical-thinking/ Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 110. 110 Infusing Thinking into Instruction (22) http://blessingsforlife.com/favforwards/nails.htm (23) http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/policy/cels/el4.html (24) http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/223707/critical-creative-and-productive- thinking-skills (25) http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/ctp/critical.htm (26) http://www.copyblogger.com/critical-thinking/ (27) http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/think/critical.htm#critical-thinking (28) http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic69.htm (29) http://www.utc.edu/Administration/WalkerTeachingResourceCenter/FacultyDe velopment/CriticalThinking/index.html#what is (30) http://www.criticalthinking.com/company/articles/inductive-deductive- reasoning.jsp (31) http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/dedind.php (32) http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~mdlee/Teaching/critical1.html (33) http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/types_reasoning/induction.htm (34) http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Inductive_reasoning (35) http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user- S/1226604834112265956911Chapter_5%5B1%5D.pdf (36) http://www2.csusm.edu/patrick/images/Inductive%20Reasoning.pdf (37) http://www.hent.org/world/rss/files/metacognition.htm (38) http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/developing.htm (39) https://eprints.kfupm.edu.sa/14851/2/FEC3931.pdf (40) http://www.kurwongbss.eq.edu.au/thinking/Bloom/blooms.html (41) http://www.nctt.net/infusion_chapter1.html (42) http://www.nctt.net/lessonsarticles.html (43) http://cognitivepsyc.tripod.com/id2.html (44) http://www.wabash.edu/sotl/docs/3_Thompson%20IIB.pdf Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal
  • 111. 111 Infusing Thinking into Instruction (45) http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/Health/story/stressed.html (46) http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ALPS/thinking/intro.cfmBooks: (1) ‫تدريس مهارات التفكير د. جودت أحمد سعادة‬ (2) Make your child brilliant Bernadette Tynan (3) ‫د.فتحي جروان‬ ‫تعليم التفكير مفاهيم وتطبيقات‬ (4) Mind Power @work Judith Jewell (5) Thinking Skills Jill Norris (6) ‫توني بوزان‬ ‫قوة الذكاء اإلبداعي‬ (7) Letting Students Be creative Viva-Continuum Edition (8) ‫دليل المعلم لتنمية مهارات التفكير‬ (9) ‫د. صالح محمد‬ ‫تعليم التفكير النظرية والتطبيق‬ (10) Transforming Learning and Teaching Barbra Macgilchrist &.. (11) ‫تنمية مهارات التفكير أ.د. حسن زيتون‬ (12) ‫روبرت سوارتز‬ ‫دمج مهارات التفكير الناقد واالبداعي في التدريس دليل تصميم الدروس‬ Supervisors Rana Al-Khudair and Hend Al-Jamal