Mato Grosso, Brazil near the Araguaia river This area was turned into a national park in 1939,and so is not as ecologically damaged as other areas of Brazil The mountain region hosts peaks over 6,000 feettall, so the flooding problems from rising sea levels and the nearby river is avoidable
The area is host to fresh water springs and the nearby Araguaia river, which will provide water for drinking, cooking and hygiene.The Araguaia river is also currently a popular river to fish on
Food Many crops could begrown, including but not limited to corn,tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, avocadoes, peppers, strawberries, peanuts, squash, beans, pineapples, and spices.
Terrain Farming Terrain farming was invented during the Incan civilizationIt is created to get maximum use of sloped land such as mountainsides
Aqueducts An aqueduct system is designed to deliver water to the farmland This design would use the rain water and transport it downhill in a safer way so erosion is slowed down and the water can be directed as needed.
How will we get fresh water?We will build irrigation channels through the foothills that siphon rainwater & melt runoff to our civilization for collection. These will be supplemented by recharging aquifers. We will… …build a community well that collects groundwater.… use Rainwater Catchment Systems (RCS) to supplement & dilute collected runoff.…use Bio-Sand Filters (BSF) to filter harmful pathogens out of our water. …equip each household with a SOLVATTEN unit for disinfection & storage.…supply stores/outposts with Iodine & Chlorine solutions for small-scale disinfection
Irrigation channels Ancient irrigation channelsin the foothills of mountains can be found in parts ofSoutheast Asia, such as Nepal and the Philippines. The advantage to living in the The channels will be built foothills of mountains is that wewith burnt watertight clay may use irrigation channels to(to be harvested in the silty collect groundwater flowing down areas of the Araguaia the mountain without floodplains) and wood to extracting/pumping it from the areas where we live and grow our prevent leakage. food.
Recharging AquifersSeveral small ponds will be built that connect with the channels, in order to catch rainwater and runoff to supplement the channels when flows get low. These will also be insulated by clay from the floodplains.
One Community Well Consolidated or rock wells are drilled 250 feet into rock, rather than dug into collapsible sand and soil. We use one well as a community because over construction of private wells in a disorganizedfashion would cause groundwater contamination.
Rainwater Catchment Systems Water can be collected inRCS in two ways. The tank can be situated on theground (pictured right), andrainwater will flow from the gutters through the pipes,through the Bio-Sand Filter,and into the collection tank. Rainwater in RCS may be The tank can also be placed used to drink or to mix willon top of the dwelling, with runoff from the irrigation a single pipe flowing out of channels to dilute any it, through the filter. concentration contaminating chemicals or pathogens.
Bio Sand Filter The BSF is incredibly easy to build: simply make a mold, insert a PVC pipe as pictured, and pour cement. After the cement sets, insert a thin gravel layer, a thin layer of coarse sand, and fill the filter halfway waith very fine sand. Then insert a diffuser plate on top.
BSF:hits the diffuser Worksis spreadFirst, the water How it plate, and evenly on the layer fine sand. Second, the water flows slowly through the finesand layer. Pathogens are killed via four processes:Mechanical trapping: Suspended solids & pathogens aretrapped in the physical spaces between the sand grains. Predation: Pathogens are consumed by other microorganisms in the sand layer.Adsorption: Pathogens become attached to each other, furthering the process of mechanical trapping. Natural Death: Pathogens die because there’s nonutrients or oxygen for them to survive on in the sand.
SLOVATTEN Per Household It uses sunlight to disinfect water from disease-causingpathogens. It serves multiplefunctions: collection, heater, disinfection and clean storage.SOLVATTEN is a portable water treatment device,developed by Solvatten AB, a Swedish company.
Things we must NOT do to maintain non-contaminated water Deforestation: Large-scale deforesting will disrupt the delicate ecosystem of the Araguaia River floodplains,causing us to lose our “wash load,” or fine sediments (clay & silt) that help us insulate our water conduits & prevent leakage into the ground.Open defecation: We must have designated privies in which we bury our excrement—VERY far away from any water system components. Otherwise, fecal coliform will contaminate our groundwater and thus our runoff. Bad. Rampant groundwater extraction/over construction of wells: Or else we will kill our fertile soil and contaminate
Iodine and Chlorine Solutions For small-scale purification These solutions are an easy way to purify water in one’s bottle or other small containers. People can carry these in their pockets and purchase them at stores or outposts.
Run of the River Hyroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric generation whereby little or no water storage is provided. The limited storage areas in these plants are referred to as pondage. a plant without pondage has no storage and is therefore subject to seasonal river flows and serves as a peaking power plant while a plant with pondage can regulate water flow and serve as a base load power plant.
Why This Works HereElevation of the Araras Mountains ranges from 80- 150m (260 -490 ft) above sea level. Annual rainfallover the flood basin is between 1,000-1,500 mm (39 and 59in), with most of the rainfall occurring between November and March. The nearby rivers water levels rise between 2-5mseasonally and the flood waters tend to flow slowly-2-10cm/s (0.79 -3.9in/s) due to low gradients & high resistance offered by dense vegetation.
floodplain ecosystems such as these are defined by theirseasonal inundation and desiccation. The shift between phases of standing water and phases of dry soil, whenthe water table can be well below the root region. Soilsrange from high levels of sand in higher areas to higher amounts of clay and silt in riverine areas.
A 3° C global temperature rise by 2100 could increase the number of annual malaria cases by 50-80 million.The largest changes will occur in areas adjacent to current risk areas, at both higher altitudes and latitudes.A temperature increase can convert areas that are malaria-free into areas that experience seasonal epidemics
The effects of warmer weather on malaria might be threefold: -Higher metabolic rates shorten gestation periodsboosting the numbers of mosquitoes as generations hatch more frequently; -Longer periods of warmth would allow the mosquitoes to be active for longer; -The metabolic rate of malaria parasites mightincrease as well leading to higher parasite numbers carried by the mosquitoes.
Bed nets treated with an appropriate insecticide(ITNs), or manufactured with a long-lasting wash-resistant insecticide preparation (LLINs) have been highly effective in reducing malaria transmission.
Drastic Times, Drastic Measures Population control will be necessary due to limited resources. We will be implementing a "two child policy." According to an article entitled "Global Swarming" by Daniel Engber, each family would have to cut back by one child in order to live in these changingclimate conditions. Thus we came to the conclusionthat two children are an appropriate amount to have to help farm the land as well as maintain survival rates.
Penalties for Excessive OffspringIf a family has more than two children there will be a high tax that will have to be paid and the family will receive no extra land nor food for the extra children.Each family will have to survive with the sixty acres of land provided to them along with the roots, vegetables, and food that they make. Likewise, we will enforce a mandatory education on the effects of greenhouse gases, pollution & other harmful environmental conditions to each family and their offspring. Everyone will be tested on the subject matter once a year to ensure the material is being taught.