Biotechnology is one of the young courses in theeducation sphere. Biotechnology is the third wavein biological science and represents such aninterface of basic and applied sciences, wheregradual and subtle transformation of science intotechnology can be witnessed. Biotechnology isdefined as the application of scientific andengineering principals to the processing ofmaterial by biological agents to provide goods andservices. Biotechnology comprises a number oftechnologies based upon increasing understandingof biology at the cellular and molecular level.
Biotechnology at early stage of lifeThe Bible already provides numerous examples ofbiotechnology. Namely, it deals with theconversion of grapes to wine, of dough to breadand of milk to cheese. The oldestbiotechnological processes are found in microbialfermentations, as born out by the Babyloniantablet dated circa 6000 B.C., explaining thepreparation of beer. The Sumerians were able tobrew as many as twenty types of beer in thethird millennium B.C. In about 4000 B.C. leavenedbread was produced with the aid of yeast. DuringVedic period (5000-7000 B.C.) Aryans had beenperforming daily Agnihotra or Yajna.In Ayurved, production of ‘Asava’ and ‘Arista’using different substrates and flowers of mahua(Madhuca indica) or dhataki(Wodfordia fructicosa) has been wellcharacterized till today since Vedic period.
1. Non-gene biotechnology- deals with whole cell, tissues or even individual organisms. 2. Gene biotechnology- involves gene manipulation, cloning.
1. R bi ot echnol ogy- i s bi ot echnol ogy appl i ed t o m cal pr ocesses. Som ed edi e exam es ar e t he desi gni ng of or gani sm t o pr oduce ant i bi ot i cs, and t he pl s engi neer i ng of genet i c cur es t o cur e di seases t hr ough genom c i m pul at i on. ani2. W t e bi ot echnol ogy- al so know hi n as gr ey bi ot echnol ogy, i s bi ot echnol ogy appl i ed t o i ndust r i al pr ocesses. An exam e i s t he pl desi gni ng of an or gani sm t o pr oduce a usef ul chem cal . W t e i hi bi ot echnol ogy t ends t o consum l ess i n r esour ces t han t r adi t i onal e pr ocesses w hen used t o pr oduce i ndust r i al goods.3. G een bi ot echnol ogy -i s bi ot echnol ogy appl i ed t o agr i cul t ur al r pr ocesses. An exam e i s t he desi gni ng of an or gani sm t o gr ow under pl speci f i c envi r onm al condi t i ons or i n t he pr esence (or absence) of ent cer t ai n agr i cul t ur al chem cal s. O hope i s t hat gr een bi ot echnol ogy i ne m ght pr oduce m e envi r onm al l y f r i endl y sol ut i ons t han i or ent t r adi t i onal i ndust r i al agr i cul t ur e. An exam e of t hi s i s t he pl engi neer i ng of a pl ant t o expr ess a pest i ci de, t her eby el i m nat i ng t he i need f or ext er nal appl i cat i on of pest i ci des. W her or not gr een het bi ot echnol ogy pr oduct s such as t hi s ar e ul t i m el y m e at or envi r onm al l y f r i endl y i s a t opi c of consi der abl e debat e. ent
Enhanced potential for more vigorous growth and increasing yields Increased resistance to natural predators and pests, including insects and disease-causing microorganisms. Production of hybrids exhibiting a combination of superior traits derived from two different strains or even different species Selection of genetic variants with desirable qualities such as increased protein value, increased content of limiting amino acids, which are essential in the human diet, or smaller plant size, reducing vulnerability to adverse weather condition.
Biotechnology has a promising future. In futurebiotechnology will be accredited for somerevolutionary technology. Recent advances in bio-energy, bioremediation, synthetic biology, DNAcomputers, virtualcell, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and bio-nanotechnology have made biotechnology even morepowerful. Recent discovery of conduction of electricityby DNA and its behavior as a superconductor hasopened a new realm in modern science. In futurebiotechnology will have profound impact in worldeconomy. Biotechnology is a golden tool to solve someof the key global problems like global epidemic, fataldiseases, global warming, rising petroleum fuel crisis