GSB – MBA – TM IOrganisationalBehaviour Unit II Personality and emotions 1
4–2 What is Personality? Personality - All our behaviour is somewhat shaped by our personalities. – a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. It is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. “The dynamic organisation within an individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.” Gordon Allport
Personality, according to Fred Luthans, will mean how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction. How people affect others depends on external appearance (height, weight, facial features, color, and other physical aspects) and traits. 3
Personality DeterminantsAn adult’s personality is generally considered to be made up of both hereditary and environmental factors, moderated by situational conditions. 4
Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.
Heredity Factors that were deter –mined at conception - physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms – biological, physiological and inherent psychological make up of parents. – the heredity approach says that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. 5
Research among children support the hereditary theory – shyness, fear, and distress, height, hair colour. Research among twins – separated at birth and brought up separately – one set of twins separated 39 yrs ago and raised 45 miles apart were found to drive the same model and color car, chain-smoked the same brand of cigarette, owned dogs with the same name, and regularly vacationed within 3 blocks of each other in a beach community 1500 miles away. Genetics accounts for 50% of the personality differences and more than 30% of the variation in occupational and leisure interests. 6
A report by the American Psychological Association concludes, “Studies over the past 20 yrs on twins and adopted children have firmly established that there is a genetic component to just about every human trait and behaviour, including personality, general intelligence and behaviour disorders.” 7
The report concludes: “Many genes are responsible for various aspects of people’s temperament, and those genes appear to interact with each other in complicated ways that influence several traits at once- and then likely only in very subtle ways, with any one gene likely accounting for only 1 or 2% of the variance in trait.” 8
Individualjob satisfaction is found to be stable over time, according to research –Depends on the person and less on external environmental factors. If personality were completely dictated by birth, no experience could change it. But personality factors are not completely dictated by heredity. The debate should not be nature or nurture, but nature and nurture that contributes to one’s personality. 9
Role of the brain The genes also affect brain functions that in turn affect how people interact with their environment and thus their personalities. Some people, call the brain, “the last frontier” because we still know very little about it, may hold more answers for personality 10
Environment Culture in which one is raised, early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends, social groups, and other influences we experience. Both heredity and environment are important. Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits, but an individual’s full potential will be determined by how well he or she adjusts tot eh demands and requirements of the environment. 11
Situation Influences the effects of environment on personality, which changes in different situations. Certain situations are more significant than others. 12
4 Personality Theories > Traits Theory > Psychodynamic Theory > Humanistic theory > Integrative approach 13
1. Traits Theory Trait is an the sum of all enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour.-observable patterns of behaviour that last over time. States that to understand individuals, we must break down behaviour patterns into a series of observable behaviour. Gordon Allport, saw traits as broad , general guides that lend consistency to behaviour. Raymond Cattellidentified 16 traits that formed the basis for differences in individual behaviour. He described traits in bipolar adjective combinations, such as self-assured/apprehensive, reserved/outgoing, and submissive/dominant. 14
Diificultybecause of large number- one study identified 17953 traits. Impossible to predict behaviour when such a large number is to be taken into account. One researcher identified 171 traits but concluded that they were superficial and lacked in descriptive power. 15
4–16 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types - The world’s most widely used personality assessment, with as many as two million assessments administered annually. Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the theory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.
17 Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions: The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition Jung went on to suggest that these functions are expressed in either an introverted or extraverted form.From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type,
18 Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions: The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition Jung went on to suggest that these functions are expressed in either an introverted or extraverted form.From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, Personality Types
Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)
Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)
Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)
Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)
Type 19 The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are better or worse; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences. In the same way that writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development..
20 The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of intuition, which uses the abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion). For instance: ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J) INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P) And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.
Primary traits (Robert Cattell) 1. Reserved vs outgoing 2. Less intelligent vs more intelligent 3. Affected by feelings vs emotionally stable 4. Submissive vs dominant 5. Serious vs happy-go-lucky 6. Expedient vs Conscientious 7. Timid vs venturesome 8. Tough-minded vs sensitive 21
9. Trusting vs suspicious 10. Practical vs imaginative 11. Forthright vs shrewd 12. Self-assured vs apprehensive 13. Conservative vs experimenting 14. Group dependent vs self-sufficient 15. Uncontrolled vs controlled 16. Relaxed vs tense 22
It is a 100 –question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Groups of EThe answers help to classify them under the 4 groups, ESTJ or INFPand further combined 16 personality types. e.g., INTJs are visionaries – have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes – skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn. 23
ESTJs are organisers – realistic, logical, analytical, and decisive and have a natural head for business or mechanics. They like to organise and run activities. ENTPs are conceptualisers – innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. – resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. A recent book that profiled 13 contemporary business people who created super successful firms including Apple Computer, Federal Express, Honda Motors, MS, and Sony found that all 13 are intuitive thinkers (NTs). This result is particularly interesting because intuitive thinkers represent only about 5% of the population. 24
4–25 The Big Five Model of Personality DimensionsThe 5 basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variations in human personality. The Big Five factors are: Extroversion (extraversion)Sociable, gregarious, and assertive AgreeablenessGood-natured, cooperative, and trusting. ConscientiousnessResponsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
26 Emotional StabilityCalm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). Openness to ExperienceImaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism, curiosity.
Extroversion – a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive. – one’s comfort level with relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet. Agreeableness – describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, warm and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic. 27
Conscientious - responsible, hard-working, dependable, persistent, and organised– Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, lazy, disorganised, and unreliable. Emotional stability – tests a person’s ability to withstand stress. –calm, self-confident, cool, and secure (positive) versus nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure (negative) . 28
Openness to experience – range of interests and fascination with novelty., imagination, artistic sensitivity, cultured, curiosity, and creativity. Those at the other end are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.- practical with narrow interests. 29
Criticism > Some theorists argue that simply identifying traits is not enough. Personality is dynamic and not completely stable. > Trait theories ignore the influence of situations. 30
2. Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic theory (the uncoscious determinants of behaviour Based on the work of Sigmund Freud, this theory emphasises the unconscious determinants of behaviour. Freud saw personality as the interaction between 3 elements of personality, viz., the id, ego, and superego. The id is the most primitive element, the source of drives and impulses that operates in an uncensored manner. The superego , similar to our conscience, contains values and the ‘shoulds and should-nots’ of the personality – ongoing conflict between the id and the superego. The ego manages the conflict between the Id and the superego. 31
In this role, the ego compromises, and the result is the individual’s use of defense mechanisms such as denial of reality. The contribution of this theory is its focus on unconscious influences on behaviour. 32
3. Humanistic theory Carl Rogers believed that all people have a basic drive toward self-actualisation, (Abraham Maslow) which is the quest to be all you can be. The theory focuses on individual growth and improvement – distinctly people centred and also emphasises the individual’s view of the world- contributes an understanding of the self to personality theory and contends that the self-concept is the most important part of an individual’s personality. 33
4. Integrative Approach Personality is described as a composite of the individual’s psychological processes. Personality dispositions include emotions , cognitions, attitudes, expectancies, and fantasies. Dispositions mean the tendencies of individuals to respond to situations in consistent ways. Influenced by both genetics and experiences, dispositions can be modified. The integrative approach focuses on both permanent (Dispositions) and situational variables as combined predictors of behaviour. 34
More importantly, it draws on the self-concept including nature (heredity and physiological/biological dimensions) and nurture (environmental, developmental dimensions), dispositional traits, the social cognitive interactions between the person and the environment, and the sociailisation process. 35
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Locus of control Machiavellianism Narcissism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Risk taking Type A personality 36
Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. InternalsIndividuals who believe that they control what happens to them. ExternalsIndividuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Research shows that people who rate high in externality are less satisfied with their jobs, have high absenteeism rates, are more alienated from the work setting and are less involved in their jobs than are internals – less likely initially to get a job. In contrast to externals, internals exhibit more motivation, and willingness to take action in their initial interviews, 38
Externals are more dissatisfied , as they perceive themselves as having little control over the organisational outcomes that are important to them. Internals. Similarly placed attribute organisational outcomes to their own actions. If they are dissatisfied, they will quit. Absenteeism on account of sickness is lower among internals as they assume responsibility for personal health. 39
Overall, internals are better performers, depending on the jobs – search more actively for information before making a decision, more motivated to achieve, make greater attempt to control their environment – more likely to assume managerial positions and prefer participative management. They show higher motivation, hold stronger beliefs that effort leads to performance, receive higher salaries and display less anxiety than externals. 40
Externals are more compliant, will follow instructions – succeed at well structured and routine jobs.- reluctant to participate in decision making. Internals will do well on sophisticated tasks, requiring complex information processing and learning. –More suited to jobs requiring autonomy, e.g., sales job. They may not like close supervision 41
4–42 Machiavellianism Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Conditions Favoring High Machs
Minimal rules and regulations
Emotions distract for others
Machiavellianism Named after NiccoloMachiavalli – 16th century – how to gain and use power. “If it works, use it” – consistent with high-Mach perspective. High-Machs manipulate more, are persuaded less, and persuade others. They flourish - when they interact face-to-face with others rather than indirectly, - when there are minimum rules, and - when emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning will distract low-Machs. 43
Narcissism Likes to be the centre of attraction – looks into the mirror frequently – extravagant dreams - thinks he is capable of many things A person with a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant – supervisors rate them as worse leaders. 44
E.g., an ORACLE Co executive described that Co’s CEO Larry Ellison as follows; “The difference between God and Larry is that God does not believe that he is Larry.” They tend to be selfish, treat others as inferior, exploitative, think others exist for their benefit. 45
4–46 Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring Self-concept is the people’s attempts to understand themselves. The self may be viewed as the personality viewed from within. Self-Esteem (SE) - Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.- people’s self perceived competence and self-image.
Self esteem is directly related to expectations of success – high SEs believe they have the ability to succeed at work. – take more risks at job, choose unconventional jobs. High SEs are more satisfied with their jobs. Low SEs are more susceptible to external influences- depend on positive evaluation from others – seek approval from others, conform to beliefs and behaviours of those they respect – concerned with pleasing others. They compliment individuals who give them positive feedback and cut down those who give negative feedback. 47
High esteem can be a good thing, but only if it is nurtured and channeled in constructive and ethical ways. Otherwise it can become antisocial and destructive. Others may treat it as boasting as egotistical. OBSE, Organisation Based Self Esteem is “the self-perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organisation members acting within an organisation context.” people with high OBSE view themselves positively. And a meta analysis found significant positive relationship with performance and satisfaction on the job. 48
Individuals high in self monitoring show adaptability – highly sensitive to external cues- can present contradictions between their public persona and private self. Low self monitors cannot disguise- display their true dispositions and attitudes – high behavioural consistency . 49 Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. It is the extent to which people base their behaviour on cues from other people and situations.
High self monitors pay more attention the behaviour of others and can conform more easily – more mobile in their careers, receive more promotions and occupy central positions needing to play multiple and contradictory roles. 50
4–51 Risk-Taking High Risk-taking Managers Make quicker decisions Use less information to make decisions Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations Low Risk-taking Managers Are slower to make decisions Require more information before making decisions Exist in larger organizations with stable environments Risk Propensity Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.
Type A personality Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people. Type A’s are - always moving, walking, and eating rapidly, sense of time urgency – “hurry sickness” - feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place - Status insecurity (feeling unsure of oneself deep down inside) 52
- strive to think or do 2 or more things at a time - cannot cope with leisure time - obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. - competitiveness, - aggression and hostility in response to frustration and conflict - a quest for achievement. Has been referred to coronary-pronebehaviour 53
Type B ‘Rarely harried by he desire to obtain a widely increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever increasing amount of time.” - never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; - feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation; - play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; - can relax without guilt - less coronary-prone 54
As operate under moderate to high stress levels – work under continuous time pressure, a life of deadlines – fast workers, competitiveness in long hrs, frequently make poor decisions – rarely creative because of concern with quantity and speed, rely on past experiences when faced with problems – easier to predict – do better at job interviews – type Bs make it to the top. Type As are in sales, Bs in senior positions – promotions go to those who are wise, tactful and creative than to the hasty , hostile and merely agile. 55
4–56 Personality Types Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
4–57 Achieving Person-Job Fit Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland) Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover. Personality Types
4–58 Emotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB The “myth of rationality” Organizations are not emotion-free. Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations. Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.
4–59 What Are Emotions? (cont’d) Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional Dissonance A situation in which an employee must project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another.
4–60 Felt versus Displayed Emotions Felt Emotions An individual’s actual emotions. Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
4–61 Emotion Dimensions Variety of emotions Positive Negative Intensity of emotions Personality Job Requirements Frequency and duration of emotions How often emotions are exhibited. How long emotions are displayed.
4–62 Gender and Emotions Women Can show greater emotional expression. Experience emotions more intensely. Display emotions more frequently. Are more comfortable in expressing emotions. Are better at reading others’ emotions. Men Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image. Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions. Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.
4–63 Affective Events Theory (AET) Emotions are negative or positive responses to a work environment event. Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response. Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables. Implications of the theory: Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction. Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction. Emotions have only short-term effects on job performance. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
4–64 OB Applications of Understanding Emotions Ability and Selection Emotions affect employee effectiveness. Decision Making Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations. Motivation Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked. Leadership Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
4–65 OB Applications… (cont’d) Interpersonal Conflict Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined. Customer Services Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships. Deviant Workplace Behaviors Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization). Productivity failures Property theft and destruction Political actions Personal aggression
4–66 Ability and Selection Emotional Intelligence An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. Emotional Intelligence (EI) Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills Research Findings High EI scores, not high IQ scores, characterize high performers.