The Philippines were first colonized by Spain. Filipinos sought help from US to gain independence from Spain, Instead, the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War, granted US control over the Philippines (as well as Puerto Rico and Guam). So, they had really fought just to change their colonizer. During WWII the Philippines were occupied by Japan. Full independence gained in 1946. Important to keep this history of colonization and occupation in mind when we think about the Philippines.
WGST 202 Day 23 Immigration
Dr. Sara Diaz
WGST 202: Gender, Difference, and Power
Push Factors Pull Factors
Economic Globalization has created
economic voids as a result of
diminished local economies
The presence of industrial
zones including agriculture,
service work, natural resource
Political Wars, ethnic conflicts,
political instability and
Political tolerance (or the
perception of it)
Environmental Both globalization and
Global climate change is
increasing the frequency and
magnitude of weather related
Stable, temperate, resource
rich environments with low
levels of pollution
Remittances USD 2010/2011
Remittances US Aid % of GDP
Mexico 23.5 Billion 5.6 Billion 2%
Philippines 22.8 Billion 122.7 Million 10.3%
India 63 Billion 5.4 Billion 3.4%
China 61.4 Billion 1.1 Billion 0.6%
Feminization of Migration
• Increasing number of women who, because of
low-wage and dangerous work in their home
countries migrate to other nations in search of
• Women workers send "remittances" back to
• Philippines-export women to work as essentially
indentured servants, the women send money
back, and their families can use that money in
the local economy.
Remittances → Care Crisis
• Remember: Choices vs Options
• “The labor of women from poorer nations
‘serves as the infrastructure on which First World
economic expansion depends.’”
• Who cares for upper middle class women’s
children while they pursue their careers?
• Parreñas – Care Crisis
• History Philippine Occupation/Colonization
• Restructuring of family formations
Patel – Shilling Love
• How is Patel’s experience a legacy of
“empire”? Of migration?
• How could we use Hartman & Barajas-
Roman’s definitions of
environmental/reproduction justice to
understand the experiences Patel outlines
in her poem?
• Connections to the bell hooks piece?
What is the relationship between
globalization and immigration?
• Option A:
• Pick an item you have with you. Where did it come from? Whose
hands have touched it? What exploitations are embedded in it?
IMAGINE. How could you resist or undermine those
• Write a poem, collectively, about how we can resist the
exploitation embedded in the products we consume.
• Option B:
• Identify the forces of globalization on our campus. Where does
Gonzaga fit in the system of global capital? What resources do
we take for granted here that might be causing human and
environmental suffering elsewhere? How does it make you feel?
• Write a poem, collectively, about the impact of Gonzaga’s global
economic/environmental footprint, designed to encourage action
on the part of your classmates.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.