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flouridation,community Dentistry

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  1. 1. Dr. A. Ahad Shafique LCMD
  2. 2. By the end of this lecture you shall know:- What is fluoridation Optimal levels of Fluoride Caries Reduction through Fluoride
  3. 3.  Fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride in the general drinking water supply to a level that caries can be prevented and ________ can be avoided??
  4. 4.  Similarly another process in which fluoride is removed form the water supply as it is excessive in amount. This is done on those areas where water is highly rich fluoride and may lead to dental as well as skeletal fluorosis.
  5. 5.  Fluoride in water is normally measured as PPM (parts per million) which is also the same unit as Mg/L (milligram per litre).
  6. 6.  1 PPM will be ?????
  7. 7. The level of fluoride in drinking water depends upon the area wise temperature. A person living in hot climate regions will tend to drink more water compared to one living in cold regions. So therefore there is a range
  8. 8. Normally when fluoridation is done it is done in accordance to the season or temperature zone wise. Use of fluoridated water in making soda is also common.
  10. 10.  The world health organization has recommended a range for the optimal level of F in the water supply which is 0.5-1.0 ppm of F for all the parts of the world.
  11. 11. Fluoride contaminated drinking water is a global problem affecting more than 25 nations and over 200 million people globally. The present study was aimed to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of certain areas of Lahore (Manga Mandi, Ali Razaabad, Nawab town, Patoki, Multan road, Judicial colony, Dubai town, Mustafa town) and its relationship to dental fluorosis. A total of 300 patients with dental fluorosis were seen and dental fluorosis was observed using Dean’s index. Forty eight samples of drinking water from the patients presenting clinical dental fluorosis were collected randomly. Fluoride concentration in the drinking water was determined through the courtesy of Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) using SPADNS method and fluorosis was determined by using Dean’s index. The results show that all the patients with dental fluorosis were living in areas where fluoride concentration in drinking water ranged from 0.27 ppm to 7.4 ppm. It was concluded that dental fluorosis seen in patients was directly proportional to the fluoride concentration in their drinking water. This indicates that dental fluorosis is the result of high fluoride in the body and it can affect teeth, bones as well as other tissues resulting in serious illness. It should be taken seriously by the concerned authorities to save humanity from the detrimental effects of fluoride. Serious measures are needed for providing clean drinking water to inhabitants of the area.
  12. 12.  Across the world water fluoridation has been taken into considerations.  But unfortunately there is no central governing authority that is responsible for the collection of data associated with the identification of the areas which are fluoridated and which needs to be fluoridated
  13. 13.  Ireland is one of those countries in the world which has implemented fluoridation laws similarly Singapore is the only city which has laws in regards to fluoridation
  14. 14.  What do you think that what should be the level of fluoride in the drinking water that it might lead to dental fluorosis??
  15. 15.  Caries status among the society has tend to improve and this can be attributed to the fluoridation.  As per Centre for disease Control (CDC) water Fluoridation is one of the 10th top public health achievement of the twentieth century.
  16. 16.  Disparities can be defined as the differences between favoured and unfavoured groups in our society.  What are these groups?
  17. 17.  Fluoridation of drinking water is one of those public health achievements which have helped in reducing the disparities in the society.  SES
  18. 18.  It has been observed that caries in children seem to be reduced in children residing in fluoridated areas when compared to those residing in unfluoridated areas.  A study based in USA suggested that there is 8-35% decrease in caries in children residing in the areas which are fluoridated.
  19. 19.  The studies have suggested that adults residing in the areas which are fluoridated have less risk of coronal and root caries  This is very important as with age people have increased chances of root caries.
  20. 20.  What do you think will happen to a fetus if a mother takes fluoridated water???
  21. 21.  No effects have been observed  However of the concentration of fluoride is high than there might be a problem with the bone formation
  22. 22.  Studies have suggested that primary dentition are less prone to caries when fluoridated water is used for drinking purpose.  Is is beneficial or not?
  23. 23.  The optimal level of Fluoride in drinking water should be???  What if the values are below like 0.4-0.7??  What will happen?
  24. 24.  Evidence suggests that cariostatic effect will be seen.  This suggests that if I have a carious lesion in my oral cavity what will happen??
  25. 25.  Studies suggest that caries incidence will increase  What do you think will happen??
  26. 26.  If it is still declining what will be the reason behind it??  Alternatives