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Attitude & Job Satisfaction

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  • Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.
  • Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)
  • Transcript

    • 1. ATTITUDES and JOB SATISFACTION Prepared by: P.Saravanan (25) P.Udhayashankar (18) Balashakthivel
    • 2. ATTITUDES
      • Evaluative statements (either favorable or unfavorable) concerning objects, people, or events.
      • reflect how one feels about something.
      • ex: “I like my job.”
    • 3.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude:
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 4. Components of attitudes Cognitive = evaluation My superior gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair . Affective = feeling I dislike my supervisor! Behavioral = action I’m looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. Negative attitude toward supervisor
    • 5.
      • Cognitive component of an attitude
      • The opinion or belief segment of an attitude
      • Affective component of an attitude
      • The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
      • Behavioral component of an attitude
      • An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
    • 6.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude:
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 7.
      • People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.
      • Individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behavior so they appear rational and consistent.
      • Attitudes are altered
      • Behaviors are altered
      • Some rationalization for inconsistency is sought.
    • 8.
      • Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)
        • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
        • Individuals seek to reduce this gap, or “dissonance”
      • Determinants in coping dissonance proposed by Festinger:
        • Importance of the elements creating the dissonance.
        • Influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements.
        • Rewards that may be involved in dissonance .
    • 9.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude :
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 10.
      • Measuring the A-B Relationship
      • Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
      • Moderating Variables
      • Importance of the attitude
      • Specificity of the attitude
      • Accessibility of the attitude
      • Social pressures on the individual
      • Direct experience with the attitude
      A B
    • 11. Moderating variables
      • The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relationship have been found to be:
          • Importance of the attitude (fundamental values, self-interest, identification with the individuals/groups that a person values)
          • Its specificity
          • Its accessibility
      • whether there exist:
          • Social pressures
          • Direct experience
    • 12. Self-perception theory
      • Self-perception argues that attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action .
      Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. B A
    • 13.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude :
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 14.
      • Job satisfaction
          • A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
      • Job involvement
          • The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.
          • psychological empowerment
    • 15.
      • Organizational commitment
      • The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization .
      • Three separate dimensions:
          • Affective commitment – an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.
          • Continuance commitment – the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it.
          • Normative commitment – an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.
    • 16.
      • Other job attitudes:
          • Perceived Organizational Support (POS) – the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
          • Employee engagement – an individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work they do.
    • 17.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude :
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 18. Attitude surveys
      • Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
      • Employee behaviors are based on perceptions, not reality .
    • 19.
      • Six questions that will help understand attitude :
      • What are the main components of attitudes?
      • How consistent are attitudes?
      • Does behavior always follow after attitudes?
      • What are the major job attitudes?
      • How are employee attitudes measured?
      • What is the importance of attitudes to workplace diversity?
    • 20.
      • Attitudes and Workforce Diversity
      • Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity:
        • Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions.
        • Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds.
    • 21. JOB SATISFACTION A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics .
    • 22.
      • Measuring Job Satisfaction
        • Single global rating
        • One-question rating
        • Summation score
        • Identifies key elements in a job, individual is then asked to rate on a scale
      • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
        • In general, people are satisfied with their jobs.
        • Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities.
    • 23. Satisfaction in jobs
      • What appears well is not be well!!!!
      • Pay alone does not bring higher satisfaction level.
      • Higher skills, Control, Greater responsibilities, Interest etc all have share in satisfaction.
      • Productivity enhancement, strict deadlines, overload of work etc contribute to low satisfaction level.
    • 24. what causes job satisfaction?
      • Major job satisfaction facets
      • work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, coworkers
      • enjoying the work itself is almost always the facet most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction.
    • 25.
      • Pay only influences Job Satisfaction to a point
        • After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction.
        • people who are poor or who live in poor countries, pay does correlate with job satisfaction and with overall happiness. But once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living, the relationship virtually disappears.
      • Personality can influence job satisfaction:
        • Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs
      • .
    • 26. The impact of dissatisfied and satisfied employees on the workplace
      • Exit
          • Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization.
      • Voice
          • Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.
      • Loyalty
          • Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
      • Neglect
          • Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen .
    • 27.
      • Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables (productivity, absenteeism, and turnover).
      • Voice and loyalty are constructive behaviors that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions.
    • 28. Responses to job dissatisfaction NEGLECT LOYALTY EXIT VOICE Destructive Constructive Passive Active
    • 29. Satisfaction and Productivity
        • Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!
        • Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
        • Satisfaction: individual productivity
        • Satisfaction: organization productivity
    • 30. Job satisfaction & organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
      • Satisfied employees would seem more likely to talk positively about the organization, help others, and go beyond the normal expectations in their job. More recent evidence however, suggests that satisfaction influences OCB, but through perceptions of fairness.
      • Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job
    • 31. Job satisfaction & customer satisfaction
      • Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
        • Satisfied workers provide better customer service and they increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
      • Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because:
        • They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.
        • They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships.
        • They are experienced
        • Dissatisfied customers can increase an employee’s job dissatisfaction .
    • 32.
        • Job satisfaction & absenteeism
        • A consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate to week.
        • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
    • 33. Job satisfaction & turnover
      • Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the employee’s level of performance. Level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers.
        • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit
        • Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
    • 34.
        • Job satisfaction & workplace deviance
        • Job dissatisfaction predicts a lot of specific behaviors, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing, and tardiness.
        • If employers want to control the undesirable consequences of job dissatisfaction, they had best attack the source of the problem – dissatisfaction – rather than trying to control the different responses .
    • 35.
      • Thank you