Chickering and Gamson’s 7 Principles for
Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
The seven principles for good practice are:
1. Encouraging student-faculty contact
2. Encouraging cooperation among students
3. Encouraging active learning
4. Giving prompt feedback
5. Emphasizing time on task
6. Communicating high expectations
7. Respecting diverse talents and ways of learning
Classroom Techniques Using the Seven
• E-mail your students or use Blackboard Announcements
• Use Discussion Boards or in-class/EV discussions
• Use Blackboard teams or EV Breakout rooms or group
• Use Blackboard in grading and offering quick feedback
• Offer in-class feedback on discussions or classwork
• Use the ERAU template to help students navigate the course
and spend more time on task
• Communicate high expectations through the course syllabus
and in every interaction with students
• Provide multiple resources and activities for your students
For more information on the Seven
Principles for Good Practice in
Undergraduate Education, please scroll
through the following resources.
Abstract: Seven principles that can help to improve undergraduate education are
identified. Based on research on college teaching and learning, good practice in
undergraduate education: (1) encourages contacts between students and faculty;
(2) develops reciprocity and cooperation among students; (3) uses active learning
techniques; (4) gives prompt feedback; (5) emphasizes time on task; (6)
communicates high expectations; and (7) respects diverse talents and ways of
learning. Examples of approaches that have been used in different kinds of
college in the last few years are described. In addition, the implications of these
principles for the way states fund and govern higher education and for the way
institutions are run are briefly discussed. Examples of good approaches include:
freshman seminars on important topics taught by senior faculty; learning groups
of five to seven students who meet regularly during class to solve problems set
by the instructor; active learning using structured exercises, discussions, team
projects, and peer critiques, as well as internships and independent study; and
mastery learning, contract learning, and computer-assisted instruction
approaches, which required adequate time on learning. (SW)
• This is the original article where Chickering and Gamson describe each of the
Principles. This the reference that is used whenever the seven principles are
Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good
practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, (March), 3-7.
Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1999). Development and adaptations
of the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 89(Winter), 75-81.
Abstract: The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education were a huge success when they were first issued in the mid-1980s,
and they have continued to be refined and used in a variety of ways since
• This article discusses the adoption of the seven principles for the first 10
years after they were introduced. It offers additional information of how
the principles were developed and how others have used and adapted the
principles in the classroom and in research.
Braxton, J. M., Olsen, D., & Simmons, A. (1998). Affinity disciplines and
the use of principles of good practice for undergraduate education.
Research in Higher Education, 39(3), 299-318.
Abstract: Academic disciplines with soft paradigmatic development tend to
have an affinity for more readily enacting practices designed to improve
undergraduate education than do hard paradigmatic development disciplines.
This study extends the affinity discipline hypothesis to Chickering and
Gamson’s seven principles of good practice. The affinity discipline hypothesis
garners empirical support for four of the seven principles of good practice:
encouragement of faculty-student contact, encouragement of active learning,
communication of high expectations, and respect for diverse talents and ways
of knowing. Implication for theory and practice are suggested by the findings
of this study.
• This article illustrates how the seven principles have been applied in
research. Braxton, Olsen, and Simmons (1998) found the seven principles
presented with different levels of strength for different disciples, so not all
disciplines used the same principles to the same degree. They also include
the instrument they used to evaluate the Seven Principles.
Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Lim, B., Craner, J., & Duffy, T. M. (2001).
Seven principles of effective teaching: A practical lens for evaluating
online courses. The Technology Source Archives at the University of
North Carolina, (March/April)
No abstract provided
• This article provides a great “list of „lessons learned‟for online
instruction that correspond to the original seven principles” (Graham,
Cagiltay, Lim, Craner & Duffy, 2001). The list is very practical list of
techniques that can be used in the online classroom and the Principle
that they correspond with.
McCabe, D. B., & Meuter, M. L. (2011). A student view of technology in
the classroom: Does it enhance the seven principles of good practice
in undergraduate education? Journal of Marketing Education, 33(2),
Abstract: There has been an explosion of classroom technologies, yet there is
a lack of research investigating the connection between classroom technology
and student learning. This research project explores faculty usage of
classroom-based course management software, student usage and opinions of
these software tools, and an exploration of whether or not the use of
classroom-based course management software enhances student perceptions
of learning based on the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education. The authors find that although students enjoy using many of the
course management tools, they do not see the tools as highly effective at
enhancing the learning experience. When designing courses and considering
if or how to use course management tools, it is critical for faculty to consider
the connection between the Seven Principle for Good Practice in
Undergraduate Education and the specific technology tools. Implications of
the research findings and suggestions for improved use of classroom
management software tools are provided.
• This article brings in the student perception of the Seven Principles and
how they see the connection between the Principles and Blackboard.
Karen L Hathaway. (2013). An application of the seven principles of good
practice to online courses. Research in Higher Education Journal, 22,
Abstract: Online learning has become a more common way to earn a college
degree during the past 10 years. Therefore, curriculum designers must
evaluate the best ways in which to deliver information and assess students
knowledge in an online forum. One way in which online courses can be
designed is by using Chickering and Gamson’s Seven Principles of Good
Practice (1996). This article analyzes the usefulness of each of the principles
and suggests ways in which the principle can be implemented effectively in
an online forum.
• I really like this article. It offers a nice overview of the seven principles,
then relates them to online teaching techniques. Even if you don‟t teach
online, it gives great examples of how to bring the principles into the
The TLT Group. Seven principles TLT ideas & resources. Retrieved March
26, 2014, from http://www.tltgroup.org/seven/Home.htm
The TLT Group is the official Seven Principles Group. They have
been compiling resources for the seven principles since the 90s.
Some of the links are out of date, but there is a lot of quick
information available on their website.
Center for Teaching Excellence, Virginia Commonwealth University.
(2009). Online teaching and learning resource guide: 7 principles of
good practice in online teaching. Retrieved 4/3, 2014, from
Virginia Commonwealth University’s Center for Teaching
Excellence has developed some great resources around the
seven principles including a page for each principle with an
example case of how it can be implemented in the classroom.