Observation and Inference
• Observations are things or events that you notice
i.e. see, smell, hear, touch or taste.
• An observation can allow you to make an inference.
• You can infer something when you use your
observations and your previous knowledge to explain
Classification in Science
• Classifying things into groups make them easier to
remember, describe and identify again in the future.
• The science of classifying is called Taxonomy.
• There are almost 2 million classified organisms but
Scientists believe there could be as many as 10
million organisms on Earth.
Living, Non-Living and Dead
• Draw a table with 3 columns and classify the
following as either living, non-living or dead.
The 5 Kingdoms
Biologist today have classified and divided all living
things into five groups they call Kingdoms. These
kingdoms are based on how living things are the same,
and how they are different.
• Dichotomous = ‘cutting in two’
Characteristics for classifying
• Size – microscopic/macroscopic
• Skeleton – internal/external
• Body Temperature – endotherm/ecthotherm
• Legs – jointed/not jointed
• Reproduction – internal/external
• Skin – moist/smooth/scaly
• Body covering – fur/shell
• Internal skeleton or
• 75% of all animals have an exoskeleton –
skeleton on the outside of the body.
• Enodskeleton is a skeleton on
the inside of the body.
• No skeleton
7 Subgroups of Vertebrates
• Aves (Birds)
• Fish (with a
• Fish (with a bony
• Jawless fish
Endothermic and Ectothermic
Endothermic animals can maintain a constant
body temperature and are called warm blooded.
The body temperature of ectothermic animals
changes depending on their surrounding
Types of mammals
• Placental Mammals
– Very well developed when they are born
– Grow inside the body
– Attached by a cord to the placenta
– Feed on milk
– give birth when their young are at a very early stage
of development and the mother provides milk
– Almost all marsupials have a pouch
– Include – kangaroos, koalas, possums and wombats
– Only found in Australia and some nearby islands
– Only two are the platypus and the echidna
– They lay leathery-shelled eggs and after hatching
the feed on milk.
What should be included in a scientific diagram drawn
when using a microscope?
• Ruled border
• About half a page in size
• Drawn in pencil
• Labels (straight lines – no arrows)