Intro To The Jnonprofit Sector 2007
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Intro To The Jnonprofit Sector 2007 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Local Action for Change - How Non Profit NGOs Tackle Social Issues in Japan NGO 202 Sarajean Rossitto Sarajean.tuj@gmail.com Temple University Japan S. Rossitto 1
  • 2. Class 1 - Intro to the Japanese nonprofit sector Introductions.! 1.  Course outline.! 2.  Pressing issues in Japan.! 3.  General intro to nonprofit NGOs.! 4.  Intro to the Japanese nonprofit NGO sector.! 5.  Survey & For next week…! 6.  ©2 S. Rossitto 2
  • 3. Introduction to NGO 202 This course does not aim to:!   Judge, compare or critique Japanese nonprofit NGOs.!   Teach Japanese culture.!   Teach English. ! ©2 S. Rossitto 3
  • 4. Introduction to NGO 202 About the TUJ NGO program! Certificate => 3 core courses + 2 electives!   Not about NGO role and functions (NGO 301)!   Not an NGO English class (NGO 101)!   Not a management or legal issues class (NGO 601, NGO 501)!   Not a global issues class (NGO 201)! ©2 S. Rossitto 4
  • 5. Introduction to NGO 202   Class format! – issues, websites, review of readings.   WC Discussion   Instructor presentation – present some key issues.!   Group work – discussion and exercises readings & websites.!   Participant presentation - present summaries, final project.   Guest speakers - (1 ?)! ©2 S. Rossitto 5
  • 6. Introduction to NGO 202 Hour 1! Focus on social issues in Japan ! quot;– causes and effect of problems Hour 2! Find out more about programs and strategies used by NGOs to deal with issues Develop both knowledge and skills! ©2 S. Rossitto 6
  • 7. Discussion: what do you know? In 2 groups, discuss the following:! What is a nonprofit organization?!   What makes an organization nongovernmental?!   Why are they necessary?!   What do they do?!   Why are there so many?!   What is their impact?!   ©2 S. Rossitto 7
  • 8. What makes an org nonprofit? 4 main principles:!   Revenue goes back into the organization   Self governing organizations   Voluntary – people are involved out of own free will   Have a mission, vision and principles for being! ©2 S. Rossitto 8
  • 9. What makes an org nongovernmental? Main principles:!   Self governing organizations   Voluntary – people are involved out of own free will   Have an independent agenda - not tied to profit or government! ©2 S. Rossitto 9
  • 10. What are nonprofit NGOs? Nonprofit is a legal, fiscal category! Nongovernment is an relational, associative category! Neither has anything to do with location of work.! Neither mean no money, free or unprofessional.! ©2 S. Rossitto 10
  • 11. What NGOs they do: in general   Hold communities together, develop sense of community   Serve as a mouthpiece for those w/o a voice.   Provide an avenue for community participation.   Deal with problems other sectors can not. ©2 S. Rossitto 11
  • 12. Why are they necessary?   No one else can or will do this work !   Government, business and NPNGO failures!   Enhance quality of life!   Ongoing social problems ! ©2 S. Rossitto 12
  • 13. Impact of what they do.   Empower and train people and communities!   Provide services!   Educate and mobilize the public!   Provide access to technology materials and/or specialized know-how !   Create new economy   Affect policy !   Measure government effectiveness ©2 S. Rossitto 13
  • 14. Why are there so many?   Needs - Wide array of problems and issues !   Diversity of populations they target!   Roles - diverse approaches to each issue!   Funding priorities! ©2 S. Rossitto 14
  • 15. Key points:   Nonprofit-NGOs do what other org. cannot.!   Most are small.!   Almost all rely on volunteers and/or community support!   They exist regardless of social-cultural framework.!   Need for stakeholder involvement widely accepted.! ©2 S. Rossitto 15
  • 16. Problem exists => People see need for action => Issue development => Project/org. creation S. Rossitto 16
  • 17. Current issues Which of these are serious issues we face in Japan? Disaster relief (where and why?) 1.  Environmental issues (for example ???) 2.  Aging society 3.  Community development 4.  Youth issues 5.  Home violence 6.  Trafficking in persons 7.  Gender and sexual identity 8.  Human rights education 9.  10.  Food security 11.  Poverty 12.  Health issues 13.  Anti-discrimination 14.  Sexual and reproductive health 15.  Human rights issues 16.  Corruption 17.  Police brutality 18.  Urban/rural divide 19.  Crime 20.  Other: Categorise these into 3 groups A)Very pressing issues B) Somewhat pressing issues C) Not pressing issues ©2 S. Rossitto 17
  • 18. Why study it? What do you know about the development of nonprofits and NGOs in Japan? What do you know about the NPO law? What do you know about individual and corporate support? S. Rossitto 18
  • 19. Discussion - What do you know #2 …about the development of nonprofits and NGOs in Japan? Do the quiz in pairs.
  • 20. The 1998 NPO law Hanshin Earthquake (95)  Inadequate response of the government at time of crisis, Volunteers jumped in quickly. Realization of the necessity for  For greater flexibility, citizen involvement, & the development of a support system for volunteers and nonprofit activities One of a series of debacles in a time of government decentralization O-157, nuclear power accidents, and the HIV tainted blood product scandal ©2 S. Rossitto 20
  • 21. Jan. 17, 1995: Hanshin Earthquake • More than 6,000 people killed • Slow reaction by national and local government Realization of: • The necessity for greater flexibility • Governments lack of ability to act in times of crisis • The needs for citizen involvement, and the development of a support system for volunteers and nonprofit activities.
  • 22. Japanese nonprofit sector   Ave. annual income - approx 2-2.5 million yen!   Average FTE 1.2 (1999)=> 2.00 (2004)!   Economically active population in the nonprofit sector ! ©2 S. Rossitto 22
  • 23. Japanese nonprofit sector   Estimated number of all CSOs ! over 85,000 in 1996, over 100,000 today? !     Numbers of incorporated nonprofits: Sept 2006 28777 !   Dec 2005 quot;24416   Dec 2003 quot;14657   Dec 2001 quot; 5625   Dec 1999 quot; 1176!   !   40+   ©2 S. Rossitto 23
  • 24. Incorporated nonprofits by activity areas - 28,777 S. Rossitto 24
  • 25. Nonprofit, NGOS & Major Social Activism in Japan 1897 Establishment of law for “Public benefit organizations” Traditional neighborhood associations (jichikai) 1956 Minamata Disease: victim support groups, anti-pollution 1960’s Christian based and international NGOs 1970’s Japanese NGOs increase focusing on SE Asia refugees, environment, women’s and Burakumin rights movements, antiwar & antinuclear movement 1970 -1990 80% of existing environmental groups founded. 1992 “Earth Summit” in Rio, Brazil, 1997 Kyoto COP3, Peace & rights movements 1990’s Conflict resolution and disaster relief org. dev. 1998 Establishment of law for “Specified Nonprofit Activity Organizations”� ©2 S. Rossitto 25
  • 26. Japanese nonprofit sector All revenue Sources: all nonprofits (2 different data sources)  1995 -  47% from government, -  45% from membership dues, service fees and activity revenues -  9% from donations.  2000 -  55.8% from activities -  14% grants -  10% from donations -  12.5% other © 09.3.25 2 S. Rossitto 26
  • 27. Distribution of Private Giving Sources US-JAPAN comparison Private Foundation Private Corporate Individual Contribution Foundation Contribution 11% Contribution 9% Contribution 6% 5% Individual Corporate Contribution Contribution 85% 84% � Source: NPO ©2 S. Rossitto 27
  • 28. Individual giving in Japan When people give! How much people give:! Why individuals give ©2 S. Rossitto 28
  • 29. Corporate giving in Japan Corporate community service program support! Info source: Keidanren http://www.keidanren.or.jp/japanese/policy/ 2005/037/youyaku.pdf! ©2 S. Rossitto 29
  • 30. Challenges Similar to those faced by nonprofit NGOs in other societies: ! quot;Lack of recognition by mainstream society quot;Funding and financial sustainability quot;Lack of professionalization a.  Resistance by volunteer orgs b.  Lack of fluidity between sectors c.  Lack of interest in sector by those with skills quot;Overgrowth of orgs, rivalry quot;Lack of collaboration among orgs, separation between NGOs, NPOs and volunteer organizations ©2 S. Rossitto 30
  • 31. Group discussion >>>> Q & A Overview key points from presentation Questions? Comments? S. Rossitto 31
  • 32. Assignments for Class 2 Part #1 – Read 1 online article about the Japanese nonprofit sector The changing face of NGOs in Japan http://www.gdrc.org/ngo/jpngo-face.html 1.  Japan Times article - Sept 18, 2007 2.  http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fl20070918zg.html (handout) The Japanese System of Incorporation and the Concept of NPOs http:// 3.  www.gdrc.org/ngo/jp-civil-society.html Part #2 – Read 1 – about Japan’s Aging Society The demographic dilemma: Japan’s Aging society wwics.si.edu/events/docs/ 1.  ACFE9.pdf Problems and Implications of Japan’s Aging Society for Future 2.  coe21-policy.sfc.keio.ac.jp/ja/wp/WP89.pdf NEWSPAPER articles - Realizing the potential of an aging society 3. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/eo20070308a1.html 40.5% of population to be seniors by '55: report http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070609a2.html Japan may go Dutch with pension plan http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20040710f1.html ©2 S. Rossitto 32
  • 33. For class 2 - Nonprofit NGOs. NGO Research Visit two of these sites. JARC Japan Aging research Center http://www.jarc.net/blog/index_en.html Japan Socio-Gerontological Society http://www.rounenshakai.org/ Women's Association for the Better Aging Society (WABAS), h ttp://www7.ocn.ne.jp/%7Ewabas/eng/about.html Felismonte http://www.otasha.ecweb.jp/ (J only) Kotoen http://www.kotoen.or.jp/ (J only) Japan NGO Council on Aging (JANCA) http://www.janca.gr.jp/ (J only) Questions to think about when looking at the web sites sights: 1. What are the organization's (orgs) mission and vision? 2. What problems and issues are they tackling? 3. What kinds of solutions are being offered? 4. Who do they work for and with? 5. Why are NGOs/nonprofits doing this? 6. What is the impact of their work? How effective are they? ©2 S. Rossitto 33
  • 34. Last questions/comments? Thank you for joining NGO 202!! quot;quot;See you next week.! Sarajean! ©2 S. Rossitto 34