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Matter

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Year 9 Matter - For additional resources visit: http://www.iheartscience.net

Year 9 Matter - For additional resources visit: http://www.iheartscience.net

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  • 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neon Matter Sarah Jones
  • 2. Atoms All substances are made of ATOMS. Water – hydrogen and oxygen atoms Plastic – carbon and hydrogen atoms Plants – carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms
  • 3. Elements • There are about 100 substances that are made up of just one type of atom. • These are elements. Helium Carbon Copper
  • 4. Symbols for Elements H – Hydrogen C – Carbon F – Fluorine O – Oxygen N – Nitrogen I – Iodine Li – Lithium Al – Aluminium He – Helium Pb – Lead Au – Gold Ag - Silver
  • 5. www.ducksters.com
  • 6. Molecules • In some elements, the atoms are joined in groups of two or more – this is called a molecule. O2 Other elements that contain atoms joined in molecules are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and bromine.
  • 7. Compounds • A compound is the substance produced when two or more elements combine in a chemical reaction – they are also molecules. H2O CO2
  • 8. The Structure of Atoms • Neutrons = neutral • Protons = positive charge • Electrons = negative charge www.wpclipart.com
  • 9. The Nucleus • At the centre of an atom. • Made up of protons and neutrons. • Neutrons are heavier than protons – both are much heavier than electrons. • Atomic Number = Number of Protons
  • 10. Electron Shells • Electrons spin around the nucleus. They don't stay in defined areas around the nucleus. They are found in clouds that can have different shapes. www.askamathematician.com
  • 11. • Electrons are negative and attracted to the positive nucleus. • The number of electrons and protons is the same. Galleryhip.Com
  • 12. • The electrons spin around the nucleus in electron shells. • The closer the shell is to the nucleus the greater the attraction. • Closer shells have lower energy levels and the outermost shells the highest energy level. Galleryhip.Com
  • 13. Maximum number of electrons = 2n2 Shell Max. Number of Electrons n = 1 2 n = 2 8 n = 3 18 n = 4 32
  • 14. commons.wikimedia.org
  • 15. Bonding • Atoms that are joined = molecules or large lattices. • These atoms are held together by chemical bonds. catalog.flatworldknowledge.com
  • 16. • All other atoms react, gain, lose or share electrons – result is a bond. • The result is particles with full outer shells that hold eight electrons. www.allaboutcircuits.com
  • 17. Ions • Ions are atoms that have become charged because they have had electrons removed – or because they have removed electrons from other atoms. • No longer neutral. www.gcsescience.com
  • 18. • Positively charged ions (+) have more protons – lose electrons CATION. • Negatively charged ions (-) have more electrons – gain electrons ANION.
  • 19. Ionic Bonding • When metallic elements bond with non- metallic elements. • Metal atoms – weak hold on outer-shell electrons. • Non-metallic atoms – strong hold on outer- shell electrons. • Non-metallic tend to remove outer-shell electrons from any metal atoms they are near. • Results in ions. chemistry.tutorvista.com
  • 20. • Electrostatic forces pull the +ve and –ve ions together to form a strong ionic bond. • Result in a three-dimensional structure called a lattice. en.wikibooks.org
  • 21. Nuclear Decay • Nucleus – protons and neutrons that are constantly moving – emit electromagnetic radiation called gamma rays. • Some nuclei even eject particles at high speed. geoinfo.nmt.edu
  • 22. • The emission of electromagnetic radiation or particles is known as a nuclear reaction or nuclear decay. • During nuclear decay atoms may change from one element to another – transmutation. marcy-heavywhippingcream.blogspot.com
  • 23. Radioisotopes • Most atoms contain stable nuclei. • The unstable atoms could eject particles or electromagnetic waves from their nucleus at any moment – nuclear decay. • The unstable atoms are known as radioisotopes e.g. Carbon-14 chemistry.tutorcircle.com
  • 24. • Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. • Carbons isotopes include – wordpress.mrreid.org
  • 25. Types of Nuclear Decay www.energy-without-carbon.org
  • 26. Alpha Decay www.atnf.csiro.au
  • 27. Beta Decay www.atnf.csiro.au
  • 28. Gamma Decay Pearson 10
  • 29. Half-Life geology.wwu.edu
  • 30. Carbon Dating scientificgems.wordpress.com

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