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  • 1. Biology
    The Dynamics of Life
  • 2. Biology
    “The Study of Life”
  • 3. Characteristics of “LIFE”
    Organization
    Reproduction
    Growth & Development
    Respond to its environment
    Stimulus
    Response
    (Homeostasis – The ability to control its internal environment. Adjustment of water & minerals in an organism to achieve balance.)
  • 4. Observations
    A scientist uses his senses of sight, touch, hearing, and smell to examine an object in detail. He may use instruments to extend these senses.
    Qualitative observations DESCRIBE = descriptions such as color, odor, sound, and texture (using the senses).
    Quantitative observations MEASURE = using an instrument of measurement to measure the amount or number.
  • 5. Observations
    A scientist improves his skills of observation and his communication skills by practice.
    Observe the following and describe as much as you can.
    Accident #1
    Accident #2
    Accident #3
  • 6. The Scientific MethodOVERVIEW
    Identify a PROBLEM to solve.
    Make a HYPOTHESIS.
    TEST the hypothesis and COLLECTDATA. (a controlled experiment)
    PUBLISH the results.
    Draw a CONCLUSION and [perhaps] develop a THEORY.
  • 7. 1. OBSERVATION leads to identifying a problemto solve.
    “Observing the world around you is the foundation of scientific investigation.”
  • 8. 2. Making a HYPOTHESIS.
    an EXPLANATION for a question or problem that can be formally TESTED.
    Not a RANDOM GUESS.
  • 9. 3. Collecting DATA. (numbers)
    Test the hypothesis in a controlled EXPERIMENT can be used to obtain data to test a HYPOTHESIS.
  • 10. 4. PUBLISH results
    allows other scientists to repeat the experiment and VERIFY the results.
  • 11. 4. Forming a THEORY.
    A THEORY is a hypothesis that is supported by a LARGE body of scientific evidence.
    (not an unproven idea or hunch)
  • 12. Also
    6. Developing new HYPOTHESES.
    7. Revising the THEORY.
  • 13. The Scientific MethodREVIEW
    Identify a PROBLEM to solve.
    Make a HYPOTHESIS.
    TEST the hypothesis and COLLECTDATA. (a controlled experiment)
    PUBLISH the results.
    Draw a CONCLUSION and [perhaps] develop a THEORY.
  • 14. Parts of a Controlled Experiment
    Control – the STANDARD against which the results of the experiment are COMPARED.
    INDEPENDENT Variable (I.V.) – the condition that is tested because it affects the outcome of the experiment.
    DEPENDENT Variable (D.V.) – the condition in an experiment that results from the changes made to the independent variable.
    CONSTANTS – the conditions that remainthesame in all of the experimental groups.
  • 15. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Observed – Maggots appeared on meat a few days after flies were present
  • 16. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Prediction – Flies produced maggots and keeping flies away from meat would prevent the appearance of maggots.
  • 17. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Hypothesis - IF the gauze covering keeps flies away from the meat, THEN no maggots will appear.
  • 18. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Independent variable - gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat.
  • 19. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Dependent variable - whether maggots appear on the meat.
  • 20. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Controlled variables - Jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time.
  • 21. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Data - showed that maggots appeared on the meat without gauze – but not on covered jars.
  • 22. Francesco Redi’s Experiment
    Conclusion - Maggots formed only when flies came into contact with the meat. Not spontaneous generation.