INTRODUCTION Cars are immensely complicated machines, but they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is decided to turning wheel The two basic elements that largely dictate car design today are 1. The internal combustion engine 2. Mechanical and hydraulic linkages
HY-WIRE BASICS The defining characteristic of the Hy-wire is that it doesn’t have either of those two things: engine and mechanical and hydraulic linkages Instead of an engine, it has a fuel cell stack Instead of mechanical and hydraulic linkages, it has a drive by wire system
FUEL CELL –ON HY-WIRE A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electricity and heat in the process. It provides a DC (direct current) voltage It can continually recharge a fuel cell by adding chemical fuel- hydrogen for an onboard storage tank
Proton exchange membrane fuel-cell The type of fuel cell that is used in the Hy-wire car is the Proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The four basic elements of a PEM fuel cell are:- The anode, the negative post of the fuel cell The cathode, the positive post of the fuel cell
Electrolyte It is the proton exchange membrane . It blocks electrons . The catalyst It is a special material that facilitates the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen. It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth. It is rough and porous . The platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the PEM.
Chemistry of a Fuel Cell Anode side: 2H2 => 4H+ + 4e- Cathode side: O2 + 4H+ +4e- => 2H2O Net reaction: 2H2 + O2 => 2H2O
DRIVE BY WIRE TECHNOLOGY The ‘brain’ of Hy-Wire is a central computer housed in the middle of the chassis. It sends electronic signals to The motor control unit to vary the speed. The steering mechanism to maneuver the car. The braking system to slow the car down . It is connected to an array of advanced sensors. The computer is connected to the body’s electronics through universal docking ports.
X-Drive X-drive is the driver’s control unit . It has two ergonomic groups , positioned to the left and right of a small LCD monitor. The color monitor in the center of the controller displays speed, mileage, fuel level and the rear- view images from video cameras on the sides and back of the car, in place of conventional mirrors. A second monitor, on a console beside the driver, shows you stereo, climate control and navigation information.
THE X-DRIVE CAN SLIDE TO EITHER SIDE OF THE VEHICLE
Fuel-Cell stack It is made up of 200 individual cells connected in series. It collectively provide 94 kilowatts of continuous power and 129 kilowatts at peak power. It is kept cool by a conventional radiator system It delivers DC voltage ranging from 125 to 200 volts
THE HYDROGEN TANKS AND FUEL-CELL STACK IN THE HY-WIRE
ADVANTAGES 1. Fuel efficient - a fuel cell vehicle could provide twice the fuel efficiency of a comparably sized conventional vehicle 2. Environment friendly - the only bi-product formed is water, which is a non-pollutant. 3. High stability - a low center of gravity, gives the architecture both a high stability and superior handling .
4. Highly spacious - As there are no linkages and engine lot of legroom space is available for the passengers. 5. Driver friendly – X-Drive can be taken to anywhere inside the car Gives the driver a clear view of the road and thus increases the drivability. 6. Freedom of individual expression – freedom of individual expression
DISADVANTAGES 1. Low safety -An electrical failure would mean total loss of control. 2. Storage and transportation of hydrogen fuels – production , transportation and storage of hydrogen for the on board fuel cell stack. 3. Pricing - With the current status of development, manufacturing of the Hy-wire cars on a mass scale would not at all be economical.
FUTURE OF HY-WIRE Fuel cells offer a promising alternative They need to be compelling, affordable, and profitable. The main challenge is in the field of storage of hydrogen
CONCLUSION The Hy-wire concept has so profoundly brought about changes in the automotive industry GM and other auto makers are planning to launch such a vehicle for the public usage by the year 2020.