Book definition: Prejudice and discrimination directed toward whole social groups and promoted by the ideologies and practices of all social institutions.
Aware/blatant (cross burnings; racist graffiti) Aware/covert (hearing that an apartment if available and then being told that it has been rented, when in fact it had not been) Unaware/unintentional (misinformation; unexamined whiteness and white privilege) Unaware/self-righteous (a kind of superiority on the part of people who might assume that they are no longer racist, judge Japanese Americans for not speaking Japanese, tell black people about the problems in the black community etc.)
Fits under both the “unaware” categories in Gloria Yamato’s schemea
Dr. Sara Diaz
WGST 303: The *isms: Race, Class, and Gender
Response QuestionResponse Question
Explain how unrecognized cultural
differences create stereotypes according to
Forms of Oppression
Four different forms of oppression:
• Attitudes and behavior of some oppressed
people that reflect the negative, harmful,
stereotypical beliefs of the dominant
group directed at them.
• This can be self-hatred or simply self-
doubt, but it is very often unconscious.
• Identification with those in privileged
• Eden Torres: A sense of entitlement displayed through
unconscious, unintentional assumptions of superiority
and social authority with respect to race, class, gender,
sexuality, ability, etc.
• Kirk & Okazawa-Rey: The inability of a group or individual
to see the systematic attitudes and actions of prejudice,
superiority, and self-righteousness of one group (a non-
target group) in relation to another (a target group) as a
member of the non-target group.
• Unaware/unintentional or Unaware/self-righteous
• The casual degradation of any socially marginalized group
• Verbal insult, assault, invalidation, violation
• Assume or affirm stereotypes, homogeneity of marginalized
• Subtly demean marginalized groups
• Minimize, rationalize, or apologize for marginalization of
• Invasive comments/questions that cause emotional violation of
• Negative physical and mental health outcomes, internalized
The Myth of the Latin Woman
• What are some of the micro-aggressions
that Ortiz Cofer describes?
• How do they effect her?
• In what ways might the stereotypes she
encounters effect her economic situation?
“Lifting as we Climb”
• National Association of Colored Women (1895)
• Racial divisions in white women’s club
movement and suffrage movement.
• Mary Church Terrell – Early Leader of NACW
• Also co-founder of NAACP, fought for suffrage
and civil rights
• Lift up others as we climb the social ladder
• Part of ideology of “racial uplift”
• Remains a strong commitment among many
African American women
Racial Uplift Project
• Movement of the Black middle class during the
• Recognized that mainstream (white) society
would not act to improve the social, economic,
and political standing of African Americans.
• Talented Tenth – WEB Dubois, 1903
• To address the “Negro Problem” middle class
African Americans encouraged to emulate
white social norms.
Racial Uplift Project
• Respectability Politics
• Historically Black Colleges and Universities
• Clubs (like NACW, NAACP)
• Churches—VERY IMPORTANT
• Some white allies (Rockefellers, Rosenwald)
• Created many important institutions that still
• Reinforced internalized racism among African
21st Century: “Lifting as we Climb”
• What statistics stand out to you?
• Why is it important to consider wealth rather than income
when analyzing economic status of women of color?
• How does the limited wealth at retirement of women of color
affect the long-term wealth of their descendants?
• How is the economic future for women of color "inextricably
linked with the economic future of the nation"?
Discussion QuestionsDiscussion Questions
• Given that women of color are “some of the most resilient,
resourceful and relied-upon people in our society” (pg. 148), what
has prevented the economic mobility of women of color?
• Given the shifting racial demographics in the US, how will the
economy be affected if we don’t do anything to address the wealth
gap for women of color?
• What are the steps we must take in order to ensure a positive
economic future for both women of color and our nation as a
• How can we avoid the respectability politics of the “racial uplift”