Dynamic Planet- Sub unit 3 Battle for the Biosphere 3.2b Management measures are being used to conserve the biosphere and make human use of it more sustainable ? To know how different groups of people, at different scales are trying to sustain the rainforests To understand what sustainability is
What is sustainability ? <ul><li>Maintaining something for future use . In doing so you must consider the environment, the local people, others on the planet and the local economic needs </li></ul>What will happen if you do not address one of the legs? Local people
Managing biosphere at a global scale <ul><li>RAMSAR- The Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) -- called the "Ramsar Convention" -- is an intergovernmental treaty that embodies the commitments of its member countries to maintain the ecological character of their Wetlands of International Importance and to plan for the "wise use", or sustainable use, of all of the wetlands in their territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the other global environmental conventions, Ramsar is not affiliated with the United Nations system of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, but it works very closely with the other MEAs and is a full partner among the "biodiversity-related cluster" of treaties and agreements. </li></ul>The Convention today Number of contracted countries; 159 Sites designated for the List of wetlands of International Importance- : 1847 Total surface area of designated sites (hectares): 181,365,679
<ul><li>CITES- (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard species from exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs. </li></ul><ul><li>CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of The World Conservation Union. The convention text was finally agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington DC., USA, on 3-3- 1973, on 1-7-1975 CITES entered in force. </li></ul><ul><li>CITES is an international agreement to which countries adhere voluntarily. countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention ('joined' CITES) are known as Parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 175 countries signed up to CITES </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade </li></ul>
Managing the biosphere (ecosystems) at a global scale- <ul><li>Sub heading- RAMSAR and CITES </li></ul><ul><li>What is RAMSAR ?, why is it unlike most global conventions? What does it want its’ member states to do? How many members does it have? </li></ul><ul><li>What is CITES ? What is it’s aim? Why do we need a convention like CITES? How long has it been in force? How many species of plants and animals does it protect today? </li></ul>
(UNESCO) World Heritage Sites <ul><li>The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage , adopted by UNESCO in 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO's World Heritage mission is to: </li></ul><ul><li>encourage countries to sign the its Convention and ensure protection of natural and cultural heritage; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage States to nominate sites within their national territory for the World Heritage List; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage States to establish management plan and reporting systems on state of conservation of their sites; </li></ul><ul><li>help States safeguard Heritage properties by providing technical assistance and training; </li></ul><ul><li>provides emergency assistance for sites in immediate danger; </li></ul><ul><li>support States awareness-building activities for World Heritage conservation; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage participation of the locals in preserving cultural and natural heritage; </li></ul><ul><li>encourage international cooperation in the conservation of our world's cultural and natural heritage. </li></ul>
An example of a World Heritage Site- Galapagos Islands <ul><li>Read the article and produce a fact file on the Galapagos Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on- </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for being on list </li></ul><ul><li>How being World Heritage site benefits conservation of the islands </li></ul>
Small scale sustainable management in Costa Rica <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/rainforest-sustainability-costa-rica/3097.html </li></ul><ul><li>Make notes during the video about how they are making this area of rainforest sustainable </li></ul>
Sustaining the world’s coral reefs- global and local scale!!! <ul><li>Sustaining coral can be done at a variety of scales- </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing as it is a marine ecosystem, it needs global control, as well as local control over individual areas of coral </li></ul><ul><li>Read the article and highlight the ways people and groups are going about managing coral reefs in a sustainable way </li></ul>
Homework <ul><li>Revise for unit mini test next lesson- </li></ul>
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