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WHOSE LIVES ARE                          IMPORTANT? Disasters                A Media Analysis of the 2010 Haiti & Pakistan...
AGENDA                      •        Motivations                      •        Focus                      •        Backgro...
MOTIVATIONS         •      Summer 2010         •      Recognized a difference                in media attention         • ...
FOCUS                •      Media in the service of reporting on international crises                •      Case between t...
BACKGROUND               Haiti earthquake                           Pakistan flood                  •      January 12, 2010...
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK               Agenda-Setting               The media tells us not what to think, but what to think a...
RELEVANT RESEARCH                   • Media portrayals of foreign nations tend to be stereotypical                        ...
RELEVANT RESEARCH Con’tWednesday, September 7, 2011
RESEARCH QUESTIONS                  • How did the media portray the Haiti and Pakistan crises?                  • What jud...
METHODOLOGY               Data Collection:                  • Data source - The Globe and Mail                  • 20 newsp...
METHODOLOGY Con’t        Data Analysis:        • Norman Fairclough’s principles for Critical Discourse Analysis        • C...
FINDINGS             • Approx. 1 flood story for every 4 earthquake stories, supporting                   the agenda-setti...
FINDINGS Con’t                 • Canada was portrayed as a heroic nation during the Haiti                      recovery mi...
FINDINGS Con’t                     Additional Factors:                    • Celebrity endorsements                    • Ge...
CONCLUSION           Larger socio-political ideologies, specifically Canadas paternalistic and           discriminatory id...
LIMITATIONS                • Scope                • Timeframe                • Personal ideologiesWednesday, September 7, ...
FUTURE RESEARCH             •     Increase the scope of data             •     Visual discourse analysis             •    ...
CONTACT INFORMATION               primary email: sarah.hughes19@gmail.com               secondary email: sarah.hughes@ryer...
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Hughes MRP presentation

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  1. 1. WHOSE LIVES ARE IMPORTANT? Disasters A Media Analysis of the 2010 Haiti & Pakistan Sarah Hughes Master of Professional Communication Haiti, 2010 Pakistan, 2010Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  2. 2. AGENDA • Motivations • Focus • Background • Theoretical Orientation • Research Haiti, 2010 • Methodology • Findings • Conclusion • Limitations • Future Research Pakistan, 2010 • QuestionsWednesday, September 7, 2011
  3. 3. MOTIVATIONS • Summer 2010 • Recognized a difference in media attention • Human rights issue Haiti, 2010Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  4. 4. FOCUS • Media in the service of reporting on international crises • Case between the 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan flood • Textual analysis of a major Canadian newspaper (Globe & Mail) • Ideological position • Identify instances of ideological discourse to reveal how these are part of a larger social structureWednesday, September 7, 2011
  5. 5. BACKGROUND Haiti earthquake Pakistan flood • January 12, 2010 • July 26, 2010 • Measuring 7.0 on richter scale • Flood following monsoon rain • Affected: approx. 3 million • Affected: approx. 20 million • Loss of life: approx. 230,000 • Loss of life: approx.1,400 • $3.3 billion • $1.6 billion • $587 million (private • $1 million (private donations donations after 19 days) after one month) • Media: 3,000 print • Media: 730 print 3,000 broadcast 320 broadcast (by day 10) (by day 10)Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  6. 6. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Agenda-Setting The media tells us not what to think, but what to think about Media Framing The visual and verbal material of a story can influence the way an audience interprets an issue or event Critical Cultural Theory The media enables the upper class to influence and control society by the messages they choose to convey Critical Race Theory Investigates the relationship between white supremacy and racial powerWednesday, September 7, 2011
  7. 7. RELEVANT RESEARCH • Media portrayals of foreign nations tend to be stereotypical and focus on a limited number of stories that support the audiences perceptions of certain countries (Besova & Colley, 2009). • Scholars argue that larger social structures influenced the communications response to victims of Hurricane Katrina (Elliot & Pais, 2006). • Researcher has found that there is no correlation between the number of casualties of natural disasters and their media attention. Rather, research demonstrates that there are other contributing factors to how the media prioritizes its coverage of international events, which include media and public ideologies, the popularity of the country (tourist destination) and proximity (Adams, 1986).Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  8. 8. RELEVANT RESEARCH Con’tWednesday, September 7, 2011
  9. 9. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How did the media portray the Haiti and Pakistan crises? • What judgments did the media make about the crises? • Was agenda-setting a factor in the case of the Haiti and Pakistan disasters? • What underlying ideologies does the media reveal about our larger social structures? • How did these ideologies impact the publics response to the 2010 Haiti and Pakistan disasters?Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY Data Collection: • Data source - The Globe and Mail • 20 newspaper articles and editorials • (10 Haiti & 10 Pakistan) • Globe and Mail archiveWednesday, September 7, 2011
  11. 11. METHODOLOGY Con’t Data Analysis: • Norman Fairclough’s principles for Critical Discourse Analysis • Communication influences and is influenced by social institutions and structures of power (Fairclough, 2001) • Analyzed the expressive values in texts (judgments and evaluations made by the media) • Incorporated Hodge & Kresss Syntagmatic model, specifically relating to relationals and attributives • Seven themes provided a system of organization in my research. These themes included, destruction, victims, relief/ aid, crisis, security, Canada, and Haiti or PakistanWednesday, September 7, 2011
  12. 12. FINDINGS • Approx. 1 flood story for every 4 earthquake stories, supporting the agenda-setting theory • Two predominant themes: • Paternal rational for assisting Haiti • Lack of agency for Haitian victims • Media portrayed the earthquake as far more severe than the flood • The media focused on both the severe destruction as well as the political and social challenges the country faced prior to the earthquake • The general framing of Pakistan was as war-torn and political unstable nationWednesday, September 7, 2011
  13. 13. FINDINGS Con’t • Canada was portrayed as a heroic nation during the Haiti recovery mission • The media appeared to portray helping Haiti as Canadas patriotic responsibility • Colonization was portrayed as an acceptable means for recovery in Haiti • The media often conveyed a west-knows-best ideology in terms of its social, political and cultural ideals and behavioursWednesday, September 7, 2011
  14. 14. FINDINGS Con’t Additional Factors: • Celebrity endorsements • Geographical proximity • Media trends in natural disasters • Donor fatigueWednesday, September 7, 2011
  15. 15. CONCLUSION Larger socio-political ideologies, specifically Canadas paternalistic and discriminatory ideologies, may have affected the medias response and the publics understanding of the earthquake and flood. My investigation revealed that agenda-setting did in fact play a critical role in influencing the tremendous difference in humanitarian support between the Haiti and Pakistan disasters. The awareness of the flood was limited while the well- publicized crisis in Haiti enabled greater public awareness to motivated donor behaviour.Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  16. 16. LIMITATIONS • Scope • Timeframe • Personal ideologiesWednesday, September 7, 2011
  17. 17. FUTURE RESEARCH • Increase the scope of data • Visual discourse analysis • Primary data collection • Interviews (evaluate audience impact and perceptions)Wednesday, September 7, 2011
  18. 18. CONTACT INFORMATION primary email: sarah.hughes19@gmail.com secondary email: sarah.hughes@ryerson.ca SlideShare: sarahkhughes linkedin: Sarah Hughes facebook: Sarah K Hughes twitter: sarahkhughes delicious: sarahkhughesWednesday, September 7, 2011

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