Cellular cauan
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Cellular cauan

on

  • 788 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
788
Views on SlideShare
788
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Cellular cauan Cellular cauan Document Transcript

  • NATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Amafel Bldg. Aguinaldo Highway Dasmariñas City, Cavite ASSIGNMENT 1 CELLULAR TECHNOLOGYCauan, Sarah Krystelle P. October 03, 2011Communications 1/ BSECE 41A1 Score: Engr. Grace Ramones Instructor
  • CELLULAR NETWORKA cellular network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each servedby at least one fixed-location transceiver known as a cell site or base station. When joinedtogether these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables alarge number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicatewith each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, viabase stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cellduring transmission.Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions: increased capacity reduced power use larger coverage area reduced interference from other signalsAn example of a simple non-telephone cellular system is an old taxi drivers radio systemwhere the taxi company has several transmitters based around a city that can communicatedirectly with each taxi.CONCEPTIn a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided intoregular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregularshapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is assigned multiplefrequencies (f1 - f6) which have corresponding radio base stations. The group offrequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not reusedin adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference.
  • The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a singletransmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a differentarea for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only onetransmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably somelevel of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency.This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap betweencells which reuse the same frequency.In the simple case of the taxi company, each radio had a manually operated channelselector knob to tune to different frequencies. As the drivers moved around, they wouldchange from channel to channel. The drivers knew which frequency covered approximatelywhat area. When they did not receive a signal from the transmitter, they would try otherchannels until they found one that worked. The taxi drivers would only speak one at a time,when invited by the base station operator (in a sense TDMA).Directional antennasAlthough the original 2-way-radio cell towers were at the centers of the cells and wereomni-directional, a cellular map can be redrawn with the cellular telephone towers locatedat the corners of the hexagons where three cells converge. Each tower has three sets ofdirectional antennas aimed in three different directions with 120 degrees for each cell(totaling 360 degrees) and receiving/transmitting into three different cells at differentfrequencies. This provides a minimum of three channels (from three towers) for each cell.The numbers in the illustration are channel numbers, which repeat every 3 cells. Largecells can be subdivided into smaller cells for high volume areasBroadcast messages and pagingPractically every cellular system has some kind of broadcast mechanism. This can be useddirectly for distributing information to multiple mobiles, commonly, for example in mobiletelephony systems, the most important use of broadcast information is to set up channelsfor one to one communication between the mobile transceiver and the base station. This iscalled paging.The details of the process of paging vary somewhat from network to network, but normallywe know a limited number of cells where the phone is located (this group of cells is called aLocation Area in the GSM or UMTS system, or Routing Area if a data packet session isinvolved). Paging takes place by sending the broadcast message to all of those cells. Pagingmessages can be used for information transfer. This happens in pagers, in CDMA systemsfor sending SMS messages, and in the UMTS system where it allows for low downlinklatency in packet-based connections.Movement from cell to cell and handover
  • In a primitive taxi system, when the taxi moved away from a first tower and closer to asecond tower, the taxi driver manually switched from one frequency to another as needed.If a communication was interrupted due to a loss of a signal, the taxi driver asked the basestation operator to repeat the message on a different frequency.In a cellular system, as the distributed mobile transceivers move from cell to cell during anongoing continuous communication, switching from one cell frequency to a different cellfrequency is done electronically without interruption and without a base station operatoror manual switching. This is called the handover or handoff. Typically, a new channel isautomatically selected for the mobile unit on the new base station which will serve it. Themobile unit then automatically switches from the current channel to the new channel andcommunication continues.The exact details of the mobile systems move from one base station to the other variesconsiderably from system to system (see the example below for how a mobile phonenetwork manages handover).Example of a cellular network: the mobile phone networkThe most common example of a cellular network is a mobile phone (cell phone) network. Amobile phone is a portable telephone which receives or makes calls through a cell site(base station), or transmitting tower. Radio waves are used to transfer signals to and fromthe cell phone.Modern mobile phone networks use cells because radio frequencies are a limited, sharedresource. Cell-sites and handsets change frequency under computer control and use lowpower transmitters so that a limited number of radio frequencies can be simultaneouslyused by many callers with less interference.A cellular network is used by the mobile phone operator to achieve both coverage andcapacity for their subscribers. Large geographic areas are split into smaller cells to avoidline-of-sight signal loss and to support a large number of active phones in that area. All ofthe cell sites are connected to telephone exchanges (or switches) , which in turn connect tothe public telephone network.In cities, each cell site may have a range of up to approximately ½ mile, while in rural areas,the range could be as much as 5 miles. It is possible that in clear open areas, a user mayreceive signals from a cell site 25 miles away.Since almost all mobile phones use cellular technology, including GSM, CDMA, and AMPS(analog), the term "cell phone" is in some regions, notably the US, used interchangeablywith "mobile phone". However, satellite phones are mobile phones that do notcommunicate directly with a ground-based cellular tower, but may do so indirectly by wayof a satellite.
  • There are a number of different digital cellular technologies, including: Global System forMobile Communications (GSM), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Code DivisionMultiple Access (CDMA), Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Enhanced Data Rates for GSMEvolution (EDGE), 3GSM, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), DigitalAMPS (IS-136/TDMA), and Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN).Structure of the mobile phone cellular networkA simple view of the cellular mobile-radio network consists of the following: A network of Radio base stations forming the Base station subsystem. The core circuit switched network for handling voice calls and text A packet switched network for handling mobile data The Public switched telephone network to connect subscribers to the wider telephony networkThis network is the foundation of the GSM system network. There are many functions thatare performed by this network in order to make sure customers get the desired serviceincluding mobility management, registration, call set up, and handover.Any phone connects to the network via an RBS (Radio Base Station) at a corner of thecorresponding cell which in turn connects to the Mobile switching center (MSC). The MSCprovides a connection to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The link from aphone to the RBS is called an uplink while the other way is termed downlink.Radio channels effectively use the transmission medium through the use of the followingmultiplexing schemes: frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM),code division multiplex (CDM), and space division multiplex (SDM). Corresponding tothese multiplexing schemes are the following access techniques: frequency divisionmultiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA), code division multipleaccess (CDMA), and space division multiple access (SDMA).Cellular handover in mobile phone networksAs the phone user moves from one cell area to another cell whilst a call is in progress, themobile station will search for a new channel to attach to in order not to drop the call. Oncea new channel is found, the network will command the mobile unit to switch to the newchannel and at the same time switch the call onto the new channel.With CDMA, multiple CDMA handsets share a specific radio channel. The signals areseparated by using a pseudonoise code (PN code) specific to each phone. As the user movesfrom one cell to another, the handset sets up radio links with multiple cell sites (or sectorsof the same site) simultaneously. This is known as "soft handoff" because, unlike withtraditional cellular technology, there is no one defined point where the phone switches tothe new cell.
  • In IS-95 inter-frequency handovers and older analog systems such as NMT it will typicallybe impossible to test the target channel directly while communicating. In this case othertechniques have to be used such as pilot beacons in IS-95. This means that there is almostalways a brief break in the communication while searching for the new channel followed bythe risk of an unexpected return to the old channel.If there is no ongoing communication or the communication can be interrupted, it ispossible for the mobile unit to spontaneously move from one cell to another and thennotify the base station with the strongest signal.Cellular frequency choice in mobile phone networksThe effect of frequency on cell coverage means that different frequencies serve better fordifferent uses. Low frequencies, such as 450 MHz NMT, serve very well for countrysidecoverage. GSM 900 (900 MHz) is a suitable solution for light urban coverage. GSM 1800(1.8 GHz) starts to be limited by structural walls. UMTS, at 2.1 GHz is quite similar incoverage to GSM 1800.Higher frequencies are a disadvantage when it comes to coverage, but it is a decidedadvantage when it comes to capacity. Pico cells, covering e.g. one floor of a building,become possible, and the same frequency can be used for cells which are practicallyneighbours.Cell service area may also vary due to interference from transmitting systems, both withinand around that cell. This is true especially in CDMA based systems. The receiver requires acertain signal-to-noise ratio. As the receiver moves away from the transmitter, the powertransmitted is reduced. As the interference (noise) rises above the received power from thetransmitter, and the power of the transmitter cannot be increased any more, the signalbecomes corrupted and eventually unusable. In CDMA-based systems, the effect ofinterference from other mobile transmitters in the same cell on coverage area is verymarked and has a special name, cell breathing.One can see examples of cell coverage by studying some of the coverage maps provided byreal operators on their web sites. In certain cases they may mark the site of the transmitter,in others it can be calculated by working out the point of strongest coverage.Coverage comparison of different frequencies
  • CELL SIGNAL ENCODINGTo distinguish signals from several different transmitters, frequency division multipleaccess (FDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) were developed.With FDMA, the transmitting and receiving frequencies used in each cell are different fromthe frequencies used in each neighbouring cell. In a simple taxi system, the taxi drivermanually tuned to a frequency of a chosen cell to obtain a strong signal and to avoidinterference from signals from other cells.The principle of CDMA is more complex, but achieves the same result; the distributedtransceivers can select one cell and listen to it.Other available methods of multiplexing such as polarization division multiple access(PDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) cannot be used to separate signals fromone cell to the next since the effects of both vary with position and this would make signalseparation practically impossible. Time division multiple access, however, is used incombination with either FDMA or CDMA in a number of systems to give multiple channelswithin the coverage area of a single cell.
  • MULTIPLE ACCESSMultiple Access refers on how the subscriber are allocated to the assigned frequencyspectrum.Frequency reuseThe increased capacity in a cellular network, comparing to a network with a singletransmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a differentarea for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only onetransmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably somelevel of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency.This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap betweencells which reuse the same frequency.The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in thenetwork. It is 1/n where n is the number of cells which cannot use a frequency fortransmission.Code division multiple access based systems use a wider frequency band to achieve thesame rate of transmission as FDMA, but this is compensated for by the ability to use afrequency reuse factor of 1. In other words, every cell uses the same frequency and thedifferent systems are separated by codes rather than frequencies.Depending on the size of the city, a taxi system may not have any frequency reuse in itsown city, but certainly in other nearby cities, the same frequency can be used. In a big city,on the other hand, frequency reuse could certainly be in use.Frequency Division Multiple Access or FDMA is a channel access method used in multiple-access protocols as a channelization protocol. FDMA gives users an individual allocation ofone or several frequency bands, or channels. It is particularly commonplace in satellitecommunication. FDMA, like other Multiple Access systems, coordinates access betweenmultiple users. Alternatives include TDMA, CDMA, or SDMA. These protocols are utilizeddifferently, at different levels of the theoreticalOSI model.Disadvantage: Crosstalk may cause interference among frequencies and disrupt thetransmission. In FDMA all users share the satellite simultaneously but each user transmits at single frequency. FDMA can be used with both analog and digital signal.
  •  FDMA requires high-performing filters in the radio hardware, in contrast to TDMA and CDMA. FDMA is not vulnerable to the timing problems that TDMA has. Since a predetermined frequency band is available for the entire period of communication, stream data (a continuous flow of data that may not be packetized) can easily be used with FDMA. Due to the frequency filtering, FDMA is not sensitive to near-far problem which is pronounced for CDMA. Each user transmits and receives at different frequencies as each user gets a unique frequency slotFDMA is distinct from frequency division duplexing (FDD). While FDMA allows multipleusers simultaneous access to a transmission system, FDD refers to how the radio channel isshared between the uplink and downlink (for instance, the traffic going back and forthbetween a mobile-phone and a mobile phone base station). Frequency-divisionmultiplexing (FDM) is also distinct from FDMA. FDM is a physical layer technique thatcombines and transmits low-bandwidth channels through a high-bandwidth channel.FDMA, on the other hand, is an access method in the data link layer.FDMA also supports demand assignment in addition to fixed assignment. Demandassignment allows all users apparently continuous access of the radio spectrum byassigning carrier frequencies on a temporary basis using a statistical assignment process.The first FDMA demand-assignment system for satellite was developed byCOMSAT for useon the Intelsat series IVA and V satellites.There are two main techniques: Multi-channel per-carrier (MCPC) Single-channel per-carrier (SCPC)
  • Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared mediumnetworks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing thesignal into different time slots. The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other,each using its own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmissionmedium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel capacity.TDMA is used in the digital 2G cellular systems such as Global System for MobileCommunications (GSM), IS-136, Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) and iDEN, and in the DigitalEnhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard for portable phones. It is alsoused extensively in satellite systems, combat-net radio systems, and PON networks forupstream traffic from premises to the operator. For usage of Dynamic TDMA packet modecommunication.TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing, with the special point that instead of havingone transmitter connected to one receiver, there are multiple transmitters. In the case ofthe uplink from a mobile phone to abase station this becomes particularly difficult becausethe mobile phone can move around and vary the timing advance required to make itstransmission match the gap in transmission from its peers.TDMA in 2G systemsMost 2G cellular systems, with the notable exception of IS-95, are based on TDMA. GSM, D-AMPS, PDC, iDEN, and PHS are examples of TDMA cellular systems. GSM combines TDMAwith Frequency Hopping and wideband transmission to minimize common types ofinterference.In the GSM system, the synchronization of the mobile phones is achieved by sending timingadvance commands from the base station which instructs the mobile phone to transmitearlier and by how much. This compensates for the propagation delay resulting from thelight speed velocity of radio waves. The mobile phone is not allowed to transmit for itsentire time slot, but there is a guard interval at the end of each time slot. As thetransmission moves into the guard period, the mobile network adjusts the timing advanceto synchronize the transmission.Initial synchronization of a phone requires even more care. Before a mobile transmits thereis no way to actually know the offset required. For this reason, an entire time slot has to bededicated to mobiles attempting to contact the network (known as the RACH in GSM). Themobile attempts to broadcast at the beginning of the time slot, as received from thenetwork. If the mobile is located next to the base station, there will be no time delay andthis will succeed. If, however, the mobile phone is at just less than 35 km from the basestation, the time delay will mean the mobiles broadcast arrives at the very end of the timeslot. In that case, the mobile will be instructed to broadcast its messages starting nearly awhole time slot earlier than would be expected otherwise. Finally, if the mobile is beyondthe 35 km cell range in GSM, then the RACH will arrive in a neighbouring time slot and be
  • ignored. It is this feature, rather than limitations of power, that limits the range of a GSMcell to 35 km when no special extension techniques are used. By changing thesynchronization between the uplink and downlink at the base station, however, thislimitation can be overcome.Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radiocommunication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phonestandards called cdmaOne, CDMA2000 (the 3G evolution of cdmaOne) and WCDMA (the 3Gstandard used by GSM carriers), which are often referred to as simply CDMA, and useCDMA as an underlying channel access method.One of the basic concepts in data communication is the idea of allowing severaltransmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel.This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). This concept iscalled multiple access. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special codingscheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to bemultiplexed over the same physical channel. By contrast, time division multipleaccess (TDMA) divides access bytime, while frequency-division multiple access (FDMA)divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signalling, since the modulatedcoded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated.An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room (channel) in which people wish totalk to each other simultaneously. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking(time division), speak at different pitches (frequency division), or speak in differentlanguages (code division). CDMA is analogous to the last example where people speakingthe same language can understand each other, but other languages are perceivedas noise and rejected. Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code.Many codes occupy the same channel, but only users associated with a particular code cancommunicate. The technology of code division multiple access channels has long beenknown. In the USSR, the first work devoted to this subject was published in 1935 byprofessor D.V. Aggeev in the "CDMA". It was shown that through the use of linear methods,there are three types of signal separation: frequency, time and compensatory. Thetechnology of CDMA was used in 1957, when the young military radio engineer LeonidKupriyanovich in Moscow, made an experimental model of a wearable automatic mobilephone, called LK-1 by him, with a base station. LK-1 has a weight of 3 kg, 20-30 kmoperating distance, and 20-30 hours of battery life ("Nauka i zhizn", 8, 1957, p. 49, "Yuniytechnik", 7, 1957, p. 43-44). The base station, as described by the author, could serveseveral customers. In 1958, Kupriyanovich made the new experimental "pocket" model ofmobile phone. This phone weighs 0,5 kg. To serve more customers, Kupriyanovichproposed the device, named by him as correllator. ("Nauka i zhizn", 10, 1958, p.66,"Technika-molodezhi", 2, 1959, 18-19) In 1958, the USSR also started the development ofthe "Altay" national civil mobile phone service for cars, based on the Soviet MRT-1327standard. The main developers of the Altay system were VNIIS (Voronezh Science Research
  • Institute of Communications)and GSPI (State Specialized Project Institute). In 1963 thisservice started in Moscow and in 1970 Altay service was used in 30 USSR cities.Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is a channel access method based on creatingparallel spatial pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/ordiversity, by which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple accesscommunication systems. In traditional mobile cellular network systems, the basestation has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiatesthe signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio coverage. This results inwasting power on transmissions when there are no mobile units to reach, in addition tocausing interference for adjacent cells using the same frequency, so calledco-channel cells.Likewise, in reception, the antenna receives signals coming from all directions includingnoise and interference signals. By using smart antenna technology and differing spatiallocations of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access techniques offerattractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of the base station, both intransmission and reception, is adapted to each user to obtain highest gain in the directionof that user. This is often done using phased arraytechniques.In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the mobile phones position by use ofa technique called "timing advance" (TA). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) candetermine how distant the Mobile Station (MS) is by interpreting the reported TA. Thisinformation, along with other parameters, can then be used to power down the BTS or MS,if a power control feature is implemented in the network. The power control in either BTSor MS is implemented in most modern networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures abetter battery life for the MS and thus a better user experience (in that the need to chargethe battery becomes less frequent). This is why it may actually be safer to have a BTS closeto you as your MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is morepower being transmitted from the MS than what you would receive from the BTS even ifyou are 6 m away from a mast. However, this estimation might not consider all the MSsthat a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation at any given time.
  • HISTORYRadiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessendens inventionand shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War withmilitary use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s.The first mobile telephone call made from a car occurred in St. Louis, Missouri, USA on June17, 1946, using the Bell Systems Mobile Telephone Service. The equipment weighed 80pounds (36 kg), and the AT&T service, basically a massive party line, cost US$30 per month(equal to $337.33 today) plus 30–40 cents per local call, equal to $3.37 to $4.5 today.In 1956, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), waslaunched in Sweden. MTA phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays, and had aweight of 40 kg. In 1962, a more modern version called Mobile System B (MTB) waslaunched, which was a push-button telephone, and which used transistors to enhance thetelephone’s calling capacity and improve its operational reliability, thereby reducing theweight of the apparatus to 10 kg. In 1971, the MTD version was launched, opening forseveral different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success.Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to be the inventor of thefirst practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting, after a long raceagainst Bell Labs for the first portable mobile phone. Using a modern, if somewhat heavyportable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G) was launched in Japan by NTTin 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. Within five years, the NTT network had
  • been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nationwide 1Gnetwork. In 1981, this was followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic MobileTelephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. NMT was the firstmobile phone network featuring international roaming. The first 1G network launched inthe USA was Chicago-based Ameritech in 1983 using the Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone.Several countries then followed in the early-to-mid 1980s including the UK, Mexico andCanada.The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellulartechnology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on theGSM standard, which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms whenRadiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1GNMT network.In 2001, the launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on theWCDMA standard.[One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink PacketAccess (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communicationsprotocol in the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G,which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) tohave higher data transfer speeds and capacity.A mobile phone allows calls into the public switched telephone system over a radio link.Early mobile phones were usually bulky and permanently installed in vehicles; theyprovided limited service because only a few frequencies were available for a geographicarea. Modern cellular "cell" phones or hand phones make use of the cellular networkconcept, where frequencies are re-used repeatedly within a city area, allowing many moreusers to share access to the radio bandwidth. A mobile phone allows calls to be placed overa wide geographic area; generally the user is a subscriber to the phone service and does notown the base station. By contrast, a cordless telephone is used only within the range of asingle, private base station.A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephonenetwork which includes other mobiles and fixed-line phones across the world. It does thisby connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator.In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support a wide variety of otherservices such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wirelesscommunications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming and photography.Mobile phones that offer these more general computing capabilities are referred to assmartphones.The first hand-held mobile phone was demonstrated by Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in1973, using a handset weighing 2 1/2 lbs (about 1 kg) In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was
  • the first to be commercially available. In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwidemobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion, penetrating thedeveloping economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid.1G1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobiletelecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that wereintroduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digitaltelecommunications. The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephonesystems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2Gnetworks are digital.Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to thehandsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded todigital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHzand up.One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries,Switzerland, Netherlands, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (AdvancedMobile Phone System) used in the North America and Australia,[1] TACS (Total AccessCommunications System) in the United Kingdom, C-450 in West Germany, Portugal andSouth Africa, Radiocom 2000[2] in France, and RTMI in Italy. In Japan there were multiplesystems. Three standards, TZ-801, TZ-802, and TZ-803 were developed by NTT, while acompeting system operated by DDI used the JTACS (Japan Total Access CommunicationsSystem) standard.Antecedent to 1G technology is the mobile radio telephone, or 0G.
  • 2G2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Secondgeneration 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standardin Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2Gnetworks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted;2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greatermobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting withSMS text messages.After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectivelydubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networksare digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen tothe handsets) to the rest of the telephone system.2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G; however,2G networks are still used in many parts of the world.3G3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobilephones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International MobileTelecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the InternationalTelecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voicetelephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least200 kbit/s. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobilebroadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptopcomputers.
  • The following standards are typically branded 3G: the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure: o The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA. o The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China. o The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink. the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radiotransmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phonesand Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and areapproved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based oncompletely different technologies.A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982. Each generation is characterized by newfrequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmissiontechnology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does notcompletely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. First release LTE is notbackwards compatible with 3G, but is a pre-4G or 3.9G technology, however sometimesbranded "4G" by the service providers. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology.WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G.4GIn telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is asuccessor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2009, the ITU-R organization specifiedthe IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high
  • mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobilitycommunication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).[1]A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobilebroadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems, smartphones, and other mobiledevices. Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services,and streamed multimedia may be provided to users.4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release Long term evolution (LTE) havebeen on the market since 2006[2] and 2009[3][4][5] respectively. The ITU announced inDecember 2010 that WiMax, LTE, and HSPA+ are 4G technologies.[6]IMT-Advanced compliant versions of the above two standards are under development andcalled “LTE Advanced” and “WirelessMAN-Advanced” respectively. ITU has decided that“LTE Advanced” and “WirelessMAN-Advanced” should be accorded the official designationof IMT-Advanced. On December 6, 2010, ITU announced that current versions of LTE,WiMax and other evolved 3G technologies that do not fulfill "IMT-Advanced" requirementscould be considered "4G", provided they represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced and "asubstantial level of improvement in performance and capabilities with respect to the initialthird generation systems now deployed.