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Ch03
 

Ch03

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  • 1. On the topic, “Challenges Facing Financial Accounting,” what did the AICPA Special Committee on Financial Reporting suggest should be included in future financial statements? Non-financial Measurements (customer satisfaction indexes, backlog information, and reject rates on goods purchases). Forward-looking Information Soft Assets (a company’s know-how, market dominance, marketing setup, well-trained employees, and brand image). Timeliness (no real time financial information)
  • Service Cost - Actuaries compute service cost as the present value of the new benefits earned by employees during the year. Future salary levels considered in calculation. Interest on Liability - Interest accrues each year on the PBO just as it does on any discounted debt. Actual Return on Plan Assets - Increase in pension funds from interest, dividends, and realized and unrealized changes in the fair market value of the plan assets. Amortization of Unrecognized Prior Service Cost - The cost of providing retroactive benefits is allocated to pension expense in the future, specifically to the remaining service-years of the affected employees. Gain or Loss - Volatility in pension expense can be caused by sudden and large changes in the market value of plan assets and by changes in the projected benefit obligation. Two items comprise the gain or loss: difference between the actual return and the expected return on plan assets and, amortization of the unrecognized net gain or loss from previous periods

Ch03 Ch03 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 3-1
  • Adjusting the AccountsChapter 3-2 Accounting Principles, Ninth Edition
  • Study Objectives Study Objectives 1. Explain the time period assumption. 2. Explain the accrual basis of accounting. 3. Explain the reasons for adjusting entries. 4. Identify the major types of adjusting entries. 5. Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals. 6. Prepare adjusting entries for accruals. 7. Describe the nature and purpose of an adjusted trial balance.Chapter 3-3
  • Adjusting the Accounts Adjusting the Accounts The Adjusted The Adjusted The Basics of The Basics of Trial Balance and Trial Balance and Timing Issues Timing Issues Adjusting Entries Adjusting Entries Financial Financial Statements Statements Fiscal and Types of adjusting Preparing the calendar years entries adjusted trial Accrual- vs. cash- Adjusting entries balance basis accounting for deferrals Preparing Recognizing Adjusting entries financial revenues and for accruals statements expenses Summary of journalizing and postingChapter 3-4
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Accountants divide the economic life of a business into artificial time periods (Time Period Assumption). ..... Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Dec. Generally a month, a quarter, or a year. Fiscal year vs. calendar year Also known as the “Periodicity Assumption”Chapter 3-5 SO 1 Explain the time period assumption.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Review The time period assumption states that: a. revenue should be recognized in the accounting period in which it is earned. b. expenses should be matched with revenues. c. the economic life of a business can be divided into artificial time periods. d. the fiscal year should correspond with the calendar year.Chapter 3-6 SO 1 Explain the time period assumption.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting Accrual-Basis Accounting Transactions recorded in the periods in which the events occur Revenues are recognized when earned, rather than when cash is received. Expenses are recognized when incurred, rather than when paid.Chapter 3-7 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Accrual- vs. Cash-Basis Accounting Cash-Basis Accounting Revenues are recognized when cash is received. Expenses are recognized when cash is paid. Cash-basis accounting is not in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).Chapter 3-8 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Recognizing Revenues and Expenses Revenue Recognition Principle Companies recognize revenue in the accounting period in which it is earned. In a service enterprise, revenue is considered to be earned at the time the service is performed.Chapter 3-9 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Recognizing Revenues and Expenses Matching Principle Match expenses with revenues in the period when the company makes efforts to generate those revenues. “Let the expenses follow the revenues.”Chapter 3-10 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues GAAP relationships Illustration 3-1 in revenue and expense recognitionChapter 3-11 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Chapter 3-12 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Review One of the following statements about the accrual basis of accounting is false. That statement is: a. Events that change a company’s financial statements are recorded in the periods in which the events occur. b. Revenue is recognized in the period in which it is earned. c. The accrual basis of accounting is in accord with generally accepted accounting principles. d. Revenue is recorded only when cash is received, and expenses are recorded only when cash is paid.Chapter 3-13 SO 2 Explain the accrual basis of accounting.
  • The Basics of Adjusting Entries The Basics of Adjusting Entries Adjusting entries make it possible to report correct amounts on the balance sheet and on the income statement. A company must make adjusting entries every time it prepares financial statements.Chapter 3-14 SO 3 Explain the reasons for adjusting entries.
  • The Basics of Adjusting Entries The Basics of Adjusting Entries Revenues - recorded in the period in which they are earned. earned Expenses - recognized in the period in which they are incurred. incurred Adjusting entries - needed to ensure that the revenue recognition and matching principles are followed.Chapter 3-15 SO 3 Explain the reasons for adjusting entries.
  • Timing Issues Timing Issues Review Adjusting entries are made to ensure that: a. expenses are recognized in the period in which they are incurred. b. revenues are recorded in the period in which they are earned. c. balance sheet and income statement accounts have correct balances at the end of an accounting period. d. all of the above.Chapter 3-16 SO 3 Explain the reasons for adjusting entries.
  • Types of Adjusting Entries Types of Adjusting Entries Illustration 4-2 Categories of adjusting entries Deferrals Accruals 1. Prepaid Expenses. 3. Accrued Revenues. Expenses paid in cash and Revenues earned but not recorded as assets before yet received in cash or they are used or consumed. recorded. 2. Unearned Revenues. 4. Accrued Expenses. Revenues received in cash Expenses incurred but not and recorded as liabilities yet paid in cash or before they are earned. recorded.Chapter 3-17 SO 4 Identify the major types of adjusting entries.
  • Trial Balance Trial Balance Trial Balance – Each account is analyzed to determine whether it is complete and up-to-date. Illustration 3-3Chapter 3-18 SO 4 Identify the major types of adjusting entries.
  • Adjusting Entries for Deferrals Adjusting Entries for Deferrals Deferrals are either: Prepaid expenses OR Unearned revenues.Chapter 3-19 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Payment of cash that is recorded as an asset because service or benefit will be received in the future. Cash Payment BEFORE Expense Recorded Prepayments often occur in regard to: insurance rent supplies maintenance on equipment advertising fixed assets (depreciation)Chapter 3-20 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Prepaid Expenses Costs that expire either with the passage of time or through use. Adjusting entries (1) to record the expenses that apply to the current accounting period, and (2) to show the unexpired costs in the asset accounts.Chapter 3-21 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting entries for prepaid expenses Illustration 3-4 Increases (debits) an expense account and Decreases (credits) an asset account.Chapter 3-22 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency purchased advertising supplies costing $2,500 on October 5. Sierra recorded the payment by increasing (debiting) the asset Advertising Supplies. This account shows a balance of $2,500 in the October 31 trial balance. An inventory count at the close of business on October 31 reveals that $1,000 of supplies are still on hand. Oct. 31 Advertising supplies expense 1,500 Advertising supplies 1,500 Illustration 3-5Chapter 3-23 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Illustration: On October 4, Pioneer Advertising Agency paid $600 for a one-year fire insurance policy. Coverage began on October 1. Pioneer recorded the payment by increasing (debiting) Prepaid Insurance. This account shows a balance of $600 in the October 31 trial balance. Insurance of $50 ($600 / 12) expires each month. Oct. 31 Insurance expense 50 Prepaid insurance 50 Illustration 3-6Chapter 3-24 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Depreciation Buildings, equipment, and vehicles (long-lived assets) are recorded as assets, rather than an expense, in the year acquired. Companies report a portion of the cost of a long- lived asset as an expense (depreciation) during each period of the asset’s useful life (Matching Principle).Chapter 3-25 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising estimates depreciation on the office equipment to be $480 a year, or $40 per month. Oct. 31 Depreciation expense 40 Accumulated depreciation 40 Illustration 3-7Chapter 3-26 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Depreciation (Statement Presentation) Accumulated Depreciation is a contra asset account. Appears just after the account it offsets (Equipment) on the balance sheet. Illustration 3-8Chapter 3-27 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses” Summary Illustration 3-9Chapter 3-28 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Receipt of cash that is recorded as a liability because the revenue has not been earned. Cash Receipt BEFORE Revenue Recorded Unearned revenues often occur in regard to: rent magazine subscriptions airline tickets customer deposits school tuitionChapter 3-29 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Unearned Revenues Company makes an adjusting entry to record the revenue that has been earned and to show the liability that remains. The adjusting entry for unearned revenues results in a decrease (a debit) to a liability account and an increase (a credit) to a revenue account.Chapter 3-30 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting entries for unearned revenues Illustration 3-10 Decrease (a debit) to a liability account and Increase (a credit) to a revenue account.Chapter 3-31 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency received $1,200 on October 2 from R. Knox for advertising services expected to be completed by December 31. Unearned Service Revenue shows a balance of $1,200 in the October 31 trial balance. Analysis reveals that the company earned $400 of those fees in October. Oct. 31 Unearned service revenue 400 Service revenue 400 Illustration 3-11Chapter 3-32 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues” Summary Illustration 3-12Chapter 3-33 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Chapter 3-34 SO 5 Prepare adjusting entries for deferrals.
  • Adjusting Entries for Accruals Adjusting Entries for Accruals Made to record: Revenues earned and OR Expenses incurred in the current accounting period that have not been recognized through daily entries.Chapter 3-35 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or recorded. Adjusting entry results in: Revenue Recorded BEFORE Cash Receipt Accrued revenues often occur in regard to: rent interest services performedChapter 3-36 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Accrued Revenues An adjusting entry serves two purposes: (1) It shows the receivable that exists, and (2) It records the revenues earned.Chapter 3-37 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting entries for accrued revenues Illustration 3-13 Increases (debits) an asset account and Increases (credits) a revenue account.Chapter 3-38 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Illustration: In October Pioneer Advertising Agency earned $200 for advertising services that had not been recorded. Oct. 31 Accounts Receivable 200 Service Revenue 200 Illustration 3-14Chapter 3-39 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues” Summary Illustration 3-15Chapter 3-40 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or recorded. Adjusting entry results in: Expense Recorded BEFORE Cash Payment Accrued expenses often occur in regard to: rent taxes interest salariesChapter 3-41 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Accrued Expenses An adjusting entry serves two purposes: (1) It records the obligations, and (2) It recognizes the expenses.Chapter 3-42 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting entries for accrued expenses Illustration 3-16 Increases (debits) an expense account and Increases (credits) a liability account.Chapter 3-43 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency signed a three-month note payable in the amount of $5,000 on October 1. The note requires Pioneer to pay interest at an annual rate of 12%. Illustration 3-17 Oct. 31 Interest expense 50 Interest payable 50 Illustration 3-18Chapter 3-44 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising Agency last paid salaries on October 26; the next payment of salaries will not occur until November 9. The employees receive total salaries of $2,000 for a five-day work week, or $400 per day. Thus, accrued salaries at October 31 are $1,200 ($400 x 3 days). Oct. 31 Salaries expense 1,200 Salaries payable 1,200 Illustration 3-20Chapter 3-45 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses” Summary Illustration 3-21Chapter 3-46 SO 6 Prepare adjusting entries for accruals.
  • The Adjusted Trial Balance The Adjusted Trial Balance After all adjusting entries are journalized and posted the company prepares another trial balance from the ledger accounts (Adjusted Trial Balance). Its purpose is to prove the equality of debit balances and credit balances in the ledger.Chapter 3-47 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of an adjusted trial balance.
  • The Adjusted Trial Balance The Adjusted Trial BalanceChapter 3-48
  • The Adjusted Trial Balance The Adjusted Trial Balance Review Question Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning the adjusted trial balance? a. An adjusted trial balance proves the equality of the total debit balances and the total credit balances in the ledger after all adjustments are made. b. The adjusted trial balance provides the primary basis for the preparation of financial statements. c. The adjusted trial balance lists the account balances segregated by assets and liabilities. d. The adjusted trial balance is prepared after the adjusting entries have been journalized and posted.Chapter 3-49 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of an adjusted trial balance.
  • Preparing Financial Statements Preparing Financial Statements Financial Statements are prepared directly from the Financial Statements are prepared directly from the Adjusted Trial Balance. Adjusted Trial Balance. Owner’s Balance Income Equity Sheet Statement StatementChapter 3-50 SO 7 Describe the nature and purpose of an adjusted trial balance.
  • Preparing Financial Statements Preparing Financial Statements Illustration 3-25 Preparation of the income statement and owner’s equity statement from the adjusted trial balanceChapter 3-51
  • Preparing Financial Statements Preparing Financial Statements Illustration 3-26Chapter 3-52
  • Alternative Treatment of Prepaid Expenses Alternative Treatment of Prepaid Expenses and Unearned Revenues and Unearned Revenues Some companies use an alternative treatment for prepaid expenses and unearned revenues. When a company prepays an expense, it debits that amount to an expense account. When a company receives payment for future services, it credits the amount to a revenue account.Chapter 3-53 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Alternative Treatment for “Prepaid Expenses” Alternative Treatment for “Prepaid Expenses” Illustration: Pioneer Advertising purchased supplies on October 5 for $2,500 and debited Advertising Supplies Expense for the full amount. What if an inventory of $1,000 of advertising supplies remains on October 31? Oct. 31 Advertising supplies 1,000 Advertising supplies expense 1,000 Illustration 3A-1Chapter 3-54 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Alternative Treatment for “Prepaid Expenses” Alternative Treatment for “Prepaid Expenses” Adjustment approaches—a comparison Illustration 3A-2Chapter 3-55 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Alternative Treatment for “Unearned Revenues” Alternative Treatment for “Unearned Revenues” Illustration: Assume that Pioneer Advertising received $1,200 for future services on October 2 and credited the entire amount to Service Revenue. If at the statement date Pioneer has not performed $800 of the services, it would make an adjusting entry. Oct. 31 Service revenue 800 Unearned service revenue 800 Illustration 3A-4Chapter 3-56 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Alternative Treatment for “Unearned Revenues” Alternative Treatment for “Unearned Revenues” Adjustment approaches—a comparison Illustration 3A-5Chapter 3-57 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Summary of Additional Adjustment Relationships Summary of Additional Adjustment Relationships Illustration 3A-7Chapter 3-58 SO 8 Prepare adjusting entries for the alternative treatment of deferrals.
  • Copyright Copyright “Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.”Chapter 3-59