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Brief Literature Review on Phasor Based Transmission Line Fault Location Algorithms Sarasij Das
Traditional Fault location Algorithms Phasor Based Knowledge Travelling Wave Based BasedSynchronised Unsynchronised Data Data Single Double Multi- End End Terminal
Factors influencing phasor based fault location Accuracy• Inaccurate fault-type• Inaccurate line parameters• Insufficient accuracy of the line model• Presence of shunt or series elements• CT saturation• CT & PT errors• Error in phasor estimation• Source Impedance & Fault resistance• Load current
Selected Phasor Based Transmission Line Fault location algorithmsRef I/P Characteristics/Consideration V,I, Single end, Untransposed, parallel, Fault resistance, Mutual Z coupling, ignores Shunt capacitance V,I Two end PMU, Setting free, Fault resistance, arcing, Mutual coupling, source impedance, ignores Shunt capacitance V,I,Z Two end PMU, Line with Cable, parallel, Fault resistance, Mutual coupling, source impedance, ignores transpose, V,Z Multi-terminal line, PMU @ all end, Untransposed, Mutual coupling, Fault resistance, source impedance, CT error V,I,Z Single end, Partial Coupling, fault resistance, source impedance, ignores transpose V,I,Z Two end PMU, System Oscillations, Mutual coupling, parallel, fault resistance, distributed line model
Selected Fault location algorithms for Series Compensated LinesRef I/P Characteristics/Consideration V,I,L Two end, Single ckt, Does not depend on device model (MOV etc.), iterative in nature, Solution not unique, two staged V,I,Z Two end, Single ckt, Non-iterative, Three staged, Does not depend on device model (MOV etc.), V,I,Z Two end, Double ckt, iterative, Does not depend on device model (MOV etc.), zero sequence coupling considered
References1. Kang, S.H., Ahn, Y.J., Kang, Y.C., Nam, S.R.: ‘A fault location algorithm based on circuit analysis for untransposed parallel transmission lines’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2009, 24, (4), pp. 1850– 18562. G. Preston, Z.M. Radojevic´, C.H. Kim, V. Terzija: ‘New settings-free fault location algorithm based on synchronised sampling’, n IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution3. Liu, Lin, Yu, and Yang: ‘A Fault Location Technique for Two-Terminal Multisection Compound Transmission Lines Using Synchronized Phasor Measurements’, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 20124. S. M. Brahma, “Fault location scheme for a multiterminal transmission line using synchronized voltage measurements,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1325–1331, Apr. 2005.5. J. Izykowski and R. Kawecki, “Location of faults in partially parallel transmission networks,” in Proc. Power Tech. Conf., vol. 3, Sep. 2001.
6 Z.Y. He; R.K. Mai; W. He; Q.Q. Qian, “Phasor-measurement-unit-based transmission line fault location estimator under dynamic conditions,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution7 C.-S. Yu, C.-W. Liu, S.-L. Yu, and J.-A. Jiang, “A new PMU based fault location algorithm for series compensated lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33–46, Jan. 2002.8 M.G Ahsaee and Javad Sadeh, "A Novel Fault-Location Algorithm for Long Transmission Lines Compensated by Series FACTS Devices", IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 20119 Jan Izykowski et. al, "Fault Location on Double-Circuit Series-Compensated Lines Using Two-End Unsynchronized Measurements", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 26, No. 4, October 2011