DIRECT SPEECH vs REPORTED SPEECH We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use: DIRECT SPEECH Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech). Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (“…”) and should be word for word. For example: “Today’s lesson is on presentations,” she said. INDIRECT/ REPORTED SPEECH It doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word.
DIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH We use REPORTED SPEECH when we want to tell another person about a conversation that took place in the past (e.g telephone call, news or a story that someone told us, etc.) Where’s Tom? He said he was feeling ill .
CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO REPORTED SPEECH:
Personal Pronouns, Possessives
Time & Place Expressions
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH Verb Tense Changes: Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple She said, “It’s cold.” › Past simple She said it was cold. Present continuous She said, “I’m teaching English online.” › Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Present perfect simple She said, “I’ve been on the web since 1999.” › Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Past simple She said, “I taught online yesterday.” › Past perfect She said she had taught online the day before. Past continuous She said, “I was teaching earlier.” › Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect She said, “The lesson had already started when he arrived.” › Past perfect NO CHANGE – She said the lesson had already started when he arrived
Note! – There is no change to could, would, should, might and ought to. Modal verb forms also change Direct speech Indirect speech will She said, “I’ll teach English online tomorrow.” › would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. can She said, “I can teach English online.” › could She said she could teach English online. must She said, “I must have a computer to teach English online.” › had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. shall She said, “What shall we learn today?” › should She asked what we should learn that day. may She said, “May I open a new browser?” › might She asked if she might open a new browser.
Changes in Time and Place expressions: Time Place Now Ago Then Before here there today that day This town/ garden... That town/ garden ... tomorrow the following day OR the day after These cities/ ... Those cities/ ... yesterday the previous day OR the day before last week/ month/ ... the previous week/ month ... OR the week before Next week / month/ ... The following week / month OR the week/ month after
Changes in Pronouns:
Since the person who is reporting what someone said is usually different from the person who made the original statement, pronouns in reported speech often change.
Me You “ I teach English online.” She said she teaches English online.
Statements are Affirmative or Negative Sentences.
We use a Reporting Verb + That (it can be omitted) + Subject + verb in Previous tense + ...
SAY and TELL are the most common verbs:
- “The students are tired”- said the teacher
The teacher said (that) the students were tired.
- “It’s the funniest show I’ve ever seen” -Joan told me.
Joan told me (that) it was the funniest show she had ever seen.
- “I’ll call you this afternoon” - Mary assured
Mary assured us (that) she would call us that afternoon.
Reporting Verbs: ADD ADMIT * AGREE ANSWER APOLOGIZE FOR* ARGUE ASSURE COMPLAIN to sb About * DENY * EXPLAIN INFORM OBJECT to * OBSERVE OFFER PROMISE PROTEST against /about * REMARK REPEAT REPLY SUGGEST* WARN * These verbs + ing The most common verbs are: TELL + sb and SAY sth TO sb Followed by THAT ( Remember it can be omitted!)
REPORTING QUESTIONS Reporting questions are usually introduced by ASK, INQUIRE, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, etc. When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to: + WORD ORDER : The word order in a reported question is the same as in a statement. The subject comes before the verb. Look at the examples: Question: Are you ready? Statement: I am ready. Question in reported speech: She wanted to know if I was ready. + PUNCTUATION : If the sentence is a statement, end it with a period (.) even if it contains a reported question. Look at the examples: Statement containing a reported question: She asked me what I thought of the new movie. Question containing a reported question: Did she ask what you thought of the new movie?
A) YES / NO QUESTIONS: Reporting Verb + if or whether + Subject + Verb +... (Order of Reported Question: Subject + Verb - as in Statements) “ Are you working these days?” he said. He asked if/whether I was working those days. (No Question Mark) “ Did you speak to John last night?” she asked She wanted to know if I had spoken to J, the night before. REPORTING QUESTIONS
A) YES / NO QUESTIONS: Reporting Verb + if or whether + Subject + Verb +... (Order of Reported Question: Subject + Verb - as in Statements) “ Are you working these days?” he said. He asked if/whether I was working those days. (No Question Mark) “ Did you speak to John last night?” she asked She wanted to know if I had spoken to J, the night before. TYPES OF REPORTING QUESTIONS
B) WH- QUESTIONS: Reporting Verb + Question Word(s) + Subject + Verb (The Word Order is again the same as in Statements ) “ Where did you go last summer?”. He asked me where I had gone the previous summer. “ How long were you waiting for us?” She wanted to know how long I had been waiting for them.
The Imperative changes into (Not) To Infinitive : He said to us: “ Stay here” He told us to stay there The Reporting Verb must indicate “order”: He said: “Don’t mention that” He told me not to mention that. “ Say that again”, he said to me He asked me to say that again. Reporting Verbs: Tell,ask, beg, invite, warn, order, command, instruct,... REPORTING COMMANDS (= ORDERS)
We normally use suggest + gerund
OR suggest that + Clause
Let’s, why don’t we, shall we, why not… are omitted: