In the 18th Century no active collective female organizing. Instead there were individual women (white, educated, moneyed) who called for women’s rights. Mary Wollstonecraft and Abigail Adams …. Abigail Adams was married to John Adams, didn’t specifically advocate women’s suffrage but she did argue that married women should have property rights and that the law should limit the power of husbands.
Temperance was a movement against the excessive consumption of alcohol (sometimes against the consumption of any alcohol at all).
Because many black and white women were engaged in the Abolition movement, there has been, from the very start, an relationship between race and gender based moved in the US.
They were drawing on the documents already familiar to those in power in the US.
History says no black men or women in attendance but that has recently been called into question because there was an established population of free blacks in the areas
What’s been denied Vote No representation Citizenship (abstractly) Civil and property rights Responsibility under the law Education Employment Confidence Moral double standard
What do they suffragists want? Happiness (is this strange?) Self-determination Full legal equality with men Education Mobility Vote Property rights
Open to women only
(voting anyway!) In fact Susan B Anthony was arrested and convicted for voting “illegally” in the 1872 presidential election (she voted for Ulysses S Grant). She tried to use the 14th amendments citizenship clauses as her defense but was convicted anyway. She was fined $100 but vowed never to pay it, and didn’t!
We see a similar split in the marriage equality movement, with some groups working at the state and local level and others working at the federal level.
General national culture of anxiety about the changing demographic of the nation concern about mobility of af amer population concern about europeans from eastern Europe concern about chinese migration
However, there was a lot of other organizing around civil rights and labor that women were involved in.
Or, if the women were of middle to lower-middle class maybe the would work to put their husband through school.
Argued that women were being designated as politically insignificant because their lives were focused on the home and family … spoke from a very specific northeaster upper-middle class educated white perspective which was universalized to all “women”.
Dr. Sara Diaz
WGST 202: Gender, Difference, and Power
2. Caution: Living Native Culture
• Native cultures are living breathing
• Native values persist and continue to
exist as “American” values today.
3. Response Question
What does Paula Gunn Allen say about “the
red roots of white feminism?”
What feminist ideas does she mention that
have Native American antecedents?
4. Reading Questions - Allen
Paula Gunn Allen
• What elements of Native cultures does
Gunn Allen say have been incorporated
into dominant American culture?
• In what ways have the gynocratic
indigenous cultures influenced
5. FIRST WAVE FEMINIST MOVEMENT
6. Precursors to the Women’s Movement
• 19th Century -- women using the language
of political action and collective political
• The Temperance movement
• The Abolition movement
• political organizing skills
• foundation to suffrage movement.
• growing acknowledgement of women as
7. First Wave Feminist Movement: 1848
• Seneca Falls Convention
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
• "We hold these truths be self evident that all men
and women are created equal ...."
• Both men and women in attendance
• History says no Black men or women in
• In 1850 meeting held in Ohio
• Sojourner Truth in attendance
• Appeal of Suffrage Movement to both White and
African American women
8. Seneca Falls
• What does the “Declaration of Sentiments
and Resolutions” argue had been denied
• What did the suffragists want?
9. National Woman Suffrage Association
• Formed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
• Prior to its initiation members organized against 14
(citizenship) and 15 (suffrage).
• Encouraged women to vote anyway
• Goal was women’s suffrage above all
• Also advocated free contract, making marriage a
voluntary agreement that would be dissolvable at will
• Advocated birth control
• Work for constitutional amendment
10. Susan B. Anthony, an Abolitionist
• “Garrision” Abolitionist
• More hard line abolitionist than Lincoln
• "No compromise” with slaveholders --
• Temperance, abolition, and women’s
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton never made
abolition central to her feminism
11. American Woman Suffrage Association
• Formed by Lucy Stone in 1869
• More moderate group than NWSA
• Open to men and women
•Worked instead on local legislatures to
obtain women suffrage
12. NWSA + AWSA = NAWSA
• United in 1890 for "Expediency“
• excluded black women from suffrage in order to
appeal to Southern legislators.
• Concern that the US would no longer be fundamentally a
white nation "White nativism"
• in Theodore Roosevelt’s 1906 annual message to
Congress, he chastised middle-class white women for
their "willful sterility" … "The one sin for which the
penalty is national death, race death.“
• Intermarriage and low white birth rates were considered
13. National Association of Colored Women
• Black women worked in AWSA and
• organizations didn’t support their
• Worked for suffrage AND “Racial
• Against NAWSA “expediency”
14. The Vote
• By 1917 (end of WWI) renewed energy for
• Women of all races working for passage
• 1919 bill passes House but not Senate
• NAWSA floats the expediency idea again, but
NACW organized against it.
• Black women joined NAWSA to throw out
"expedience" from the NAWSA agenda and were
15. 19th Amendment
• Summer of 1920 the 19th Amendment is
•Women vote in first presidential election
the following November
• Warren Harding v. James
16. SECOND WAVE FEMINIST MOVEMENT
17. The Feminine Mystique
• No large scale feminist organizing between 1920-
• Feminine Mystique-Betty Friedan
• Home and family seen as private realm, not a
politically significant realm
• White, upper-middle class college-educated
• expectation to stay at home and raise families
• Friedan called it “The problem with no name”
18. Critiques of the Mystique
• Ignored white working-class and women of
color’s labor force participation
• Who should maintain the home and at what
• Many working women wanted the economic
ability to remain home with their children
• Didn't contend with the kind of work available
even to educated white women (secretarial,
clerical, low paying, unstable, part-time)
19. Racism & Classism in the 2ndWave
• Abortion rights focused instead of reproductive
• Alienated women who had histories of forced
sterilization or forced abortion
• Was divisive for women who didn't believe in abortion.
• Books about "women" that include no specific
references to women of color.
• Conferences on “women” that include no papers by
women of color.
• Little awareness of economic constraints.
• Universalization of values.
20. Commonalities between the 1st 2ndWaves
• Assumptions of women's commonality
within a patriarchal system
• Unexamined race and class privilege
• Willingness on the part of white women to
abandon women of color for political
expediency or simplicity of analysis
• Over-simplicity of analysis/theory
21. Readings for Wednesday
K&OR 3: Combahee River Collective - A
Black Feminist Statement, p. 27
K&OR 4: Becky Thompson - Multiracial
Feminism: Recasting the Chronology,