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Characteristics of “LIFE” Organization Reproduction Growth & Development Respond to its environment Stimulus Response (Homeostasis – The ability to control its internal environment. Adjustment of water & minerals in an organism to achieve balance.)
Observations A scientist uses his senses of sight, touch, hearing, and smell to examine an object in detail. He may use instruments to extend these senses. Qualitative observations DESCRIBE = descriptions such as color, odor, sound, and texture (using the senses). Quantitative observations MEASURE = using an instrument of measurement to measure the amount or number.
Observations A scientist improves his skills of observation and his communication skills by practice. Observe the following and describe as much as you can. Accident #1 Accident #2 Accident #3
The Scientific MethodOVERVIEW Identify a PROBLEM to solve. Make a HYPOTHESIS. TEST the hypothesis and COLLECTDATA. (a controlled experiment) PUBLISH the results. Draw a CONCLUSION and [perhaps] develop a THEORY.
1. OBSERVATION leads to identifying a problemto solve. “Observing the world around you is the foundation of scientific investigation.”
2. Making a HYPOTHESIS. an EXPLANATION for a question or problem that can be formally TESTED. Not a RANDOM GUESS.
3. Collecting DATA. (numbers) Test the hypothesis in a controlled EXPERIMENT can be used to obtain data to test a HYPOTHESIS.
4. PUBLISH results allows other scientists to repeat the experiment and VERIFY the results.
4. Forming a THEORY. A THEORY is a hypothesis that is supported by a LARGE body of scientific evidence. (not an unproven idea or hunch)
Also 6. Developing new HYPOTHESES. 7. Revising the THEORY.
The Scientific MethodREVIEW Identify a PROBLEM to solve. Make a HYPOTHESIS. TEST the hypothesis and COLLECTDATA. (a controlled experiment) PUBLISH the results. Draw a CONCLUSION and [perhaps] develop a THEORY.
Parts of a Controlled Experiment Control – the STANDARD against which the results of the experiment are COMPARED. INDEPENDENT Variable (I.V.) – the condition that is tested because it affects the outcome of the experiment. DEPENDENT Variable (D.V.) – the condition in an experiment that results from the changes made to the independent variable. CONSTANTS – the conditions that remainthesame in all of the experimental groups.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Observed – Maggots appeared on meat a few days after flies were present
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Prediction – Flies produced maggots and keeping flies away from meat would prevent the appearance of maggots.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Hypothesis - IF the gauze covering keeps flies away from the meat, THEN no maggots will appear.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Independent variable - gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Dependent variable - whether maggots appear on the meat.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Controlled variables - Jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Data - showed that maggots appeared on the meat without gauze – but not on covered jars.
Francesco Redi’s Experiment Conclusion - Maggots formed only when flies came into contact with the meat. Not spontaneous generation.