Gender Identity & Differences

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Casandra Corona & Sarah Jane Calub …

Casandra Corona & Sarah Jane Calub
Lifespan Development Presentation
Prof. Bette Hollis
Chapter 6: Gender Identity/Differences
March 1, 2011

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  • Anatomic Differences:\n- when a baby is born the first thing doctors check to determine the gender is the genitals,looking at the genitals distinguishes is its a male or a a female\n- sex- is defined as the bodily based classification of people into male or female\n- males have greater upper body strength, build muscle easily and have thicker skin\n\n\n
  • -2 halves of male brain are connected by smaller number of fibers than female’s\n-Scientists believe this may explain the male’s inability to express emotions b/c info flows less easily from right side to left side (verbal side)\n-Females have four times as many brain cells than males because of that  females have a better memory than males\n\n
  • -Males have large advantage in visual-spatial abilities and higher math reasoning and logic\n-Only 20% of American girls in elementary school reach average male performance in tests of spatial ability\n-top engineering jobs employ those in top 10% of spatial ability\n-could be the reason why discrepancies in employment in regards to high paying jobs still exist\n\n
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  • Testosterone Levels\n-girls with congenital adrenal hypoplasia (high testosterone levels) tend to be more fascinated by trucks and toy weaponry than most little girls\n-they also lean toward rough-and-tumble play\n-strongest influence on this “abnormal behavior” is not parental disapproval, but the company of other girls who tone them down and direct them toward more routine girl games\n-proves that gender identity is moldable that we gain a sense of gender-appropriate behavior from our peers\n-males tend to have higher baseline of testosterone than females, about 7 to 10 times more\n-testosterone rises in response to competition and threat\n-Men in high-stress professions (police work or corporate law) have higher testosterone than men in ministry\n-Women in the same strong-attitude professions have higher testosterone than women who choose to stay at home\n\n
  • Chicken & Egg scenario: Did these women have high testosterone and choose career, then competitive environment raised them up on the androgen scale? Did one cause the other or could both be at work?\n\n
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  • Cultural Influences in Gender:\n- cultural influences has a lot to do in gender because according to how your culture teaches you about genders that's the way you grow up becoming\n- theirs cultures that make males believe that they have to be aggressive, which sometimes can cause violence in their own houses when they start a family\n- culture makes genders believe they have to be a certain way in society\n\nGender instincts kick in around age 2-3 “I’m a boy”/”I’m a girl”\n-If traditional family roles: gender appropriate behavior comes at early age\n-If less traditional family roles – maintain more flexible sense of gender roles until age 6\n
  • Resisting Gender: \n- gender- refers to how people learn about how to be feminine or masculine and apply what they learn in living their everyday lives\n- woman's traditional or "natural" role is as mothers, housewife's and not at work\n- men are seen as the person in the family that has to work and bring money to the house to be able to survive\n- they argue that people learn the "normal" ways to act feminine or masculine in society through socialization\n- quote- "gender makes us the kind of human beings that others understand"\n\n\n
  • Western thought about gender has been tainted by the notion that female is a kind of imperfect/unfinished male.\n-Large improvements since 1960s\n-Equal pay for equal work and equal educational opportunity are now assumed\n-Feminism tends to:\nodistance women from men\noclaim women are victims of misogyny, brainwashing, and anti-feminism media\n-Some say women still face discrimination in the workplace\n-Education has helped women achieve such milestones in equality. More women in school = more women in the work force.\no1960: only 19% of bachelor’s degrees were earned by women\no1955: rose to 55%\noOver same time period, women increased share of professional degrees (MBAs, MDs) by at least 500%\noIncreased college enrollment is a result not of govt.-enforced preferences, but of changing cultural patterns and personal choices that enable women to excel in fields formerly dominated by men.\n-Society does not respect childless women\noSociety views childless women as bizarre and selfish; childlessness is only accepted if woman is physically unable to have children\n\n\n
  • -The social invisibility of male gender perpetuates patriarchy\n-media pays more attention to race than gender in incident of male violence\noWhen a gang of black males gang raped and beat a white woman in 1989, everyone had an opinion about the significance of race in what occurred \noWe hear countless stories of men committing acts of violence, even against women, that it is almost numbing, but role of male dominance is not addressed as possible cause of male use of violence\n-Teenage pregnancy – a state that describes teenage girls, not boys – is a hot topic in the US, but not male insemination of teenage girls.\n-Baby Boomer generation fathers were told not to be hung up about providing masculine role-models for children and to do whatever made them happiest, including escape an unsatisfying marriage\nowent hand in hand with sexual revolution and feminist movement of the 1960s\noattitude forsook old-fashioned patriarchal responsibilities\n-result are today’s under-fathered young men, many of whom come from broken homes, prone to identify maleness with aggression b/c of lack of better model to go by\n\n
  • Relationships Between Genders:\n- before the twentieth century woman;'s everyday lives were focused around family life, and their fathers and or husbands had a lot of control over them\n- today on the 20th century it is possible for a woman to live without having a man to support them\n- today women are seen with the same respect as a male in jobs because today both males and females work not only males like in the old times\n- on this time you can find people with the same gender forming relationships is not only male and female now you  can see male and male and female and female\n
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  • 1. GenderIdentity &DifferencesCasandra Coronaand Sarah Jane Calub
  • 2. Biological Differences
  • 3. Anatomical Differences• Doctors establish gender at birth• Sex is the bodily bases classification of people into male or female
  • 4. Brain Structures• Male brain contains less commissural fibers between hemispheres than female brain• May explain the male’s inability to express emotions because info flows less easily from the R side of the brain to the L side (verbal side)• Females have 4 times as many Corpus Callosum brain cells than males (better memory)
  • 5. Male AdvantagesVisual-Spatial Abilities & Math Reasoning/Logic
  • 6. Female AdvantagesVerbal/Social Skills & Empathy
  • 7. MALE FEMALE greater size & strength lesser size & strengthgreater capacity for short-term greater capacity for endurance energy output TEMPERAMENT TEMPERAMENT Inclined toward submission,Inclined towards dominance, defensive aggression, competition, independence, attachment and nurturance, sensation-seeking anxiety, security-seeking
  • 8. The Role of Hormones• Males have higher baseline of testosterone• Testosterone rises in response to competition and threat • High testosterone common in persons working in high- stress/high-attitude environments
  • 9. Which came first?
  • 10. Cultural Influences
  • 11. Gender StereotypesAggressive Nurturing
  • 12. Resisting Gender Rolesin Everyday Life • Women’s traditional role as mothers/housewives • Men’s role as “bread winners” • Gender-appropriate toys and behavior for young children “Gender makes us the kind of human ” beings that others understand.
  • 13. How Women’s RolesHave Changed• Large improvements since 1960s• Equal pay for equal work and equal educational opportunity are now assumed• Feminism• Discrimination in the workplace• Education is key
  • 14. How Men’s RolesHave Changed• Social invisibility of male gender perpetuates patriarchy• Baby Boomer fathers• Lack of fatherly role-models
  • 15. GenderRelationships• family life before 20th century• single motherhood• increased female employment• same-sex partnerships
  • 16. ReferencesBlum, D. (1999, July). Whats the difference between boys and girls?. Life, 22.Egendorf, L. K. (2000). Male/female roles: opposing viewpoints. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.Holmes, M. (2009). Gender and everyday life. London: Routledge.