3-1
CHAPTER3           Adjusting the           Accounts3-2
3-3
Timing Issues      Accountants divide the economic life of a business into      artificial time periods (Time Period Assum...
Timing Issues      Fiscal and Calendar Years          Monthly and quarterly time periods are called interim           per...
Timing Issues      Review      The time period assumption states that:        a. revenue should be recognized in the accou...
Timing Issues      Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting       Accrual-Basis Accounting          Transactions recorded in th...
Timing Issues      Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting       Cash-Basis Accounting          Revenues recognized when cash ...
Timing Issues      Recognizing Revenues and Expenses       Revenue Recognition Principle       Recognize revenue in the   ...
Timing Issues       Recognizing Revenues and Expenses        Expense Recognition Principle        Match expenses with     ...
Timing Issues                                            Illustration 3-1                                            GAAP ...
3-12   SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
Timing Issues       Review        One of the following statements about the accrual basis of        accounting is false. T...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries           Adjusting entries are necessary because the trial            balance may not co...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Review        Adjusting entries are made to ensure that:          a. expenses are re...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Types of Adjusting Entries                                                          ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Types of Adjusting Entries  Trial Balance –  Each account is  analyzed to  determine...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Adjusting Entries for Deferrals        Deferrals are either:              Prepaid e...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Prepaid Expenses       Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because       s...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Prepaid Expenses           Expire either with the passage of time or through use.  ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency       purchased supplies costing $2,500 on ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-53-22                              ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: On October 4, Pioneer       Advertising Agency paid $600 for a one-   ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-63-24                              ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Depreciation          Buildings, equipment, and vehicles (assets with long         ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: For Pioneer Advertising,       assume that depreciation on the       e...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-73-27                              ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Statement Presentation          Accumulated Depreciation is a contra asset account....
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                                             Illustration 3-93-29          ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Unearned Revenues       Receipt of cash that is recorded as a liability because the ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Unearned Revenues           Adjusting entry is made to record the revenue that     ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency received $1,200 on       October 2 from R. ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-113-33                             ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                                            Illustration 3-123-34          ...
3-35
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Adjusting Entries for Accruals        Accruals are made to record              Reve...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Accrued Revenues       Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or recorded.    ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Accrued Revenues           Adjusting entry shows the receivable that exists and    ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: In October Pioneer Advertising       Agency earned $200 for advertisin...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-143-40                             ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                                           Illustration 3-153-41           ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Accrued Expenses       Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or recorded.      ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Accrued Expenses           Adjusting entry records the obligation and recognizes   ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency signed a three-month       note payable in ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-183-45                             ...
3-46
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency last paid salaries on       October 26; the...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                         Illustration 3-203-48                             ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries                                                           Illustration 3-213-49           ...
The Basics of Adjusting Entries       Summary of Basic Relationships                                                      ...
The Adjusted Trial Balance       Adjusted Trial Balance           Prepared after all adjusting entries are journalized   ...
Illustration 3-253-52
The Adjusted Trial Balance       Review        Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning the        adjust...
The Financial Statements          Financial Statements are prepared directly from the          Financial Statements are pr...
Illustration 3-263-55                       SO 7
Illustration 3-273-56                       SO 7
APPENDIX3A       Alternative Treatment of Prepaid Expenses       and Unearned Revenues           When a company prepays a...
APPENDIX3A       Prepaid Expenses       Company may choose to debit (increase) an expense       account rather than an ass...
APPENDIX3A       Unearned Revenues       Company may credit (increase) a revenue account when       they receive cash for ...
APPENDIX3A       Summary of Additional Adjustment       Relationships                                                     ...
IFRS             A Look at IFRS       Key Points           Companies applying IFRS also use accrual-basis accounting to  ...
IFRS             A Look at IFRS       Key Points           GAAP has more than 100 rules dealing with revenue recognition....
IFRS             A Look at IFRS       Key Points           A specific standard exists for revenue recognition under IFRS ...
IFRS             A Look at IFRS       Key Points           The terminology used for revenues and gains, and expenses and ...
IFRS            A Look at IFRS       Looking into the Future        The IASB and FASB are now involved in a joint project ...
IFRS          A Look at IFRS       GAAP:        a. provides very detailed, industry-specific guidance on           revenue...
IFRS           A Look at IFRS       Which of the following statements is false?        a. IFRS employs the periodicity ass...
IFRS           A Look at IFRS       As a result of the revenue recognition project being       undertaken by the FASB and ...
Copyright       “Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.       Reproduction or translation of this w...
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Ch03

  1. 1. 3-1
  2. 2. CHAPTER3 Adjusting the Accounts3-2
  3. 3. 3-3
  4. 4. Timing Issues Accountants divide the economic life of a business into artificial time periods (Time Period Assumption). ..... Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Dec.  Generally a month, a quarter, or a year.  Also known as the “Periodicity Assumption”3-4 SO 1 Explain the time period assumption.
  5. 5. Timing Issues Fiscal and Calendar Years  Monthly and quarterly time periods are called interim periods.  Public companies must prepare both quarterly and annual financial statements.  Fiscal Year = Accounting time period that is one year in length.  Calendar Year = January 1 to December 31.3-5 SO 1 Explain the time period assumption.
  6. 6. Timing Issues Review The time period assumption states that: a. revenue should be recognized in the accounting period in which it is earned. b. expenses should be matched with revenues. c. the economic life of a business can be divided into artificial time periods. d. the fiscal year should correspond with the calendar year.3-6 SO 1 Explain the time period assumption.
  7. 7. Timing Issues Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting Accrual-Basis Accounting  Transactions recorded in the periods in which the events occur.  Revenues are recognized when earned, rather than when cash is received.  Expenses are recognized when incurred, rather than when paid.3-7 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  8. 8. Timing Issues Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting Cash-Basis Accounting  Revenues recognized when cash is received.  Expenses recognized when cash is paid.  Cash-basis accounting is not in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).3-8 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  9. 9. Timing Issues Recognizing Revenues and Expenses Revenue Recognition Principle Recognize revenue in the accounting period in which it is earned. In a service enterprise, revenue is considered to be earned at the time the service is performed.3-9 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  10. 10. Timing Issues Recognizing Revenues and Expenses Expense Recognition Principle Match expenses with revenues in the period when the company makes efforts to generate those revenues. “Let the expenses follow the revenues.”3-10 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  11. 11. Timing Issues Illustration 3-1 GAAP relationships in revenue and expense recognition3-11 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  12. 12. 3-12 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  13. 13. Timing Issues Review One of the following statements about the accrual basis of accounting is false. That statement is: a. Events that change a company’s financial statements are recorded in the periods in which the events occur. b. Revenue is recognized in the period in which it is earned. c. The accrual basis of accounting is in accord with generally accepted accounting principles. d. Revenue is recorded only when cash is received, and expenses are recorded only when cash is paid.3-13 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  14. 14. The Basics of Adjusting Entries  Adjusting entries are necessary because the trial balance may not contain up-to-date and complete data.  Ensure that the revenue recognition and expense recognition principles are followed.  Required every time a company prepares financial statements.  Will include one income statement account and one balance sheet account.3-14 SO 3 Explain the reasons for adjusting entries.
  15. 15. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Review Adjusting entries are made to ensure that: a. expenses are recognized in the period in which they are incurred. b. revenues are recorded in the period in which they are earned. c. balance sheet and income statement accounts have correct balances at the end of an accounting period. d. all of the above.3-15 SO 3 Explain the reasons for adjusting entries.
  16. 16. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Types of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-2 Categories of adjusting entries Deferrals Accruals 1. Prepaid Expenses. 3. Accrued Revenues. Expenses paid in cash and Revenues earned but not yet recorded as assets before received in cash or they are used or consumed. recorded. 2. Unearned Revenues. 4. Accrued Expenses. Cash received and recorded Expenses incurred but not as liabilities before revenue yet paid in cash or recorded. is earned.3-16 SO 4 Identify the major types of adjusting entries.
  17. 17. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Types of Adjusting Entries Trial Balance – Each account is analyzed to determine whether it is complete and up- to-date. Illustration 3-33-17 SO 4 Identify the major types of adjusting entries.
  18. 18. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Adjusting Entries for Deferrals Deferrals are either:  Prepaid expenses OR  Unearned revenues.3-18 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  19. 19. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Prepaid Expenses Payment of cash, that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future. Cash Payment BEFORE Expense Recorded Prepayments often occur in regard to:  insurance  rent  supplies  equipment  advertising  buildings3-19 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  20. 20. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Prepaid Expenses  Expire either with the passage of time or through use.  Adjusting entry: ► Increase (debit) to an expense account and ► Decrease (credit) to an asset account. Illustration 3-43-20 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  21. 21. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency purchased supplies costing $2,500 on October 5. Pioneer recorded the payment by increasing (debiting) the asset Supplies. This account shows a balance of $2,500 in the October 31 trial balance. An inventory count at the close of business on October 31 reveals that $1,000 of supplies are still on hand. Oct. 31 Supplies expense 1,500 Supplies 1,5003-21 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  22. 22. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-53-22 SO 5
  23. 23. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: On October 4, Pioneer Advertising Agency paid $600 for a one- year fire insurance policy. Coverage began on October 1. Pioneer recorded the payment by increasing (debiting) Prepaid Insurance. This account shows a balance of $600 in the October 31 trial balance. Insurance of $50 ($600 / 12) expires each month. Oct. 31 Insurance expense 50 Prepaid insurance 503-23 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  24. 24. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-63-24 SO 5
  25. 25. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Depreciation  Buildings, equipment, and vehicles (assets with long lives) are recorded as assets, rather than an expense, in the year acquired.  Companies report a portion of the cost of the asset as an expense (depreciation expense) during each period of the asset’s useful life.  Depreciation does not attempt to report the actual change in the value of the asset.3-25 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  26. 26. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: For Pioneer Advertising, assume that depreciation on the equipment is $480 a year, or $40 per month. Oct. 31 Depreciation expense 40 Accumulated depreciation 40 Accumulated Depreciation is called a contra asset account.3-26 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  27. 27. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-73-27 SO 5
  28. 28. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Statement Presentation  Accumulated Depreciation is a contra asset account.  Appears just after the account it offsets (Equipment) on the balance sheet.  Normal balance of a contra asset account is a credit. Illustration 3-83-28 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  29. 29. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-93-29 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  30. 30. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Unearned Revenues Receipt of cash that is recorded as a liability because the revenue has not been earned. Cash Receipt BEFORE Revenue Recorded Unearned revenues often occur in regard to:  Rent  Magazine subscriptions  Airline tickets  Customer deposits3-30 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  31. 31. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Unearned Revenues  Adjusting entry is made to record the revenue that has been earned and to show the liability that remains.  Results in a decrease (debit) to a liability account and an increase (credit) to a revenue account. Illustration 3-103-31 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  32. 32. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency received $1,200 on October 2 from R. Knox for advertising services expected to be completed by December 31. Unearned Service Revenue shows a balance of $1,200 in the October 31 trial balance. Analysis reveals that the company earned $400 of those fees in October. Oct. 31 Unearned service revenue 400 Service revenue 4003-32 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  33. 33. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-113-33 SO 5
  34. 34. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-123-34 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  35. 35. 3-35
  36. 36. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Adjusting Entries for Accruals Accruals are made to record  Revenues earned OR  Expenses incurred in the current accounting period that have not been recognized through daily entries.3-36 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  37. 37. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Accrued Revenues Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or recorded. Revenue Recorded BEFORE Cash Receipt Accrued revenues often occur in regard to:  Rent  Services performed  Interest3-37 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  38. 38. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Accrued Revenues  Adjusting entry shows the receivable that exists and records the revenues earned.  Adjusting entry: ► Increases (debits) an asset account and ► Increases (credits) a revenue account. Illustration 3-133-38 SO 6
  39. 39. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: In October Pioneer Advertising Agency earned $200 for advertising services that had not been recorded. Oct. 31 Accounts receivable 200 Service revenue 200 On November 10, Pioneer receives cash of $200 for the services performed. Nov. 10 Cash 200 Accounts receivable 2003-39 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  40. 40. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-143-40 SO 6
  41. 41. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-153-41 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  42. 42. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Accrued Expenses Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or recorded. Expense Recorded BEFORE Cash Payment Accrued expenses often occur in regard to:  Rent  Taxes  Interest  Salaries3-42 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  43. 43. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Accrued Expenses  Adjusting entry records the obligation and recognizes the expense.  Adjusting entry: ► Increase (debit) an expense account and ► Increase (credit) a liability account. Illustration 3-163-43 SO 6
  44. 44. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency signed a three-month note payable in the amount of $5,000 on October 1. The note requires Pioneer to pay interest at an annual rate of 12%. Oct. 31 Interest expense 50 Interest payable 503-44 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  45. 45. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-183-45 SO 6
  46. 46. 3-46
  47. 47. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency last paid salaries on October 26; the next payment of salaries will not occur until November 9. The employees receive total salaries of $2,000 for a five-day work week, or $400 per day. Thus, accrued salaries at October 31 are $1,200 ($400 x 3 days). Illustration 3-193-47 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  48. 48. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-203-48 SO 6
  49. 49. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Illustration 3-213-49 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  50. 50. The Basics of Adjusting Entries Summary of Basic Relationships Illustration 3-223-50 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  51. 51. The Adjusted Trial Balance Adjusted Trial Balance  Prepared after all adjusting entries are journalized and posted.  Purpose is to prove the equality of debit balances and credit balances in the ledger.  Is the primary basis for the preparation of financial statements.3-51 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of the adjusted trial balance.
  52. 52. Illustration 3-253-52
  53. 53. The Adjusted Trial Balance Review Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning the adjusted trial balance? a. An adjusted trial balance proves the equality of the total debit balances and the total credit balances in the ledger after all adjustments are made. b. The adjusted trial balance provides the primary basis for the preparation of financial statements. c. The adjusted trial balance lists the account balances segregated by assets and liabilities. d. The adjusted trial balance is prepared after the adjusting entries have been journalized and posted.3-53 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of the adjusted trial balance.
  54. 54. The Financial Statements Financial Statements are prepared directly from the Financial Statements are prepared directly from the Adjusted Trial Balance. Adjusted Trial Balance. Owner’s Balance Income Equity Sheet Statement Statement3-54 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of the adjusted trial balance.
  55. 55. Illustration 3-263-55 SO 7
  56. 56. Illustration 3-273-56 SO 7
  57. 57. APPENDIX3A Alternative Treatment of Prepaid Expenses and Unearned Revenues  When a company prepays an expense, it debits that amount to an expense account.  When a company receives payment for future services, it credits the amount to a revenue account.3-57 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  58. 58. APPENDIX3A Prepaid Expenses Company may choose to debit (increase) an expense account rather than an asset account. This alternative treatment is simply more convenient. Illustration 3A-23-58 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  59. 59. APPENDIX3A Unearned Revenues Company may credit (increase) a revenue account when they receive cash for future services. Illustration 3A-53-59 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  60. 60. APPENDIX3A Summary of Additional Adjustment Relationships Illustration 3A-73-60 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  61. 61. IFRS A Look at IFRS Key Points  Companies applying IFRS also use accrual-basis accounting to ensure that they record transactions that change a company’s financial statements in the period in which events occur.  Similar to GAAP, cash-basis accounting is not in accordance with IFRS.  IFRS also divides the economic life of companies into artificial time periods. Under both GAAP and IFRS, this is referred to as the time period assumption.  IFRS requires that companies present a complete set of financial statements, including comparative information annually.3-61
  62. 62. IFRS A Look at IFRS Key Points  GAAP has more than 100 rules dealing with revenue recognition. Many of these rules are industry specific. In contrast, revenue recognition under IFRS is determined primarily by a single standard. Despite this large disparity in the amount of detailed guidance devoted to revenue recognition, the general revenue recognition principles required by GAAP that are used in this textbook are similar to those under IFRS.  As the Feature Story illustrates, revenue recognition fraud is a major issue in U.S. financial reporting. The same situation occurs in other countries, as evidenced by revenue recognition breakdowns at Dutch software company Baan NV, Japanese electronics giant NEC, and Dutch grocer AHold NV.3-62
  63. 63. IFRS A Look at IFRS Key Points  A specific standard exists for revenue recognition under IFRS (IAS 18). In general, the standard is based on the probability that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company selling the goods, providing the service, or receiving investment income. In addition, the revenues and costs must be capable of being measured reliably. GAAP uses concepts such as realized, realizable (that is, it is received, or expected to be received), and earned as a basis for revenue recognition.  Under IFRS, revaluation of items such as land and buildings is permitted. IFRS allows depreciation based on revaluation of assets, which is not permitted under GAAP.3-63
  64. 64. IFRS A Look at IFRS Key Points  The terminology used for revenues and gains, and expenses and losses, differs somewhat between IFRS and GAAP. For example, income is defined as: Increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those relating to contributions from shareholders. Expenses are defined as: Decreases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of outflows or depletions of assets or incurrences of liabilities that result in decreases in equity other than those r elating to distributions to shareholders.3-64
  65. 65. IFRS A Look at IFRS Looking into the Future The IASB and FASB are now involved in a joint project on revenue recognition. The purpose of this project is to develop comprehensive guidance on when to recognize revenue. Presently, the Boards are considering an approach that focuses on changes in assets and liabilities (rather than on earned and realized) as the basis for revenue recognition.3-65
  66. 66. IFRS A Look at IFRS GAAP: a. provides very detailed, industry-specific guidance on revenue recognition, compared to the general guidance provided by IFRS. b. provides only general guidance on revenue recognition, compared to the detailed guidance provided by IFRS. c. allows revenue to be recognized when a customer makes an order. d. requires that revenue not be recognized until cash is received.3-66
  67. 67. IFRS A Look at IFRS Which of the following statements is false? a. IFRS employs the periodicity assumption. b. IFRS employs accrual accounting. c. IFRS requires that revenues and costs must be capable of being measured reliably. d. IFRS uses the cash basis of accounting.3-67
  68. 68. IFRS A Look at IFRS As a result of the revenue recognition project being undertaken by the FASB and IASB: a. revenue recognition will place more emphasis on when revenue is earned. b. revenue recognition will place more emphasis on when revenue is realized. c. revenue recognition will place more emphasis on when changes occur in assets and liabilities. d. revenue will no longer be recorded unless cash has been received3-68
  69. 69. Copyright “Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.”3-69
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