Healthy Habit Changes and Social Cognitive Theory


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Foundations of OT
Theory Presentation
October 31, 2011
Sunita Singh & Sarah Jane Calub

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Healthy Habit Changes and Social Cognitive Theory

  1. 1. Social Cognitive Theory andHealthy Habit ChangesSunita Singh and Sarah Jane CalubOctober 31, 2011
  2. 2. PURPOSEExamine the impact of the participation in a wellness assignment on healthy habit changes in pre-professional undergraduate students.
  3. 3. Health & Wellness✤ Unhealthy lifestyles attribute 54% reduction in lifespan < 65 years✤ Healthy lifestyles have greater impact than genetic factors on our health as we age✤ Promoting healthy lifestyles is critical role for OT practitioners in health promotion and disease/disability prevention (AOTA)✤ Wellness = product of healthy lifestyles as fitness = product of regular exercise✤ Physical well-being includes physical, mental, and health aspects of life
  4. 4. Research Questions✤ What were the students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of this assignment for increasing their understanding of their own wellness?✤ Supports and barriers for adherence to goals over the semester and after the completion of the course?
  5. 5. Methods✤ Students instructed during health & wellness course✤ Students asked to complete assignment regarding goals for improving wellness during and after completion of course✤ Students completed follow-up q’s in subsequent semesters✤ Results quantified✤ Responses analyzed using Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
  6. 6. Participants58 students enrolled in anundergraduate occupationalscience health and wellnesscourse. 57 female; 1 male 55 white; 1 Hispanic; 2 AA Ages 20 - 28
  7. 7. The Assignment✤ Chose 3 - 5 goals to improve wellness over the semester ✤ Goals directed towards behaviors - not outcomes✤ Completed wellness-self-assessments✤ A paper describing results, wellness goals and rationales in reference to how goals would be beneficial✤ Assignment and outcomes were analyzed using social cognitive theory✤ 2 roles: clients/mentors; kept journals of experiences from both perspectives✤ Class discussions✤ A second paper describing experiences
  8. 8. Results ✤ 100%believed they had improved 100% understanding of their own wellness. ✤ 84% increased their understanding of the client perspective in making healthy behavior changes. 84% ✤ 96% increased their understanding of therapist/mentor perspective in supporting healthy behavior changes. 96%
  9. 9. Follow-Up:✤ Students completed questionnaires 6 mo. and 1 yr after completion of the course✤ After 3 months: ✤ 95% were still working on at least one of their goals. ✤ 76% were still working on at least two goals. ✤ 22% were still working on three goals.✤ After 1 year: ✤ 86% were still working on at least one goal ✤ 45% were still working on two goals ✤ 14% were still working on three goals.
  10. 10. Supports Identified✤ Internal motivations of wanting to be healthy✤ Seeing results, feeling better✤ Behavior ➔ habit✤ Enjoying the goal✤ “I saw the other students sticking to the plan and working on their goals. It reminded me that I needed to constantly be working on my own goals.”✤ Feeling supported by seeing the struggles of others.✤ Having a mentor meant that they had to report their personal progress and help each other problem solve.
  11. 11. Barriers Identified✤ Internal issues of difficulty with time, changing routines, and feeling stressed.✤ Lack of outside structure, support, reinforcement of goals and tracking made it difficult to maintain goals.
  12. 12. Social Cognitive Theory:✤ Successful change in habits requires a blend of 3 components: ✤ Personal (influence) ✤ Proxy (relies on others to act on one’s behalf) ✤ Collective (exercised through group action)✤ Process of acting together on shared goal or belief provides motivation to succeed✤ Self-efficacy (goals chosen)
  13. 13. Application to OT ✤ Study suggests value of using social cognitive learning for supporting clients in making healthy habit changes that will impact health, well-being, and longevity ✤ Educating client about value of identifying changes themselves ✤ Family’s/friends’ goals may conflict with client’s goals
  14. 14. ReferencesBandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(2), 269-290.Hilton, C., Ackermann, A., & Smith, D. (2011). Healthy habit changes in pre- professional college students: adherence, supports, and barriers. OTJR: Occupation, Participation & Health, 31(2), 64-72. doi: 10.3928/15394492-20100325-01