• Studying genes…… how?
• Earliest history among farmers-selective breeding.
• Discovery of DNA-1953
• New molecular biology techniques, like r-DNA,
genomic mapping, genetic cloning etc.
• A new technology
direct manipulation of genetic material.
• Term transgenic-J.W.Gordon and
• Tailor made animals-wanted characters.
• More efficient than selective breeding.
What are Transgenic?
•Transgenic are genetically modified
organisms with DNA from another
source inserted into their genome
•Genes from other species/organisms.
•Organisms that have transgenes are called
genetically modified organisms. As their
genome is modified.
A large number of transgenic animals have
• Insects Alba, the EGFP (enhanced GFP) bunny
Created in 2000 as a transgenic artwork
Transgenic animals For what reason?
• Introduction of a desired character.
• Animal model for human diseases
• Animal system to produce biomolecules
• The underlying principle in the production
of transgenic animals is the introduction of
a foreign gene or genes into an animal
(the inserted genes are called
transgenes). The foreign genes “must be
transmitted through the germ line, so that
every cell, including germ cells, of the
animal contain the same modified genetic
material.”26 (Germ cells are cells whose
function is to transmit genes to an
• To date, there are three basic methods of
producing transgenic animals:
• DNA microinjection
• Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer
• Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene
The production of transgenic animals by microinjection
•The mouse was the first animal to undergo
successful gene transfer using DNA microinjection.
• This method involves:
•Transfer of a desired gene construct (of a single
gene or a combination of genes that are
recombined and then cloned) from another
member of the same species or from a different
species into the pronucleus of a reproductive cell
•The manipulated cell, which first must be cultured
in vitro (in a lab, not in a live animal) to develop to
a specific embryonic phase, is then transferred to
the recipient female
How do transgenic contribute to human
•The benefits of these animals to human
welfare can be grouped into areas:
• First transgenic mammal Herman ,the bull
(lelystad,16 dec 1990),was the first
genetically modified or transgenic
in the world.
• Scientist micro injected cells with human
gene coding for lactoferrin.
• In 1997, first transgenic cow ROSIE,
• Produced human protein enriched milk at
2.4g/lt, contains human gene Alfa
• α-lactalbumin is an important
whey protein in cow's milk (~1 g/l), and is
also present in the milk of many other
•Abnormalities suffered are more
•Weak immune system
•Respiratory and circulatory problems.
• Religious and ethical considerations-Man
playing the role of GOD.
• Should scientists focus on in vitro (cultured in a
lab) transgenic methods rather than, or before,
using live animals to alleviate animal suffering?
• Should such protocols demand that only the
most promising research be permitted?
• Is human welfare the only consideration?
• What about the welfare of other life forms?
•Interestingly, the creation of transgenic animals
has resulted in a shift in the use of laboratory
animals — from the use of higher-order species
such as dogs to lower-order species such as mice
— and has decreased the number of animals used
in such experimentation, especially in the
development of disease models. This is certainly a
good turn of events since transgenic technology
holds great potential in many fields, including
agriculture, medicine, and industry.