• Father of Modern Politics
• Born in Florence, Italy
• « Machiavellian » is often used to
describe cunning and manipulative
• Discourses, 1531
• Chinese General (6th Century BC)
• The Art of War
When enemy advances, we
When enemy halts, we harass!
When enemy seeks to avoid
battle, we attack!
When the enemy retreats, we
Why Study Management theory?
• Provide a stable focus for
understanding what we experience.
• Enable us to communicate efficiently
and thus move into more and more
complex relationships with other
• Theories make it possible to keep
learning about our world.
Evolution of Management Theory
• Scientific Management
• Classical Organization Theory
• Behavioral School
• Management Science
4 Principles Of Scientific Management
• The development of true science of
management, so that the best
method for performing each task
could be determined.
• The scientific selection of workers,
so that each worker would be given
responsibility for the task which he
or she was best suited.
• The scientific education and
development of the worker.
• Intimate, friendly cooperation
between management and labor.
Henry L. Gantt
• Associate of Frederick Taylor
• His main focus was to apply
scientific analysis to all facets of
the work being done as a means
of increasing productivity.
• Gantt Chart and the task and
• Founder of Classical management
• Fayol was interested in the total
organization and focused on
Principles of Management by Fayol
• Division of work
• Unity of Command
• Unity of direction
• Subordination of individual interest
• The hierarchy
• Stability of Staff
• Esprit de Corps
Division of work
• The most people specialize, the more
efficient they can perform to work.
• Manager must have the authority
to give orders, but they must also
keep in mind that with authority
• Members need to respect the rules
and agreements that govern the
Unity of Command
• Each employee must receive
instruction from only one person.
Unity in direction
• Those operations within the
organization that have the same
objective should be directed by
only one manager using one plan.
Subordination of Individual interest
to the Common Interest
• In any undertaking, the interest of
the employees should not take
precedence over the interest of the
organization as a whole.
• Compensation for work done
should be fair to both employees
• This principle refers to how close
employees are to the decision-
making process. It is important to
aim the approciate balance.
• The line of authority in an
organization runs in order of rank
from top management to the
lowest level of the enterprise.
• The workplace facilities must be
clean, tidy and safe for employees.
Everything should be in its place.
• Manager should be both friendly
and fair to their subordinates.
Stability of Staff
• The managers should strive to
minimize employee turnover.
Personnel planning should be
• Subordinates should be given the
freedom to conceive and carry out
Esprit de corps
• Promoting team spirit will give the
organization a sense of unity.
Max Weber (Germany)
Ideal type of organization
charaterized by division of labor, a
clearly defined hierarchy, detailed
rules and regulations, and impersonal
« A well-defined formal hierarchy
of command »
« Management by rules and regulation
provides a set of standard operating
procedures that facilitates consistency in
both organization and management
Mary Parker Follet
• People Oriented
• Group Network Management
• Participative Leadership
Involves managers and employees
working together towards common
goals like decision-making and
Group Network Management
• Groups of people within the
organization with equal power over
• Acceptance theory of authority.
– A manager’s authority rests on worker’s
acceptance of his right to give orders
and to expect compliance.
• Individual workers form informal
social groups that become informal
• It is the personal contacts and
interactions between workers that
form into small groups.