Dr. Sara Diaz
WGST 303: The *isms: Race, Class, and Gender
Crime & Injustice
• 42% of rape survivors never tell anyone about their assault.
• 15% of rapes are “stranger rape.”
• 57% of rapes happen on dates.
• 1 in 4 college women say they have been forced to have sex.
• 6% of college men say they have forced someone to have sex,
• 88% of them said they didn’t think it constituted rape.
• 63% of them have raped more than once (serial rapists average 6
• 58% of serial rapists report other acts of interpersonal violence,
40% of single rapists.
• No racial ethnic differences
Gender-based violence & law
• Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) passed 1994,
reauthorized in 2012.
• Provides some protections, but is not a national rape law.
• Must be reauthorized every 20 years.
• Marital rape was legal in some states as late as 1993.
• 13 states still treat marital rape differently (higher standard of
• 1964 Civil Rights Act – defined bias crimes wrt “race, color,
religion, or national origin”
• VAWA 1994 attempted to include rape as hate crime on the
basis of gender (went to supreme court, declared
• Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act in 1994
expanded hate crime to include “perception” and ethnicity,
gender for federal crimes only.
• Matthew Shepherd and James Byrd Jr Hate Crimes Prevention
Act 2009 expanded included gender identity, sexual
• States - most do not include sexual orientation and gender
• Should rape be considered a hate crime? Why? Why
• Who does the law benefit most when it comes to rape
and anti-queer hate crimes?
• Historically speaking, why is that so?
• How can we change the legal system so that more people
who are the targets of these crimes have access to
• What additional forms of violence were
created by the legal system in the history
of rape prosecution?
• How is the state implicated in that
• Can we see traces of state violence in
In your groups
• Problem Statement
• Identify Cumulative Privileges/Disadvantages
• Intersections (-isms)
• Intersections (institutions)
• Past Interventions
• Proposed Solutions
• Solutions must address each of the four elements of the problem
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