Article iii of the 1987 constitution of the republic of the philippinesDocument Transcript
Salinas, Sarah Jane G.
Article III Of The 1987 Constitution Of The Republic Of The Philippines
BILL OF RIGHTS
Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law,
nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects
against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be
inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to
be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the
complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be
searched and the persons or things to be seized.
Section 3. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon
lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law.
(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for
any purpose in any proceeding.
Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press,
or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of
Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without
discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the
exercise of civil or political rights.
Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law
shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be
impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be
provided by law.
Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be
recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts,
transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy
development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to
form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.
Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.
Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.
Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall
not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.
Section 12. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the
right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel
preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be
provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of
(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will
shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar
forms of detention are prohibited.
(3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be
inadmissible in evidence against him.
(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as
compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.
Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua
when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be
released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even
when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be
Section 14. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of
(2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is
proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature
and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the
witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and
the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed
notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided, that he has been duly notified and his
failure to appear is unjustifiable.
Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of
invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.
Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
Section 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and
(2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof
the party shall have been duly convicted.
Section 19. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman
punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons
involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already
imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.
(2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or
detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall
be dealt with by law.
Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.
Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an
act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a
bar to another prosecution for the same act.
Section 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
ARTICLE III, SECTION SECTION 2 – RIGHT AGAINST UNREASONABLE ARREST,
SEARCH AND SEIZURE
in Constitutional Law. ·
Warrantless Arrest, Search and Seizure
The right of a man, together with his love-ones, is protected by the Bill of Rights under Article 3,
Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution. It states that,
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against
unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable,
and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except uponprobable cause to be
determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the
complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be
searched and the persons or things to be seized.
As a general rule, before a police officer can arrest or search a person, he must validly first
secure a warrant of arrest or search warrant. Without it, any evidence that can be obtained by
such shall become inadmissible evidence in court.
Elements of a good evidence
It must be relevant
It must be material
o It must be competent
Requisites for a valid warrant of arrest or search warrant
1. There should be probable cause
2. It must be personally determined by a judge
3. It should be examined under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witness he
4. Place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized should be particular, not
Only party affected may contest legality of seizure effected by search warrants.—Officers of
certain corporations, from which documents, papers and things were seized by means of search
warrants, have no cause of action to assail the legality of the seizures because said corporations
have personalities distinct and separate from those of said officers. The legality of a seizure can
be contested only by the party whose rights have been impaired thereby. The objection to an
unlawful search is purely personal and cannot be availed of by third parties.
When illegally seized evidence is admissible.—Officers of certain corporations cannot validly
object to the use in evidence against them of the documents, papers and things seized from the
offices and premises of the corporations since the right to object to their admission in evidence
belongs exclusively to the corporations, to which the seized effects belong, and may not be
invoked by the corporate officers in proceedings against them in their individual capacity.
Requisites for issuing search warrants.—The Constitution provides that no warrant shall issue
but upon probable cause, to be determined by the judge, and that the warrant shall particularly
describe the things to be seized.
General search warrants.—Search warrants, issued upon applications stating that the natural and
juridical persons therein named had committed a violation of Central Bank laws, tariff and
customs laws, Tax Code and Revised Penal Code do not satisfy the constitutional requirements
because no specific offense had been alleged in said applications. It was impossible for the
judges, who issued the warrants, to have found the existence of probable cause, which
presupposes the introduction of competent proof that the party against whom it is sought has
performed particular acts or committed specific omissions in violation of a specific penal
Why general warrants are outlawed.—General search warrants are outlawed because they place
the sanctity of the domicile and the privacy of communication and correspondence at the mercy
of the whims, caprice or passion of peace officers.
Provision of Revised Rules of Court.—To prevent the issuance of general warrants, the Supreme
Court amended the Old Rules of Court by providing in the Revised Rules of Court that ―no
search warrant shall issue for more than one specific offense‖.
Warrants not describing particularly the things to be seized.—Search warrants authorizing the
seizure of books of accounts and records ―showing all the business transactions‖ of certain
persons, regardless of whether the transactions were legal or illegal, contravene the explicit
command of the Bill of Rights that the things to be seized should be particularly described and
defeat its major objective of eliminating general warrants. [Stonehill vs. Diokno, 20 SCRA
1. In flagrante delicto
2. Hot pursuit
1. Search incident to lawful arrest
1. Arrest precedes search
2. Consented Search
3. Plain-view search
5. Administrative Searches
6. At airports
SEARCH AND SEIZURE – Rules of Court
SEARCH AND SEIZURE
SECTION 1. Search warrant defined.-A search warrant is an order in writing issued in the name of the People of the
Philippines, signed by a judge and directed to a peace officer, commanding him to search for personal property
described therein and bring it before the court. (1)
SEC. 2. Court where application for search warrant shall be filed.-An application for search warrant shall be filed with
(a) Any court within whose territorial jurisdiction a crime was committed.
(b) For compelling reasons stated in the application, any court within the judicial region where the crime was
committed if the place of the commission of the crime is known, or any court within the judicial region where the
warrant shall be enforced.
However, if the criminal action has already been filed, the application shall only be made in the court where the
criminal action is pending, (n)
SEC. 3. Personal property to be seized.-A search warrant may be issued for the search and seizure of personal property:
(a) Subject of the offense;
(b) Stolen or embezzled and other proceeds, or fruits of the offense; or
(c) Used or intended to be used as the means of committing an offense. (2a)
SEC. 4. Requisites for issuing search warrant.-A search warrant shall not issue except upon probable cause in
connection with one specific offense to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or
affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched
and the things to be seized which may be anywhere in the Philippines. (3a)
SEC. 5. Examination of complainant; record.-The judge must, before issuing the warrant, personally examine in the
form of searching questions and answers, in writing and under oath, the complainant and the witnesses he may produce
on facts personally known to them and attach to the record their sworn statements, together with the affidavits
SEC. 6. Issuance and form of search warrant.-If the judge is satisfied of the existence of facts upon which the
application is based or that there is probable cause to believe that they exist, he shall issue the warrant, which must be
substantially in the form prescribed by these Rules. *(5a)
SEC. 7. Right to break door or window to effect search.-The officer, if refused admittance to the place of directed
search after giving notice of his purpose and authority, may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house or
any part of a house or anything therein to execute the warrant or liberate himself or any person lawfully aiding him
when unlawfully detained therein. (6)
SEC. 8. Search of house, room, or premises to be made in presence of two witnesses.-No search of a house, room, or
any other premises shall be made except in the presence of the lawful occupant thereof or any member of his family or
in the absence of the latter, two witnesses of sufficient age and discretion residing in the same locality. (7a)
SEC. 9. Time of making search.-The warrant must direct that it be served in the day time, unless the affidavit asserts
that the property is on the person or in the place ordered to be searched, in which case a direction may be inserted that it
be served at any time of the day or night. (8)
SEC. 10. Validity of search warrant.-A search warrant shall be valid for ten (10) days from its date. Thereafter, it shall
be void. (9a)
SEC. 11. Receipt for the property seized.-The officer seizing property under the warrant must give a detailed receipt for
the same to the lawful occupant of the premises in whose presence the search and seizure were made, or in the absence
of such occupant, must, in the presence of at least two witnesses of sufficient age and discretion residing in the same
locality, leave a receipt in the place in which he found the seized property. (10a)
SEC. 12. Delivery of property and inventory thereof to court; return and proceedings thereon.-(a) The officer must
forthwith deliver the property seized to the judge who issued the warrant, together with a true inventory thereof duly
verified under oath.
(b) Ten (10) days after issuance .of the search warrant, the issuing judge shall ascertain if the return has been made, and
if none, shall summon the person to whom the warrant was issued and require him to explain why no return was made.
If the return has been made, the judge shall ascertain whether section 11 of this Rule has been complied with and shall
require that the property seized be delivered to him. The judge shall see to it that subsection (a) hereof has been
(c) The return on the search warrant shall be filed and kept by the custodian of the log book on search warrants who
shall enter therein the date of the return, the result, and other actions of the judge.
A violation of this section shall constitute contempt of court. (11a)
SEC. 13. Search incident to lawful arrest.-A person lawfully arrested may be searched for dangerous weapons or
anything which may have been used or constitute proof in the commission of an offense without a search warrant. (12a)
SEC. 14. Motion to quash a search warrant or to suppress evidence; where to file.-A motion to quash a search warrant
and/or to suppress evidence obtained thereof may be filed in and acted upon only by the court where the action has
been instituted. If no criminal action has been instituted, the motion may be filed in and resolved by the court that
issued the search warrant. However, if such court failed to resolve the motion and a criminal case is subsequently filed
in another court, the motion shall be resolved by the latter court. (n)