• Data Sources
- Freshly gathered data for specfic purpose.
- First hand information
- Expensive to collect, analyse and evaluate
- Data that has already been collected for other purposes
- published data
• Primary data collection
• Sample Size
• Observational Research
The gathering of primary data by observing relevant
people,actions and situations
• Survey Research
Gathering primary data by asking people questions
about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behaviour.
• Experimental Research
Gathering primary data by selecting matched groups of
subjects ,giving them different treatment, controlling related factors,
and checking for differences in group responses
• Mail Questionnaire
- Questionnaires are mailed by interviewer
- Questionnaire should be simple and clearly worded
• Telephone Interview
- Can gather information quickly
• Personal Interview
1. Individual interviewing – Interviewing people in their homes or
offices or in shopping malls.
2. Group / focus group interviewing – Interviewing six to ten people for a
few hours with a trained interviewer and make them talk about a
product , services or organization.The interviewer “focuses” the group
discussion on important issues .
• Online marketing research
Collecting primary data through internet surveys and online focus
Sample – A segment of the poplutation selected for marketing research
to represent the population as a whole
Designing a sample requires :
1. Sampling Unit
Who should be surveyed?
2. Sample Size
How many should be surveyed?
3. Sampling procedure
How should they be selected for the survey?
1. Closed-end questions - This questionnaires include all posible
answers and the respondents want to make choices among them.
2. Open-end questions - Allows respondents to answer in their own
Researchers use mechanical instruments to monitor consumer
Gathering Secondary Data
-Secondary data can be collected from company’s internal data base.
-Companies can buy secondary data from external information
Examples of extenal information sorces
1. LexisNexis – Track firms , industries trends and pramotion
2. Information Resources,Inc – provides supermarket scanner data for
tracking grocery product movement and new product purchasing
3. U.S. Census – provides detailed statistics and trends about the U.S.