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WGST 303 Day 9 Prisms of Difference
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WGST 303 Day 9 Prisms of Difference


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  • How do you justify differences in pay?
  • How do you justify differences in pay?
  • AAUW 2013
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dr. Sara Diaz WGST 303: The *isms: Race, Class, and Gender Gonzaga University Gender, Feminism, and Prisms of Difference
    • 2. UNFun Political Facts • The US ranks 97th in the world for number of women in national government. • Worldwide, 20% of parliamentary seats are occupied by women. • 71 countries in the world have had female presidents or prime ministers, the US is not one of them. • More at:
    • 3. More UNFun Political Facts • Men occupy 80 to 95-plus percent of the top decision-making positions in American politics, business, the military, religion, media, culture, and entertainment. • Women comprise only 19.4 % of congress in 2015. • Only one US Senator is a woman of color in 2015. • Women of color represent only 6.2% of Congress and 31.7% of women Members of Congress.
    • 4. Even More UNfun Political facts • Women hold only 24.2% of state elective offices (this number has actually declined from it’s high of 27.6% in 2000). • State Legislatures are only 24.2% women. • As of 2014, 35 women have served as US governors compared to 2,319 men (1.5%).
    • 5. UNfun Economic Facts • Calculation based on median annual earnings: 𝑃𝑎𝑦 𝑔𝑎𝑝 = 𝑀𝑒𝑛$ − 𝑊𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛$ 𝑀𝑒𝑛$ • According to AAUW in 2013, women earned 78 cents for every dollar that men earned.
    • 6. UNfun Economic Facts • Research in 2014 indicates that the pay gap is WIDER for millennials (24-27%) • 1963 women earned 59 cents of every dollar men earned. • The pay gap grows with age: Women typically earn about 90 percent of what men are paid until they hit 35. After that median earnings for women are typically 75–80 percent of what men are paid.
    • 7. Which Women? 77% 78% 64% 90% 54% 59% 65% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% All Women White Women Black Women Asian American Women Latina AI/AN PI 2013 Average Annual Earnings as % of White Male
    • 8. Which Jobs? • Controlled for occupation there is still a 7% gap upon graduation that widens to 10% ten years after graduation. 80% 90% 74% 80% 88% 81% 79% 86% $- $500$1,000$1,500$2,000$2,500 Editors Secondary School Teachers Financial Managers Medical Scientists Registered Nurses Computer Programmers Lawyers Pharmacists 2013 Weekly Earnings Gap by Occupation Men Women
    • 9. Class Inequalities • Feminization of poverty • 56% of those in poverty are women. • The poorest groups in the U.S. • Women raising children alone • Women over 65 living alone
    • 10. Response QuestionResponse QuestionResponse Question • What is the “prism of difference” as presented by Maxine Baca Zinn, Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, and Michael Messner in "Gender Through the Prism of Difference"?
    • 11. Discussion QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsDiscussion Questions • What does it mean to look at the differences between men and women as opposed to looking at the differences among men and women? Which way of analyzing the differences is better and why? • Why is it a mistake to regard all generalizations about social groups as inherently oppressive? • How is it that the hegemonic feminist framework of "universal sisterhood" ignored major concerns for women? • Does contemporary feminism address these concerns more adequately?
    • 12. Discussion QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsDiscussion Questions The clarity of the metaphors we use is essential, so far we have been introduced to two: the mirror and the prism. • The prism shows the diversity, but the mirror shows the identity, how can both be preserved and how should the discussion be framed? • Is it a matter of one or the other or can they both be understood and discussed simultaneously, both as models and as ways of communicating?
    • 13. Discussion QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsDiscussion Questions • On page 154, the author writes, "It is unlikely that we will soon see a 'men's movement' that aims to undermine the power and privileges that are connected with hegemonic masculinity." Should there be a "men's movement" to deconstruct hegemonic masculinity? • What role should men play in the women's movement?