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    Research paper 2 Research paper 2 Presentation Transcript

    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 1Writing a Research Paper
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 2 Purpose of Research Paper• You will be taking a stand on an issue and providing support or evidence gained from your research to back up your position.• Any type of writing where research and citations are required: • Essays, case studies, etc.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 3 Don’t Get Overwhelmed!• Break it down to step-by-step process.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 4Step 1 – Clarify Assignment • Is topic specified? • Length of paper required? • What citation format is required? – MLA – Modern Language Association • Used in the Humanities: English, Foreign Languages, History, Art, Art History, Philosophy, Religion and Communication – APA - American Psychological Association • Used in the Social Sciences, Education, and Behavioral Sciences • Ask mentor any questions you may have at beginning of process!
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 5Step 2 – Develop a Research Question • Provides focus for research and paper • OWN YOUR TOPIC! – What interests you the most about the topic? – Make a listing of questions you would like to have answered about the topic – What would capture the interest of the reader? • Pick issue that can be researched – Make sure topic is not too broad or narrow in scope • Resource: – www.esc.edu/writer - Go to the “Research Room”
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 6Step 3 – Begin Doing Research• ESC Online Library • http://www.esc.edu/- Click on My ESC, then Library and Learning Resources – go to Find Info Quick Start Tutorial • Peer-reviewed articles vs. Google search • Accuracy/Bias • Authority • Currency • Avoid certain “sources” i.e., Wickipedia, unsubstantiated sources such as blogs, statements from non-experts.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 7 StopAcademic Integrity• Cite all of your sources • Never represent the ideas or words of another as your own – plagiarism can result in student dismissal! • Use index cards when doing research • Direct Quote – put in quotation marks • Summary – condenses information and puts it in your own words • Paraphrase – roughly same length as original, but information is stated in your own words. • All of the above need to be cited – put citation information on back of card for future reference.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 8Citation – States Where you Gotthe Information• Two styles used most often: APA and MLA.• Author, year of publication, title of work, page, name of journal, or publisher.• APA and MLA style guidelines and much more in the Bedford Handbook or A Writer’s Reference by Diana Hacker.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 9Example: Quotation • “In most vital organizations, there is a common bond of interdependence, mutual interest, interlocking contributions, and simple joy. Part of the art of leadership is to see that this common bond is maintained and strengthened, a task certainly requiring good communication.” • The direct quotation comes from page 101 of a book entitled Leadership is an Art, by Max DePree.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 10Proper Way to Cite: APA Format: • “In most vital organizations, there is a common bond of interdependence, mutual interest, interlocking contributions, and simple joy. Part of the art of leadership is to see that this common bond is maintained and strengthened, a task certainly requiring good communication” (Depree, 1989, p. 101). MLA Format: • Paragraph as above followed by (Depree 101).
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 11Paraphrase • Besides quoting directly, the following is also an acceptable way to use and acknowledge the DePree material: • As DePree (1989) noted, leadership requires good communication skills that maintain and strengthen the bonds of interdependence, mutual interest, joy, and interlocking contributions that exist in most vital organizations (p. 101). APA • As DePree noted, … in most vital organizations (101). MLA
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 12Unacceptable: • If there was no reference to the source, the following use of the DePree material would be unacceptable: Most organizations have common bonds, and part of being a leader is to see that common bonds are maintained and strengthened. Good communication skills are required for this task. (Paraphrased but with no citation).
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 13Acceptable: • Most organizations have common bonds, and part of being a leader is to see that common bonds are maintained and strengthened. Good communication skills are required for this task (DePree, 1989, p. 101). • Paraphrased with proper citation.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 14 Step 4 – Develop a Thesis Statement• Purpose: focuses your ideas and information within the paper and provides guidance to the reader• TOPIC + YOUR POSITION ON THAT TOPIC = THESIS STATEMENT• Example: • Adult students returning to college make up a higher percentage of entering students than they did twenty years ago because of a number of statistical, economic, and social reasons.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 15 Step 5 – Organize Your Ideas• Use mapping, outlining, or arranging of your research index cards to place your ideas in a logical sequence.• Sequence of ideas is sometimes determined by thesis statement.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 16Step 6 - Create a First Draft • Three major parts to good research paper: • Introduction • Opportunity to capture interest of reader • Allows you to present thesis statement • Body • Paragraphs that provide evidence supporting your thesis statement • Conclusion • Allows you to provide summary of main points and should make reader think about implications of topic discussed. • May conclude by making a prediction or offering specific advice.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 17Step 7 – Begin Revisions & Proofreading • Revision • Have you said what you wanted to say in a clear and effective way? • Have you provided enough evidence to support your thesis? • Is information presented in most effective order? • Does it flow? • Do you leave any questions in the mind of the reader?
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 18• Proofreading • Checking your paper for grammar and spelling errors • Are you using consistent verb tense? • Are you using variation in your use of words? • Is there any way you can tighten your sentences? • Did you use spell-check or a dictionary? • Have you used proper punctuation? • Resource: • www.esc.edu/writer - Research Room - Revising and Proofreading the Draft
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 19Step 8 – Document Your Sources andCreate Works Cited Page • Find a good handbook (such as the Bedford Handbook by Diane Hacker) or a website (such as www.esc.edu/citations or www.bedfordstmartin.com/online) that will demonstrate proper citation formats. • Provide in-text citations for your research findings.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 20References or Work Cited Page • References (APA) or Works Cited page (MLA) should follow at end of paper • Example of entry: • DePree, M. (1989) Leadership is an art. New York: Doubleday. (APA format) • DePree, M. Leadership is an Art. New York: Doubleday, 1989. (MLA format) • All entries listed in alphabetical order
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 21Step 9 – Do Final Reading & MakeLast Minute Revisions• Always take time to do final reading• Read paper slowly out-loud to listen for errors• Ask someone else to read through paper to make sure you have expressed yourself clearly• No corrections are trivial – take the time to present yourself in best possible light.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 22Step 10 – Submit Paper! • Make sure you have adhered to all of the formatting requirements of your mentor and submit your paper. • Always keep a copy of your paper on file and in hard copy.
    • April 2012 – English, Gr. 11 & 12 – Research Paper – Slide 23Additional Tips: • Never Use Personal Pronouns in Research Papers. “I think, You will agree,” etc. If you’re citing the works of a group of researchers, don’t state “they found.” State instead, “The group concluded,” or “It was determined.” Remain totally objective - your credibility is at stake. • If you cite research that supports your thesis, then you should also cite works that support the opposition.