Understanding the requirements of pre- production 1: Type of productionA documentary is a factual programme that informs people with information and facts. The layout of mydocumentary for example would be the introduction where I would introduce the documentary’s topic whichwe will be discussing. The middle would be where I go in to details about the documentary topic using factualinformation and interviews. We would then end the documentary with a conclusion not to decide which sideof the argument we were on but to give the viewers the chance to make their own choice. A good example ofa documentary would be “Aileen life and death of a serial killer.A news programme is also a factual programme; however they present their information in a very differentway to a documentary. A news programme has to present news that has happened recently because that iswhat the general public want to be informed about. News channels usually do live to the studio chats so thatthe public can have a greater vision of what the news programme is talking about too. Probably the most well-known example of a news programme with UK public viewers would be BBC news.A factual programme is the category of both documentaries and news channels. Factual programming takes upa large percentage of terrestrial and digital airtime in the United Kingdom. It could easily be considered thelargest of the genres, and it has many sub-genres that make up for a popular airtime filler. One of the mostinfluential sub-genres in factual programming would be considered to be the News and T.V documentaries. 2: Finance: Source of finance: requirementsI will now list all the items that most documentaries and news channels would require to be able to producetheir factual programme in a professional standard and why they would need them. A video camera. This is a priority for factual programmes because without them they can’t film.Documentaries usually use small portable video cameras because they are always on the move while shootingtheir documentary’s so they need light portable equipment. A news channel which is usually based in aprofessional studio would probably have a huge stationary camera because the location doesn’t change sothey wouldn’t need to worry about moving the camera around.A tripod is important for when filming because if they don’t use one the footage would look shaky andunprofessional. Computers with editing software. This applies more to documentaries because they need to be able to edit alltheir footage into the right format and order so the documentary looks professional standard. They might alsouse this in the news to edit certain layouts of footage which they show when the news readers narrate overthe top of it. Those were a few major parts of equipment required for making a factual programme. It is important to haveall the equipment you need for making your factual programme otherwise you would not be able to make thefactual programme to the greats it could be making it un professional. Transport is important with factual programmes for getting people and equipment around to locations to gettheir footage. A great example of this would be news channels because they have to get around a lot to dotheir live report from scenes that have recently been mentioned in the news.
The crew itself is very important, it’s a lot easier if you have full crew with a crew member designated to acertain job while making the factual programmes or filming them. It would be a lot harder making the factualprogramme with a crew that isn’t as big as needed which could cause delay and other problems with thefactual programmes 3: Time (deadline)A deadline is where you must complete a set task before a date which has been set for you to finish it. Thereare a great many reasons why deadlines are important to T.V factual productions. I shall list a few of mostimportant reasons why. Deadlines are important to T.V factual productions because if they are not met itdelays the production or worse, it ruins the production.Availability of equipment is important because if it is not available at the time of the deadline then the T.Vproduction would have to delay their filming or production because they didn’t have the required equipment.This could be difficult with a daily news show like “BBC news” because it is done live every day at 10pm.Availability of personnel is extremely important because if personnel are not at the production scene at theright time then would most likely delay the T.V production and possibly halts it all together. Personnel like thecameraman, director, interviewer and news readers are among the most required personnel to be at theproduction scene for the T.V production to continue.“Timescales for clearances” is getting permission to do something. For example you might need timescaleclearance to film in a certain location, or if you were a news reader or script writer you might need a clearanceto be allowed to read out the script on live TV in the news. 4: personnelPersonnel in a news channel would be…1. Director $59,000 average pay. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-news+director2. Assistant director3. Producer $49,000 average pay. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-news+producer4. Stage directors5. Lighting technician6. Sound technician7. Makeup artists8. Wardrobe team9. Script writers10. News reporters
11. Camera men $58,000 average pay. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-cameraman12. Assistant cameramen13. News studio readers$35,000 average pay. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-news+reader14. Technicians (make sure all the electrical equipment is working)15. Weatherman16. Personnel in a Documentary production team would be…17.18. Producer -$64,000 average pay a production. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q- documentary+producer19. Director $53,000 average pays a production. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q- documentary+director20. Assistant director21. Camera man $58,000 average pay per production. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q-cameraman22. Assistant cameraman23. Historians24. Presenter/ interviewer too?$65,000 average pay per production. http://www.simplyhired.com/a/salary/search/q- documentary+presenter25. Researchers26. Wardrobe and make up team possibly 5: FacilitiesProduction equipment required…Tripod for each cameraA video switcher that can handle every single video source you have (or computer system)Multiple microphonesAn audio switcher that can handle every audio source you have (or computer system)Graphics generatorMultiple TV Monitors, minimum of one per video sourceVideo tape/DVD decks
CD/audio tape playersCables and connectors to piece it all togetherLightsSet furniture- usually something homey. Avoid detailed patterns. Go for solid colours that blend. Making your videos in a studio will save tons of time. Switching a show live saves hours and hours of editingtime. There are many practical reasons for setting up a studio if you are serious about video productionPost production materials …Vision mixerEditing studioGraphic design studioSound mixing studio 6: MaterialsOriginal materials: This is original footage that you have taken without editing. It would no longer be Originalmaterial if you edited over it.Archive and library materials: This is footage that has been recorded ages ago and been put into a recentvideo. A great example are history documentaries of WW2 where the historians narrate over footage takenjust under 100 years ago of word war 2.Photo library materials: This is storage of all the photos you have taken and found which you may want toinclude at some point in your news channel or documentary.Sound library: this is storage of all the sound that you will possibly include in your news channel ordocumentary.Script: The script is very important for both news channels and documentary’s because it is writteninformation for news readers to read from or documentary’s to use to ask questions. Most script readersremember their scripts in their head for example the news readers on BBC news don’t have scripts held out infront of them.Interviews: Interviews are important in both news channels and documentary’s because with the help ofinterviews it is easier to get more interesting information for the show for example. An eyewitness isinterviewed about the murder of someone or a professor is interviewed about global warming.Recorded music: Recorded music is important in news shows and documentary’s because it can be used tobuild up tension or suspense or it could be used during boring moments of the programme. It could also beused as a signature symbol of T.V production itself, for example in BBC news there is the introduction music atthe beginning of each daily show.
7: ContributorsSpecialists/ experts: These people are very important for informative productions because they can offerprofessional advice on the topic which is being discussed which viewers at home may have never known andmake them more interested in the show. For example an expert on Global warming might come into a newsstudio when Global warming is being discussed to give his expertise.Talent: This is most common in news shows. Sometimes talented people may come on the show and dhow offtheir talent to the viewers at home or teach a few tips on how to do their talent. An example on this could be aworld champion boxer or dancer.Public: public are often included in informative productions because its interesting for the viewers at home toget average peoples verdicts on matters whether this be in a documentary or on a news show.These people are important in Documentary’s and News channels because the productions would be boring ifthey just had the presenters talking about the topic in the informative production. It is much more interestingfor the audience to find out experiences from other people which relate to the topic usually done byinterviewing the person.Experts would be most common to appear in informative productions because their professional informationcan be used to inform the public on the chosen topic. 8: LocationsRecce is where a production team visits locations to find out if they are suitable for using to shoot for their T.Vproduction. Below is an example of a Recce sheet that the production team would fill in on each location theyvisited to decide if it was suitable to film there. Yes/No for each area Local Condition: • Any known problems No □Yes □ If yes, please detail (including source of information) • Aid needed No □Yes □ If yes, please detail name, address and contact numbers for each person/organization • Permission needed No □Yes □ • Protective clothing needed No □Yes □ If yes, please detail Viewpoints:
• Appropriate viewpoints No □Yes □isolated No □Yes □• Any obstructions• Easy to reach and safe No □Yes □If no, please detailrequirementsRequirements:• Power available No □Yes □If no, please detail alternativearrangements• Lighting appropriateIf no, please detail alternative No □Yes □arrangements• Sound equipment (pleasedetail)Anticipated problems:• Sound No □Yes □If yes, please detail• Picture No □Yes □If yes please detail• People No □Yes □If yes, please detail• Other No □Yes □If yes, please detailOther considerations (pleaseprovide details for each):• Security considered• Welfare considered (transport,food, First Aid etc.)• Set dressing required• Props requiredComments:
It was most important for the production team to take into consideration the distance, cost, access andweather. These are risks because if the weather was forecasted to be a thunderstorm and the productionteam’s location wasn’t sheltered then that could have caused problems. Or perhaps the Location was in adifficult to reach spot meaning it could be hard for the team to arrive on time or it could be difficult to get theequipment on location