Transcript of "EE - extended essay (Is Christian Dior's 'Bar' suit a reflection of the socio-economic situation of France post-World-War-II?)"
Is Christian Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit a
reflection of the socio-economic
situation of France post-World-War-II?
Subject: Visual Arts
Abstract word count: 267
Report word count: 3962
Number of pages: 27
Done by: Sarah Lee Shan Yun
Candidate number: 003071-061
School: ACS (International), Singapore
To approach this investigation, a detailed analysis into Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit was
drawn before it was linked with evidence surrounding the socio-economic situation of
France post-World-War-II. The elements of fashion design – silhouette and texture,
were utilized within the analysis.
In terms of research, I have read the autobiography of Christian Dior in order
to gain a deeper insight into the thoughts and intentions of the designer, as well as to
discover which factors he felt were most important whilst catering to his clientele
during the post-war period. In addition, I have also read through several history
books, some fashion-related and some war-related, in order to grasp an understanding
of the circumstances which lead to the development of fashion, especially in the
golden age of couture in France. An interview with a history teacher from my school,
Ms. Bonny Morris, also enlightened me further on the subject. I have also been able to
write a detailed analysis of the Dior’s famous ‘Bar’ suit by reading published articles
and by including my own input through viewing pictures of the ‘Bar’ suit on the
Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website.
In conclusion, I have deduced that the silhouette of the ‘Bar’ suit reflects the
change in the role of women in society, the retention of feminist attitudes and the end
of economic restrictions post-war. I have also concluded that the texture of the ‘Bar’
suit reflects the end of protectionist policies and the widened gap between the upper
class and middle class clientele. All in all, Christian Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit, therefore, is
a reflection of the socio-economic situation of France post-World-War-II.
I would like to thank my extended essay supervisor, Mdm. Chang Hung Tho, for
taking the time to read through and provide essential feedback so that I could
continuously improve my essay.
I would like to thank Ms. Bonny Morris, a history teacher of ACS (International), for
imparting me with valuable information on history-related aspects of my essay
through a vital interview.
Haute couture is a practice that refers to
‘made-to-order’ and ‘made-to-measure’ fashion
produced only in Paris, by accredited couture
houses (Riello, McNeil, 2010, p.466-467).
Designers must custom fit their clients and are
required to show a minimum number of designs
twice a year in a private fashion show (Ibid.).
Christian Dior, a name synonymous with the premier world of French haute
couture. Born in Granville, France in 1907 (Pochna, 2005, p.3), Dior apprenticed
under Lucian Lelong for the first part of his career, before taking control of his
‘personal ambition’ (Dior, 2007, pg.5) and opening his own fashion house under the
wing of textile heavyweight Marcel Boussac. Although initially apprehensive about
leaving the comfort and security that Lelong offered him, Dior’s rise to fame was
meteoric when he showcased his first collection entitled ‘La Ligne Corolle’ (Wilcox,
2009, p.42) in 1947. Carmel Snow, editor-in-chief of Harper’s Bazaar magazine in
New York (Ibid.) at the time, christened his collection with a name that would be
considered one of the most monumental turning points in fashion history – ‘The New
Look’. L’express news reported that the French designer was ‘unknown on the 12th
February 1947, famous on the 13th
’ (Wilcox, 2009, p.30). Dior, himself, unexpectedly
noticed how the ‘New Look became symbolic of youth and the future’ (Dior, 2007,
p.28). Life magazine reported his success (Perkins, 1948, See Appendix A ) and Dior
won a Neiman Marcus Oscar award for his 1947 collection. It was not until after
Dior’s first showcase that the French began to say ‘on ne parle que Dior’ (Beevor,
2004, p.257) – one can only speak of Dior.
Christian Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit is arguably one of the most iconic models1
Model: a design or prototype created by the couturier and his/her atelier for a
showcase before the design is sold to clients.
Dior’s 1947 collection (Heilbrun). He revolutionized the women’s suit mainly with
the re-introduction of the hourglass silhouette, although also with his use of texture as
an element of fashion design that this essay will further investigate. The invention of
Picture 1 -- (POCHNA, 2005) Willy
Maywald, 1955, René Gruau in Christian
Dior’s famous ‘Bar’ suit, Photograph
the women’s suit is accredited to designer John Redfern (Sozzani). However, it did
not erupt into popular dress until Coco Chanel introduced her classic suit in 1923
(Basye, 2010), featuring masculine silhouettes, skirts to the knee and boxy jackets
inspired by military uniforms of World War I (See Appendix B). Christian Dior’s
‘Bar’ suit, as a result, is considered to be percipient evolution of Coco Chanel’s
version of the suit. Couturiers of the era were, in fact, greatly influenced by one
another. Christian Dior, himself, mentioned Coco Chanel several times in his
autobiography. Dior, however, was vastly aware of the factors that dictated the needs
and wants of his clients and women, in general, and the end of the Second World War
in 1945 (Barrow, 2010) undeniably affected Dior’s decisions. Christian Dior’s ‘Bar’
suit, therefore, is a reflection of the socio-economic situation of France post-
Why then should we analyze the historical developments of fashion? Dior
once said ‘since I am widely held responsible for a social trend, I may perhaps be
allowed to analyze my own success’ (Dior, 2007, p.27). Fashion is an inescapable
tradition and is a result of all the political, cultural, social and economic changes that
societies undergo and people experience. It is not only influenced by these changes
but also has great impact on what we define culture to be. Karl Lagerfeld once quoted
Goethe, saying, ‘make a better future by developing elements from the past’ (Menkes,
2010). An insight into historical developments would thus bring meaning and shine
light on the purpose of fashion in ‘present day’ (Riello, McNeil, 2010, p.2-3).
‘The success of a dress depended upon the quality of the workmanship,
attention to detail and above all the beauty of the material’ (Dior, 2007, p.14) –
To approach this investigation, a detailed analysis into Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit will
be drawn before linking it with evidence surrounding the socio-economic situation of
France post-World-War-II. The elements of fashion design – silhouette and texture,
will be utilized within the analysis.
The silhouette of a look is defined to be the overall outline and shape that the
worn garments create (Jones, 2011). Christian Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit is known to famously
celebrate and exaggerate the hourglass, feminine figure of a woman.
The neckline is soft, gentle sloping,
adding smoothness to the appearance of the
shoulders. The shawl collar2
The waist is narrowed, synched in to
contributes sensitively to the curving lines that
the garment possesses and at the same time, is
deep enough to expose a hint of the collarbone,
evoking a hint of sensuality.
Shawl collar: a rounded turned-down collar, without lapel notches, that extends
down the front of a garment.
Picture 2 -- Christian Dior, 1947 copied 1969, Bar Suit, Garment of silk and
wool, Editing using Adobe Photoshop Elements, The Metropolitan Museum of
art, New York
Picture 3 -- Christian Dior, 1947, Close up
of the shawl collar of the ‘Bar’ suit,
Garment of silk, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York
create a wasp-like bodice through the use of a multitude of discreet corset3
several layers of stiffened petticoats4
(Fogg, 2011). The hips and bust are accentuated
by Dior’s bold introduction of padding to the bottom half of the jacket. A voluminous
Mademoiselle Marguerite, Dior’s directrice technique (head of workrooms),
reported that the mannequins
(Ibid.) flares open the wide skirt, giving contrasting proportion to the waist
and hips. The skirt, itself, shoots down to calf-length (Ibid.) and contains relaxing
billowing pleats that provide a balance to the rigidness of the jacket.
Corset: A tightly fitting undergarment extending from below the chest to the hips,
worn to shape the figure
Petticoat: A light undergarment hanging from the shoulders or the waist worn under
a skirt or dress
Crinoline: a stiff fabric made of horsehair and cotton or linen thread, typically used
for stiffening petticoats or as a lining.
Mannequin: A dummy used to drape fabric during the process of making clothes
that Dior’s ateliers used to pin the muslin forms, were
veritably manipulated, given a ‘rounded abdomen as on Greek statues’ (Wilcox, 2009,
p.39) in order to effectively echo the objective silhouette of the ‘New Look’.
Change in the role of women in society post-war
‘My weakness is architecture. I think of my work as ephemeral architecture,
dedicated to the beauty of the female body… My prime inspiration is the shape of the
female body: for it is the duty of the couturier to adopt the female form as his point of
departure and use the materials at his disposal so as to enhance its natural beauty’ –
Dior (Dudbridge, 2011). Christian Dior placed considerable importance upon
projecting the femininity of women and his use of silhouette is a prominent aspect in
doing so. He took inspiration from the organic form of the ‘figure 8’ (Wilcox, 2009,
p.39), from the designs of the early couturier Paul Poiret (See Appendix C ) and from
the paintings of Giovanni Boldini (See Appendix D ), which contained an abundance
of curving lines and soft drapery – fundamentals that exaggerate the female identity.
One crucial influence on Dior’s work was the era of the Belle Époque – the beautiful
age (Wilde, 2011) – that spawned in the late 1800s, where women wore the designs of
Charles Frederick Worth, the man commonly known to be the founding father of
haute couture. His garments consisted of extravagant ball gowns laced corsets that
restricted the female figure at the unfortunate cost of agonizing pain (See Appendix E
and F ). Though Dior did not return to such torturous means of beauty, he appreciated
the era for its attempt at re-creating the female form through clothing.
Dior was known to detest the styles of the early 1940s flaunted by the French
women known as ‘zazous’ (Dior, 2007, p.4). He felt that skirts were inappropriately
short, jackets, too long and considered the style to be ‘repellent’ (Ibid.) The clothing
of these ‘zazous’ was often described to be ultra-masculine, rejecting women’s
domestic roles during the forces of the occupation and the restraints of the Vichy
regime (See Appendix G ). Christian Dior felt that there was a need for fashion to
‘make a temporary return to base… reverting to its true function of clothing women
and enhancing their beauty’ (Dior, 2008, p.27-28). He understood that women had a
psychological yearning for change after the end of the Second World War, thus he
rejected and annulled the boxy aesthetic that prevailed during the wartime period
(Mendes, 1999, p.128).
The year was 1945 and the world finally sees the end of the Second World
War. Almost instantaneously, the explosion of the Baby Boom swept Europe,
including France (See Appendix H ). Nearly 40% of families had 3 to 5 children by
the end of the 1940s in France (Carson, 1983). Women were prompted to return
home, turning away from their roles in the war industry (Mendes, 1999, p.126),
invoking the revival of a lifestyle as mothers and wives (Morris, 2012). As a result,
Christian Dior’s effeminate silhouette suited the new demographic perfectly, where
women longed to move away from the mannish aesthetic as they moved away from
the austerity of the war. The silhouette of Dior’s clothing, including the ‘Bar’ suit
model, bestowed on women the idea of change and the return of womanhood. Dior’s
‘Bar’ suit, as a result, reflects the change in the role of women in society.
Edna Wollman Chase described Dior’s ‘New Look’ to be one of ‘unforced
femininity’ and noted that there was ‘no look of heaviness or stricture’ (Wilcox, 2009,
p.40) in his clothes. Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit exemplifies the principle because although it
contained a myriad underpinnings7
in the form of underwired bustiers8
Underpinning: a garment worn underneath clothes to support or strengthen a
Bustier: a close-fitting strapless top worn by women
Girdle: a woman’s elasticized corset extending from the waist to thigh
they were astutely made of tulle and horsehair (Wilcox, 2009, p.60), fabrics and
material that were soft and were nowhere near as uncomfortable as the predeceasing
metal corset of the 1800s. These undergarments, along with Dior’s use of paddings
and pockets at the hips supported the hourglass silhouette without compromising on
the ease of movement.
Retention of feminist attitudes post-war
‘All women appreciate the average mechanical comfort, which today is
tending to replace luxury,’ said Dior (Dior, 2007, p.53). Dior was also known to
detest the use of impeding ‘hobble-skirts’ (See Appendix I) of the 1910s, remarking
that ‘the figure of the elegant woman was no longer corseted, but gracefully, and
cunningly, shackled’ (Dior, 2007, p.15).
During World War I and II, women often had to partake in office and factory
jobs, while the men were off fighting for the country. In the beginning, there were
doubts on whether women should have been able to work and undertake male
dominated jobs, but soon, France began to see the scarcity of labor that heavily
affected its economy, thus French women stepped up and decided to fill in the
abundant amount of vacant vocation positions (Morris, 2012). Women performed jobs
from nursing to munitions manufacture, all of which required a revolution in dress
(Darrow, 2000, See Appendix J ). Restrictive corsets were seen as a great inhibition to
movement, heavy one-piece dresses were unsuitable for travel and women wanted
clothes that they could wear flexibly, whether for dining, sport or work (Champsaur,
2004). The innovation of two-piece clothing provided these women with the ability to
function and adjust to their newfound roles and responsibilities that stemmed from the
change in culture. The popularization women’s suit allowed these women to embrace
the functionality of clothing.
The end of the Second World War saw the return of some women as
housewives, while others continued working and building careers (Morris, 2012).
Although the war had ended, the role of women in society and the customs of dress
had changed indefinitely. In the early 20th
century, married working women were
scorned considered atypical. By the end of the century, the abundance of these women
who had their own individual careers was perfectly normal (Lambert, 2001). Dior
embraced the fact that the new woman of the post-war period still coveted ease and
effortlessness of clothing, incorporating that idea into his ‘Bar’ suit by introducing a
silhouette that was not only hourglass and feminine, but was also relaxed and non-
One of the most controversial
aspects of Dior’s ‘New Look’ was his re-
introduction of the longer hemline. In
Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit, the skirt featured shot
down to mid-calf length (Fogg, 2011)
and was about 85 centimeters long and
took up an excessive amount of fabric. It
was voluptuous, in an A-line shape
(Sunni, 2011), achieved through the use
of deep knife pleats, gathering10
Dior’s re-introduction of the longer hemline did not come without reason. His
lavish use of fabric was a rebellion against the prohibitions of World War II (Monet,
2012). It was a voice of defiance against the abundance of clothes and fabric rations
(Callan, 1998) during a time when wool was supplied to the military for the
manufacture of uniforms, and when silk was exploited on parachutes, maps and
gunpowder bags (Mendes, 1999, p.104). Civilians were coerced into wearing clothing
(Callan, 1998) on fabric cut in
a circular pattern (V&A, 2008). The
waist was fitted but the bottom was
flared adding drama to the silhouette of
the ensemble, but still allowing for the
freedom and dynamism of movement of
the legs. According to Dior, the use of
these ‘long skirts emphasized waists’
(Dior, 2007, p.143). He was inspired by the aesthetic of the ‘corolla’ (Ibid.) flower,
and the way its petals were spread out to create a fan-like silhouette. The length of the
skirt provided a mysterious quality to the leg, while allowing for the beauty of
movement. ‘Totting on high heels, women rediscovered a sort of dancing step, a
gliding walk’ (Ibid.), said Dior.
The end of restrictions post-war
Gathering: drawing and holding together (fabric or a part of a garment) by running
thread through it
Paneling: Sewing vertical sections of fabric known as gores
Picture 4 -- Christian Dior, 1947, Close
up of the ‘Bar’ suit skirt, Garment of
wool, The Metropolitan Museum of
Art, New York
made out of viscose and rayon, and any excessive use of fabric was ubiquitously
illegal (Veillon, 2002). Ration lines and ration cards were introduced (See Appendix
K ) in 1941 (Wilcox, 2009, p.32) and in 1942, the Making of Civilian Clothing
Restriction Order was passed, which stated that ‘a dress could have no more than two
pockets or four knife pleats and 160 inches of stitching… no superfluous decoration
was allowed’ (Mendes, 1999, p.112). The improvidence of couture was bound by the
deficit of supplies such as thread, pins, scissors and needles. Even couture clients
were issued rationed cards, while couture houses were ordered to create clothing
within strict regulation (Wilcox, 2009, p.35).
Dior realized that ‘Europe was tired of dropping bombs and now only wanted
to let off fireworks’ (Dior, 2007, p.36). After the end of World War II, designers were
liberated, and given the ‘absolute free hand to design as (they) pleased’ (Dior, 2007,
p.22), resulting in the use of copious amounts of sumptuous fabrics. Although some
suggest that Christian Dior’s benefactor, Monsieur Boussac, influenced Dior’s
extravagant designs in order to stimulate textile sales (Wilcox, 2009, p.39), Dior
denied the allegation and confronted the skeptics by mentioning how Boussac only
dealt with cotton (Beevor, 2004, p.257), not wool or silk.
The longer hemlines featured in Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit and the other garments in his
1947 collection brought a tumultuous amount of controversy to the couture scene. It
was reported by Paris Match that the shop assistants from the Quatre Saisons were
furious and attacked women in these dresses (Palmer, 2009). Anyone from
housewives to models to streetwalkers were assaulted (See Appendix L) by citizens
who continued to believe in the rationing philosophy of the wartime distress – that
these things were wasteful and a complete embodiment of squandering.
Although there were many cynics of Dior’s designs in France as well as other
countries such as the United States, his use of longer hemlines in the design of the
‘Bar’ suit silhouette eventually came into favor of the couture industry and is a
fearless reflection of the end of wartime restrictions.
Luxurious silk, cambric and taffeta
Texture, in fashion, is defined to be the fabric or material that a garment is made of
and the effect in which its surface creates (Jones, 2011). According to Dior, ‘of the
two (color and texture), the latter is more likely to captivate me.’ (Dior, 2007, p.72)
He elects certain materials primarily because of how the texture ‘adapts to the effect
(he) wants to achieve’ (Ibid.).
The ‘Bar’ suit jacket was
constructed of 3.7 meters (V&A, 2008) of
silk shantung (Wilcox, 2009) – a fabric
that was lustrous, brilliant and screamed
opulence and splendor. Silk Shantung is
thick enough to be worn during cold
weather, which was why it was so popular
in the colder countries of Europe (Tatum,
2003). It is heavy enough weigh down the
drapes of the A-line skirts, yet soft enough
to create a sheer, un-creasing texture
(Ibid.). ‘A number of factors have to be
taken into consideration; the suppleness or the ‘body’ of the stuff, the weight or the
thickness. The material is stretched out straight and on the cross12
; it is weighed,
stroked – for it must not scratched the skin…’ – Dior (Dior, 2007, p.71). Dior
appreciated the softness and lurid appearance of the fabric, even testing how fabrics
fell on the shoulder of the mannequin by constructing several toiles13
On the cross: cut on the bias of a fabric or garment, obliquely or diagonally across
Toile: an early version of a finished garment made up in cheap material so that the
design can be tested and perfected.
before making a
decision (Dior, 2007, p.73). He perceptively lined the jacket with cambric and taffeta
(Dior, 2007, p.23) – materials that stiffened, firmed and reinforced the structure of the
garment (Wilcox, 2009, p.60) without compromising on the luminous surface of the
Picture 5 -- V&A Publications, Detail
of the Bar suit, Photograph, Viewed
End of protectionist policies that restrict the importing of material
According to Dior, fabrics of high quality were particularly in short supply
during the war. ‘Silk fabrics where the yarn itself and not the woven14
been dyed… with any body to it’ was extremely problematic to discover, as more
affordable fabrics such as crêpe romain15
dominated the textile markets (Dior, 2007, p.24). Harsh tariff19
Dior’s use of opulent fabric also reflects the change in social divisions.
Previously, because of the effects of the great depression in the 1930s in France,
women of both social strata started wearing the same time of clothing (Chhaya, 2005).
During World War II, it was proposed by the German occupiers that the Parisian
levels had dampened
international trade between France and the rest of the world, and the textile and dress
industry was undoubtedly impacted. Couturiers had to source for materials within
national reach, which limited the availability of more luxurious materials.
After the end of the war, the GATT (General Agreement on Trades and
Tariffs) establishment was introduced in 1947 (Ibid.), liberating several countries,
including France, from trade barriers. Couturiers, such as Dior could not deal with a
number of merchants from outside the country, seeing an increase in the diversity of
rich fabrics within reach. ‘For it is when (the materials) arrive to see me – the silk
merchants, the wool merchants, the lace-makers, men of consequence imbued with
strong traditions, who come from all over the world, from Paris, London, Lyons,
Milan, and Zürich, bringing with them the wealth of the Low Countries and the
richness of the Orient… It is like receiving an embassy… like gifts being brought
from far-off countries by Eastern potentates’ – Dior (Dior, 2007, p.71). The texture of
Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit, featuring silk shantung along with Cambric and Taffeta, thus
expresses the end of protectionist policies that hampered the possibility of their
existence in French Couture.
Widened gap between the upper class and middle class
Woven: a fabric technique made by interlacing long threads passing in one
direction with others at a right angle to them
Crêpe romain: airy, mid-weight woolen fabric, grainy to the touch and produced
from fine single, sharp-twisted crepe yarn in Panama weave
Georgette: a sheer, lightweight, dull-finished crêpe fabric made of rayon or blends
Muslin: a loosely-woven cotton fabric
Jersey: a soft, fine knitted fabric that is often stretchy and made of wool and cotton
Tariff: a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports
couture business should be moved to the German capital of Berlin (Mendes, 1999,
p.106). Instead, through the protest of Lucian Lelong, head of the Chambre Syndicale
de la Couture at the time (Beevor, 2004, p.250-251), it was agreed that the industry
would remain in Paris, but was ordered to attend to a specific Franco-German
clientele that was consented by the Nazi. These clients were consisted of very wealthy
French women or the wives and mistresses of the German occupiers (Mendes, 1999,
p.106), resulting in a widened psychological distance between the middle and upper
social strata in the course of World War II.
Post-war, this social gap prevailed, and Dior targeted the upper class market
specifically, saying that he was ‘aiming principally at an established clientele of
experienced buyers and habitually elegant women.’ (Dior, 2007, p.28) Dior’s copious
use of costly fabrics led to skyrocketed prices, evidently in his ‘Bar’ suit model,
which was priced at 59,000 francs (V&A, 2008). Dior himself, made sure that the
prices of his garments were quantitatively representative of the caliber of his work,
completing detailed dossiers20
for each model, stating the ‘hours of work, cost done
by hand, taxes and the necessary amount of profit’ (Dior, 2007, p.99). The
extravagant cost of his textiles and price of the ‘Bar’ suit thus represents the widened
gap between the upper and middle class in France.
Dossier: A detailed document containing information on garment specifics, so that
fabrics can be ordered from particular sources when models are bought by clients
Picture 6 -- V&A Publications, Dossier of the Bar suit, Photograph,
In conclusion, based on the evidence provided it seems likely that Christian
Dior’s ‘Bar’ suit is a reflection of the socio-economic situation of France post-
World-War-II. In particular, the two elements, silhouette and texture, play critical
part in this indication.
The silhouette of the ‘Bar’ model, being hourglass, evokes femininity that in
turn demonstrates the change in the role of women in society post-war into more
domestic circumstances. Despite being hourglass, the silhouette is also relaxed and
non-restrictive, representing the retention of feminist attitudes caused by the role of
women during the war itself. Particularly, the shift of women’s roles in society
towards emancipation and the growing popularity of the lifestyle of the
workingwoman is reflected in this principle. Thirdly, Dior’s use of longer hemlines
gives the suit a silhouette of extravagance and voluptuousness, reflecting the end of
economic restrictions post-war.
In terms of texture, Dior’s use of silk shantung, cambric and taffeta in the
model ‘Bar’, exhibits his luxurious aesthetic, which in turn, reflects the end of
protectionist policies that restrict the importation of material, as well as the widened
gap between the upper-class and middle-class clientele in French society.
This investigation centers on silhouette and texture as indicators of the socio-
economic situation, as opposed to other elements such as color. This is because Dior
focused much of his attention on the fabrics and the silhouettes whilst designing his
models. ‘I have no wish to deprive fashion of the added allure and charm of color, but
I could perfectly well design a whole complete collection simply in black or white and
express all my ideas to my complete satisfaction.’ – Dior (Dior, 2007, p.70-71).
This essay also concentrates on the socio-economic factors present in France
as opposed to other countries. Further investigation into Dior’s other designs for
clients from other countries can be done as a future endeavor.
A) PERKINS, J., 1948. Dior. Life Magazine.
B) (BASYE, 2010) 1923, Chanel shows a suit. Nothing to see here, Photograph,
Viewed 24/04/12 <http://onthisdayinfashion.com/?p=3819>
C) Paul Poiret, 1913, Ensemble, Garment of ivory silk damask, ivory silk net, and
ivory China silk with rhinestone trim; ivory silk net with green and black silk gauze,
applied tape and rhinestone trim; green and black silk gauze headdress with strands of
rhinestones; ivory silk damask shoes, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Viewed 21/05/12 <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2005.193a-g>
D) (Left) Giovanni Boldini, 1896, Portrait de Madame G. Blumenthal, Oil on Canvas,
Musée d’Orsay, Paris, Viewed 21/05/12 <http://www.musee-
(Right) Giovanni Boldini, 1906, Portrait de Mrs. Howard Johnson, Oil on Canvas,
Viewed 21/05/12 <http://www.erasofelegance.com/arts/gallery/boldini/boldini.html>
E) Charles Frederick Worth, 1892, Evening Dress, garment of silk, crystal, metallic
threads, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Viewed 29/11/11
F) 1870, Dress from the Belle Époque era, Photograph, Viewed 29/11/11
G) Édition Réunies, 1943, The Zazous of the 1940s, Drawings, Paris, Viewed
H) (PISON, 2010) Population et sociétés, The Baby Boom
I) 1911, The Hobble Skirt, What’s that? It’s the speed-limit skirt!, Postcard, Viewed
J) 1916, Le travail des femmes (The work of women), Photographs, Viewed 21/05/12
K) A Ration Line during the War, Photograph, France, Viewed 27/04/12
L) Les scènes de femmes qui se battent en plein Paris et s’arrachent leurs vêtements
(Scenes of women who fight and tear clothes), Photograph, Paris, Viewed 21/05/12
M) (WTO, 1999) World Trade Organization, Average Tariff level and Trade volume
index against date of major establishments
BEEVOR, A., COOPER, A., 2004. PARIS After the Liberation 1944—1949
Revised Edition. Penguin Books.
CALLAN, G.O., 1998. The Thames and Hudson dictionary of fashion and
fashion designers. Thames & Hudson.
DARROW, M.H., 2000. French Women and the First World War: War
Stories of the Home Front (Legacy of the Great War). Berg Publishers.
DIOR, C., 2007. Dior by Dior, The autobiography of Christian Dior. V&A
FOGG, M., 2011. The Fashion Design Dictionary. Thames & Hudson.
JONES, S.J., 2011. Elements and Principles of Fashion Design. Laurence
MENDES, V., HAYLE, A. 20th
Century Fashion, Thames & Hudson.
PALMER, A., 2001. Couture and Commerce: The transatlantic Fashion
Trade in the 1950s, Vancouver: UBC Press; Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum
PALMER, A., 2009. Dior: a New Look, a New Enterprise (1945-57). V&A
POCHNA, M.F., 2005. Dior. Assouline.
RIELLO, G., McNEIL, P., 2010. The Fashion History Reader, Global
VEILLON, D., 2002. Fashion under the occupation. Berg Publishers.
WILCOX, C., 2009. The Golden Age of Couture: Paris and London 1947-
1957. V&A Publications.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, 1999. General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade. World Trade Organization.
PERKINS, J., 1948. Dior. Life Magazine.
PISON, G., 2010, The Baby Boom, Population et sociétés, Graph, Viewed
BASYE, A., 2010. Chanel shows a suit. Nothing to see here. Viewed 24/04/12
BARROW, M., 2010. When did World War II end? Viewed 29/05/11
CHAMPSAUR, F.B., 2004. French Fashion during the First World War.
CHHAYA, P., CRAMPON, H., GAUTHJER, A. and PACHON, L., 2004-
2005. La Haute Couture entre les deux guerres. (Haute couture between the
two wars). Viewed 26/04/12
DUDBRIDGE, S., 1950s – 1960s History of fashion. Viewed 29/11/11
HEILBRUN Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of
Art. Viewed 23/11/11
LAMBERT, T., 2001. 20th
Century women. Viewed 18/05/12
MONET, D., 2009-12. The Impacts of World War II on Fashion. Viewed
MENKES, S., 2010. Heritage Luxury: Past Becomes the Future. Viewed
SOZZANI, F., Woman’s suit. Viewed 22/11/11
SUNNI, 2011. A modern history of the A-line. Viewed 28/11/11
TATUM, M., 2003. What is Shantung? Viewed 30/11/11
V&A, 2008. The Golden Age of Couture Paris and London 1947 to 1957.
WILDE, R. Belle Époque era (“the beautiful age”). Viewed 29/11/11
1. See under ‘books’ (POCHNA, 2005)
2. Christian Dior, 1947 copied 1969, Bar Suit, Garment of silk and wool, Editing
using Adobe Photoshop Elements, The Metropolitan Museum of art, New
York, Viewed 28/11/11
3. Christian Dior, 1947, Close up of the shawl collar of the ‘Bar’ suit, Garment
of silk, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Viewed 21/05/12
4. Christian Dior, 1947, Close up of the ‘Bar’ suit skirt, Garment of wool, The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Viewed 21/05/12
5. V&A Publications, Detail of the Bar suit, Photograph, Viewed 20/05/12
6. V&A Publications, Dossier of the Bar suit, Photograph, Viewed 20/05/12
MORRIS, B., (2012, May 2). Personal interview.