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### Am5

1. 1. NATIONAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Amafel Bldg. Aguinaldo Highway Dasmariñas City, Cavite Assignment # 2 AMPLITUDE MODULATION (Types of Amplitude Modulation) (Power in Amplitude Modulation) (Modulation Index)Alido, Ronald June 29,2011Communications 1 / BSECE 41A1 Score: Engr. Grace Ramones Instructor
2. 2. Amplitude ModulationVarying the voltage of a carrier or a direct current in order to transmit analog or digitaldata. Amplitude modulation (AM) is the oldest method of transmitting human voiceelectronically. In an analog telephone conversation, the voice waves on both sides aremodulating the voltage of the direct current loop connected to them by the telephonecompany.Modulate a CarrierAmplitude modulation (AM) is also widely used to alter a carrier wave to transmit data.For example, in AM radio, the voltage (amplitude) of a carrier with a fixed centerfrequency (the stations channel) is varied (modulated) by the analog audio signal.AM is also used for digital data. In quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), bothamplitude and phase modulation are used to create different binary states fortransmission (see QAM). AM is also used to modulate light waves in optical fibers.In AM modulation, the voltage (amplitude) of the carrier is varied by the incoming signal.In this example, the modulating wave implies an analog signal. Digital Amplitude Vary the Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)For digital signals, amplitude shift keying (ASK) uses two voltage levels for 0 and 1 as inthis example.
3. 3. Types of amplitude modulationIn radio communication, a continuous wave radio-frequency signal (a sinusoidal carrierwave) has its amplitude modulated by an audio waveform before being transmitted.In the frequency domain, amplitude modulation produces a signal with powerconcentrated at the carrier frequency and in two adjacent sidebands. Each sideband isequal in bandwidth to that of the modulating signal and is a mirror image of the other.Amplitude modulation that results in two sidebands and a carrier is often called double-sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM). Amplitude modulation is inefficient in termsof power usage. At least two-thirds of the power is concentrated in the carrier signal,which carries no useful information (beyond the fact that a signal is present).To increase transmitter efficiency, the carrier can be removed (suppressed) from theAM signal. This produces a reduced-carrier transmission or double-sidebandsuppressed-carrier (DSBSC) signal. A suppressed-carrier amplitude modulationscheme is three times more power-efficient than traditional DSB-AM. If the carrier isonly partially suppressed, a double-sideband reduced-carrier (DSBRC) signal results.DSBSC and DSBRC signals need their carrier to be regenerated (by a beat frequencyoscillator, for instance) to be demodulated using conventional techniques.Improved bandwidth efficiency is achieved—at the expense of increased transmitter andreceiver complexity—by completely suppressing both the carrier and one of thesidebands. This is single-sideband modulation, widely used in amateur radio due to itsefficient use of both power and bandwidth.A simple form of AM often used for digital communications is on-off keying, a type ofamplitude-shift keying by which binary data is represented as the presence or absenceof a carrier wave. This is commonly used at radio frequencies to transmit Morse code,referred to as continuous wave (CW) operation.ITU designationsIn 1982, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designated the various typesof amplitude modulation as follows:Designation DescriptionA3E double-sideband full-carrier - the basic AM modulation schemeR3E single-sideband reduced-carrierH3E single-sideband full-carrierJ3E single-sideband suppressed-carrierB8E independent-sideband emissionC3F vestigial-sidebandLincompex linked compressor and expander
4. 4. Power in Amplitude Modulationo The envelope, or boundary, of the amplitude modulated signal embeds the information bearing signal.o The total power of the transmitted signal varies with the modulating signal, whereas the carrier power remains constant.o The total wave power which varies in amplitude, and not the carrier power. The carrier power in an amplitude modulated system remains constant.
5. 5. Modulation indexIt can be defined as the measure of extent of amplitude variation about an unmodulatedmaximum carrier. As with other modulation indices, in AM, this quantity, also calledmodulation depth, indicates by how much the modulated variable varies around itsoriginal level. For AM, it relates to the variations in the carrier amplitude and is definedas: where and were introduced above.So if h = 0.5, the carrier amplitude varies by 50% above and below its unmodulatedlevel, and for h = 1.0 it varies by 100%. To avoid distortion in the A3E transmissionmode, modulation depth greater than 100% must be avoided. Practical transmittersystems will usually incorporate some kind of limiter circuit, such as a VOGAD, toensure this. However, AM demodulators can be designed to detect the inversion (or 180degree phase reversal) that occurs when modulation exceeds 100% and automaticallycorrect for this effect.[citation needed]Variations of modulated signal with percentage modulation are shown below. In eachimage, the maximum amplitude is higher than in the previous image. Note that the scalechanges from one image to the next.